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© Richard Schaefer, associate professor, UNM ...

© Richard Schaefer, associate professor, UNM

Special for the 2013 Specialized Reporting Institute on Immigration Reform.

http://immigrationinstitute2013.borderzine.com/

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    "Immigration Ebb and Flow: CBIG Studies" "Immigration Ebb and Flow: CBIG Studies" Presentation Transcript

    • 09/30/13 1 Cross-Border Issues GroupCross-Border Issues Group The Ebb and Flow of ImmigrationThe Ebb and Flow of Immigration:: Getting Away from the BuzzGetting Away from the Buzz Specialized Reporting InstituteSpecialized Reporting Institute Funded by McCormick FoundationFunded by McCormick Foundation ©© Richard J. SchaeferRichard J. Schaefer Dept. of Communication & JournalismDept. of Communication & Journalism schaefer@unm.eduschaefer@unm.edu Carolyn GonzalesCarolyn Gonzales University Communication & MarketingUniversity Communication & Marketing cgonzal@unm.educgonzal@unm.edu UTEP, El Paso, TexasUTEP, El Paso, Texas Sept. 26-29, 2013Sept. 26-29, 2013
    • 2 Cross Border Issues Group (CBIG): Month-longCross Border Issues Group (CBIG): Month-long journalism exchange programs on a continuingjournalism exchange programs on a continuing topic: Immigrationtopic: Immigration http://cbig.unm.eduhttp://cbig.unm.edu •• Teams of Mexican andTeams of Mexican and U.S. studentsU.S. students •• Primary sourcesPrimary sources •• On-site reportingOn-site reporting •• Depth interviewsDepth interviews •• Visit immigrationVisit immigration “hot“hot spots”spots” •• Southwest U.S.Southwest U.S. •• Central and SouthernCentral and Southern MexicoMexico •• GuatemalaGuatemala •• HondurasHonduras •• Academic & journalisticAcademic & journalistic secondary sourcessecondary sources
    • 3 Mexico has two of the most unequalMexico has two of the most unequal borders in the worldborders in the world -- Dictates migration from and through Mexico-- Dictates migration from and through Mexico ---- Unauthorized immigrants 29% of U.S. foreign bornUnauthorized immigrants 29% of U.S. foreign born -- Unauthorized origins – Mexico 60%; South and East Asia 11%;-- Unauthorized origins – Mexico 60%; South and East Asia 11%; Central America 12%; South America 5%; Caribbean 3%Central America 12%; South America 5%; Caribbean 3% U.S. – 315 millionU.S. – 315 million Mexico – 112 millionMexico – 112 million Central America 35 millionCentral America 35 million Source: U.S. Census Bureau estimates for 2011Source: U.S. Census Bureau estimates for 2011
    • GDP per capita (PPP)GDP per capita (PPP) CIA Factbook 2012 figuresCIA Factbook 2012 figures 4
    • Net Mexican to U.S.Net Mexican to U.S. Migration FiguresMigration Figures (Mexican Migration Monitor, 2012 [COLEF & Tomas Rivera Policy Institute)(Mexican Migration Monitor, 2012 [COLEF & Tomas Rivera Policy Institute) 5
    • 6 Who has come to the United StatesWho has come to the United States without documents?without documents? •• Traditionally aboutTraditionally about 50% to 55% are50% to 55% are Mexicans.Mexicans. – 9 to 12 million9 to 12 million undocumented peopleundocumented people in the United States,in the United States, out of about 35-38out of about 35-38 million total foreign-million total foreign- bornborn – 55% came without55% came without permission, 45% werepermission, 45% were invited but overstayedinvited but overstayed or violated their visasor violated their visas •• Today more Central Americans are comingToday more Central Americans are coming (CBIG)(CBIG) and net migrationand net migration from Mexico to U.S. went to zero in 2011 and may be picking upfrom Mexico to U.S. went to zero in 2011 and may be picking up with the improved U.S. economywith the improved U.S. economy (Pew, 2012: COLEF & Tomas Rivera(Pew, 2012: COLEF & Tomas Rivera Policy Institute 2012 ).Policy Institute 2012 ).
    • Rule of Law – Latin AmericaRule of Law – Latin America before 2009 Honduran coup d’etatbefore 2009 Honduran coup d’etat 7
    • Crime Wave Media Coverage and Reality:Crime Wave Media Coverage and Reality: Comparative Murder Rates 2000-2010Comparative Murder Rates 2000-2010 (per 100,000 pop. – UN Office on Drugs and Crime)(per 100,000 pop. – UN Office on Drugs and Crime) 8
    • ““The Train”The Train” and Central Americansand Central Americans 9
    • Santiago López Gomez,Santiago López Gomez, Comité de Derechos HumanosComité de Derechos Humanos Ocosingo, Chiapas, MexicoOcosingo, Chiapas, Mexico 10 Guatemalan girls haveGuatemalan girls have historically been broughthistorically been brought to Mexico and theto Mexico and the United States to serveUnited States to serve as prostitutes for farmas prostitutes for farm workers.workers.
    • Migrant Rights: Numbers ofMigrant Rights: Numbers of unaccompanied alien children (UAC)unaccompanied alien children (UAC) rises dramatically in 2011 and 2012rises dramatically in 2011 and 2012 ““While the issue of unaccompanied minors arriving in the U.S. isn't new, the scale of the recent increase is.While the issue of unaccompanied minors arriving in the U.S. isn't new, the scale of the recent increase is. From October 2011 through March, 5,252 kids landed in U.S. custody without a parent or guardian — a 93From October 2011 through March, 5,252 kids landed in U.S. custody without a parent or guardian — a 93 percent increase from the same period the previous year, according to data released by the Departmentpercent increase from the same period the previous year, according to data released by the Department of Health and Human Services. In March alone, 1,390 kids arrived.of Health and Human Services. In March alone, 1,390 kids arrived.”” by Christopher Sherman, AP, Aprilby Christopher Sherman, AP, April 28, 201228, 2012 • “• “A striking upsurge in the level of unaccompanied immigrant children, journeying towards the United StatesA striking upsurge in the level of unaccompanied immigrant children, journeying towards the United States border, stems from gang violence in three Central American countries. . .”border, stems from gang violence in three Central American countries. . .” • “• “Young Central Americans are even more vulnerable traveling through Mexico than when crossing into theYoung Central Americans are even more vulnerable traveling through Mexico than when crossing into the United States.”United States.” •• Children apprehended go through an adult process, typically without a lawyer.Children apprehended go through an adult process, typically without a lawyer. •• They are “sent back home to crowded orphanages or their birth country’s violent conditions.”They are “sent back home to crowded orphanages or their birth country’s violent conditions.” by Amyby Amy Walker, UNM-TRNS Washington News Bureau / CBIG, Dec. 2012Walker, UNM-TRNS Washington News Bureau / CBIG, Dec. 2012 • “• “. . . the number of children coming illegally and alone is surging, largely as a result of increasing drug-fueled. . . the number of children coming illegally and alone is surging, largely as a result of increasing drug-fueled violence in Central America, particularly Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. One in 13 people caughtviolence in Central America, particularly Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. One in 13 people caught by the Border Patrol last fiscal year were under 18. Seventeen percent of them were 13 or younger. Closeby the Border Patrol last fiscal year were under 18. Seventeen percent of them were 13 or younger. Close to 14,000 minors, twice as many as the previous year, were placed in federal custody. (This figure doesn’tto 14,000 minors, twice as many as the previous year, were placed in federal custody. (This figure doesn’t include an equal number of Mexican children who were quickly deported.)”include an equal number of Mexican children who were quickly deported.)” by Sonia Nazario, New York Times, The Opinion Pages, April 11, 2013by Sonia Nazario, New York Times, The Opinion Pages, April 11, 2013 11
    • Honduran diaspora:Honduran diaspora: Orphanages and MarcosOrphanages and Marcos’ story’ story 12 Large numbers ofLarge numbers of children are beingchildren are being abandoned at theabandoned at the borders and en route.borders and en route.
    • 13 Albergue System for Central American Migrants:Albergue System for Central American Migrants: Human Mobility MovementHuman Mobility Movement •• Church run shelters explicitly for migrantsChurch run shelters explicitly for migrants •• Three days of food and shelterThree days of food and shelter  now 48-24 hoursnow 48-24 hours •• Typically near freight yards and rail hubsTypically near freight yards and rail hubs •• Church, businessChurch, business people & NGO fundspeople & NGO funds •• Volunteer staffsVolunteer staffs •• Word of mouth infoWord of mouth info •• 54 in Mexico54 in Mexico •• 10-15 in Central Am.10-15 in Central Am. •• 30-40 percent of30-40 percent of Central American migrants using albergues, the restCentral American migrants using albergues, the rest use coyotes (use coyotes (“polleros”) and casas de huespedes“polleros”) and casas de huespedes
    • Tegucigalpa Orphanage 14 Albergues CBIG has visitedAlbergues CBIG has visited Altar Albergue Oaxaca Albergue Tapachula Albergues Guatemala Albergues Guadalajara Albergue
    • Tapachula storyTapachula story 15 CBIG’s AndrewCBIG’s Andrew Beale workedBeale worked with minorwith minor
    • Arriaga: VeronicaArriaga: Veronica’s story’s story 16
    • Ixtepec: “The Train” & SolalindeIxtepec: “The Train” & Solalinde 17
    • Ixtepec Albergue in OaxacaIxtepec Albergue in Oaxaca Padre Alejandro Solalinde, targeted by TCOsPadre Alejandro Solalinde, targeted by TCOs 18
    • Ixtepec AlbergueIxtepec Albergue 19
    • Ixtepec AlbergueIxtepec Albergue 20
    • Robbery: HectorRobbery: Hector’s story’s story 21
    • 22 Albergues along the routeAlbergues along the route Altar Albergue Oaxaca Albergue Tapachula Albergues Guatemala Albergues Guadalajara Albergue Tegucigalpa Orphanage
    • Lecheria Albergue Diary:Lecheria Albergue Diary: SleepingSleeping 23
    • 24 Thin line between migration andThin line between migration and traffickingtrafficking
    • KidnappingKidnapping 25
    • Crossing the U.S. BorderCrossing the U.S. Border 26
    • 09/30/13 27 Human Trafficking Through Mexico and theHuman Trafficking Through Mexico and the Southwest Border: Accounts from Hidalgo andSouthwest Border: Accounts from Hidalgo and Cochise CountiesCochise Counties Borderline Slavery : Mexico, United States, and theBorderline Slavery : Mexico, United States, and the Human TradeHuman Trade Ashgate Press 2012Ashgate Press 2012 Editors:Editors: Susan TianoSusan Tiano Moira MurphyMoira Murphy
    • Funnel Effect - Securing the borderFunnel Effect - Securing the border 28
    • Rural HidalgoRural Hidalgo and Cochise Countiesand Cochise Counties 29
    • ““The Wall” – El Paso SectorThe Wall” – El Paso Sector 30
    • Securing the border andSecuring the border and immigration reformimmigration reform ““We're confident thatWe're confident that the border is as securethe border is as secure as it's ever been,as it's ever been,”” DHSDHS Secretary Napolitano.Secretary Napolitano. She asked Congress toShe asked Congress to pass seriouspass serious immigration reform soimmigration reform so DHS can concentrateDHS can concentrate on its main borderon its main border priorities.priorities. (LA Times, April 2013)(LA Times, April 2013) 31
    • Deportees: Toncontín AirportDeportees: Toncontín Airport Tegucigalpa, HondurasTegucigalpa, Honduras 32
    • DHS PrioritiesDHS Priorities 1. Preventing terrorism – particularly domestic1. Preventing terrorism – particularly domestic terrorism actsterrorism acts 2. Securing and managing our borders – ICE2. Securing and managing our borders – ICE and CBP apprehensions and returnsand CBP apprehensions and returns 3. Enforcing immigration laws3. Enforcing immigration laws 4. Safeguarding and securing cyberspace4. Safeguarding and securing cyberspace 5. Ensuring resilience to disasters (FEMA)5. Ensuring resilience to disasters (FEMA) 6. Providing essential support to national and6. Providing essential support to national and economic security (intellectual property)economic security (intellectual property) DHS FY 2013 budgetDHS FY 2013 budget 33
    • Migrants are at the mercy of TCOsMigrants are at the mercy of TCOs •• Funnel Effect - migrants must work withFunnel Effect - migrants must work with organized criminals to crossorganized criminals to cross •• Balloon Effect – TCOs use remote areas for crossingBalloon Effect – TCOs use remote areas for crossing 34
    • Sealing the Southwest BorderSealing the Southwest Border •• Three-tier pricing for crossing the borderThree-tier pricing for crossing the border First tier -- $4,000-$6,000 for remote crossings,First tier -- $4,000-$6,000 for remote crossings, guaranteed, but arduousguaranteed, but arduous Second tier -- $20,000-$30,000 for non-remote crossingsSecond tier -- $20,000-$30,000 for non-remote crossings in trucks, often from Asia, Africa or Middle East inin trucks, often from Asia, Africa or Middle East in groups as large as 80 peoplegroups as large as 80 people Third tier -- $70,000-$85,000 for transport to NorthThird tier -- $70,000-$85,000 for transport to North America and crossings with documents for well-offAmerica and crossings with documents for well-off individuals, often from countries that would triggerindividuals, often from countries that would trigger extensive background checksextensive background checks *Based on accounts from migrants, migra, former BP, ranchers and the media*Based on accounts from migrants, migra, former BP, ranchers and the media 35
    • Southwest United StatesSouthwest United States North-South Mountain RoutesNorth-South Mountain Routes 36 New Mexico ranchers: “They [drug smugglers] own the Peloncillo Mountains. . . and the Chiricahua and the Hatchet Mountains too.
    • FBI PrioritiesFBI Priorities 1. Terrorism1. Terrorism 2. Counterespionage2. Counterespionage 3. Cybercrime3. Cybercrime 4. Public corruption4. Public corruption 5. Civil rights & color of law violations5. Civil rights & color of law violations 6. Fighting organized crime6. Fighting organized crime 7. White collar crime7. White collar crime 8. Violent crime and major thefts8. Violent crime and major thefts Source: FBI WebsiteSource: FBI Website 37
    • Where’s the War onWhere’s the War on Drugs and TCOsDrugs and TCOs Chilton ranch video, LA Times:Chilton ranch video, LA Times: httphttp ://www.latimes.com/videogallery/74934029/N://www.latimes.com/videogallery/74934029/N insecurityinsecurity 38
    • Where the TCOs flourish:Where the TCOs flourish: The cocaine trailsThe cocaine trails 39
    • CocaineTrafficking RevenuesCocaineTrafficking Revenues (UNODC, 2010)(UNODC, 2010) 40 Drugs, like migrants, keep coming to the United States, because it is the source of the problems – which are mostly public health and economic problems.
    • CBIG’s take onCBIG’s take on ““Securing the BorderSecuring the Border”” •• Currently cost U.S. Federal Gov’t $18 billion/yearCurrently cost U.S. Federal Gov’t $18 billion/year •• Is a “strategic ritual” done primarily for political reasonsIs a “strategic ritual” done primarily for political reasons •• Harms the civil rights of migrants and residentsHarms the civil rights of migrants and residents •• Prohibition turns drug addiction into a law enforcementProhibition turns drug addiction into a law enforcement issue, instead of public health oneissue, instead of public health one •• Empowers budgets of DHS and the TCOs at theEmpowers budgets of DHS and the TCOs at the expense of migrants and border residentsexpense of migrants and border residents •• Often security agency priorities, such asOften security agency priorities, such as counterespionage and anti-terrorism run counter tocounterespionage and anti-terrorism run counter to traditional law enforcement rolestraditional law enforcement roles 41
    • CBO estimates of S.CBO estimates of S. 744 (Judiciary744 (Judiciary Committee version)Committee version) Impact over 10 yearsImpact over 10 years •• Increase U.S. population by 10.4 million (1.6m temps)Increase U.S. population by 10.4 million (1.6m temps) •• 8 million of the current 11 million unauthorized eventually8 million of the current 11 million unauthorized eventually would get legal status, with no impact on U.S. populationwould get legal status, with no impact on U.S. population •• Decrease federal deficit by $175 billion* (with caveat**)Decrease federal deficit by $175 billion* (with caveat**) - Increase Federal mandatory spending by $262 billion- Increase Federal mandatory spending by $262 billion - Mostly tax credits and health care costs- Mostly tax credits and health care costs - Discretionary cost of enforcing S. 744 of $22 billion- Discretionary cost of enforcing S. 744 of $22 billion - Increase federal revenues by $459 billion- Increase federal revenues by $459 billion - Mostly increased income and payroll taxes- Mostly increased income and payroll taxes - **Soc. Sec. receipts/spending included in projections- **Soc. Sec. receipts/spending included in projections (*Unusually this CBO estimate accounts for limited aspects of population and GDP growth.)(*Unusually this CBO estimate accounts for limited aspects of population and GDP growth.) 42
    • CBO estimates of S.CBO estimates of S. 744 (Judiciary744 (Judiciary Committee version)Committee version) Impact over 10 yearsImpact over 10 years •• On-Budget Effects of S. 744 by 2023On-Budget Effects of S. 744 by 2023 (“on budget” excludes Social Security and(“on budget” excludes Social Security and Post Office)Post Office) -Increased direct spending of $259 billion-Increased direct spending of $259 billion -Increased direct revenues of $245 billion-Increased direct revenues of $245 billion •• Increase on-budget federal deficits byIncrease on-budget federal deficits by $14 billion through 2023$14 billion through 2023 •• S. 744:S. 744: Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization ActBorder Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act 43
    • CBO estimates of S. 744 (Judiciary CommitteeCBO estimates of S. 744 (Judiciary Committee version) impact between 2023 and 2033version) impact between 2023 and 2033 •• Increase U.S. population by 16.2 million by 2033Increase U.S. population by 16.2 million by 2033 •• Decrease Federal deficit by $700 billion between 2023 andDecrease Federal deficit by $700 billion between 2023 and 20332033 •• Increase “on budget*” deficits by a total of $5 billion or lessIncrease “on budget*” deficits by a total of $5 billion or less between 2023 and 2033, resulting in a $19 billion deficit 20between 2023 and 2033, resulting in a $19 billion deficit 20 years outyears out (*excluding Social Security receipts & spending)(*excluding Social Security receipts & spending) •• Total “on budget” deficit increase of about $3 per person per year, each yearTotal “on budget” deficit increase of about $3 per person per year, each year from 2013 through 2033from 2013 through 2033 •• CBO cannot estimate the budget impacts beyond 2033CBO cannot estimate the budget impacts beyond 2033 •• CBO does not estimate the costs of legislation on state,CBO does not estimate the costs of legislation on state, local and tribal governmentslocal and tribal governments 44
    • CBO estimates of S. 744 (increased borderCBO estimates of S. 744 (increased border security of $46.3b) Impact over 10 yearssecurity of $46.3b) Impact over 10 years •• Increase U.S. population by 9.6 million (1.6m temps)Increase U.S. population by 9.6 million (1.6m temps) •• 8 million of the current 11 million unauthorized eventually would get8 million of the current 11 million unauthorized eventually would get legal status, with no impact on U.S. populationlegal status, with no impact on U.S. population •• Decrease federal deficit by $135 billion* (with caveat**)Decrease federal deficit by $135 billion* (with caveat**) - Increase federal mandatory spending by $298 billion- Increase federal mandatory spending by $298 billion - Mostly tax credits and health care costs- Mostly tax credits and health care costs - Discretionary cost of enforcing S. 744 of $23 billion- Discretionary cost of enforcing S. 744 of $23 billion - Increase Federal revenues by $456 billion- Increase Federal revenues by $456 billion - Mostly increased income and payroll taxes- Mostly increased income and payroll taxes - **Soc. Sec. receipts/spending are included in projections- **Soc. Sec. receipts/spending are included in projections (*Unusually this CBO estimate accounts for limited aspects of population and GDP growth.)(*Unusually this CBO estimate accounts for limited aspects of population and GDP growth.) 45
    • CBO estimates of S.CBO estimates of S. 744744 Impact overImpact over 10 years10 years •• On-Budget Effects of S. 744 by 2023On-Budget Effects of S. 744 by 2023 (“on budget” excludes Social Security and(“on budget” excludes Social Security and Post Office)Post Office) -Increased direct spending of $298 billion-Increased direct spending of $298 billion -Increased direct revenues of $244 billion-Increased direct revenues of $244 billion •• Increase on-budget federal deficits byIncrease on-budget federal deficits by $52 billion through 2023$52 billion through 2023 •• S. 744:S. 744: Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization ActBorder Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act 46
    • CBO estimates of S. 744 impact betweenCBO estimates of S. 744 impact between 2023 and 20332023 and 2033 •• Increase U.S. population by 14.9 million by 2033Increase U.S. population by 14.9 million by 2033 •• Decrease Federal deficit by $685 billion between 2023 andDecrease Federal deficit by $685 billion between 2023 and 20332033 •• Increase “on budget*” deficits by a total of $5 billionIncrease “on budget*” deficits by a total of $5 billion between 2023 and 2033, resulting in a $57 billion deficit 20between 2023 and 2033, resulting in a $57 billion deficit 20 years out.years out. (*excluding Social Security receipts & spending)(*excluding Social Security receipts & spending) •• Total “on budget” deficit increase of about $9 per person per year, each yearTotal “on budget” deficit increase of about $9 per person per year, each year from 2013 through 2033from 2013 through 2033 •• CBO cannot estimate the budget impacts beyond 2033CBO cannot estimate the budget impacts beyond 2033 •• CBO does not estimate the costs of legislation on state,CBO does not estimate the costs of legislation on state, local and tribal governmentslocal and tribal governments 47
    • ““The New Americans” (NRC, 1997)The New Americans” (NRC, 1997) fiscal costs per immigrantfiscal costs per immigrant in W.A. Kandel’s CRS Cct. 19, 2011 report, “Fiscal Impacts of the Foreign-Born Population”in W.A. Kandel’s CRS Cct. 19, 2011 report, “Fiscal Impacts of the Foreign-Born Population” •• Educational status of immigrants and time frame matter.Educational status of immigrants and time frame matter. – Better educated generate fiscal surplusesBetter educated generate fiscal surpluses – Poorer educated generate fiscal deficitsPoorer educated generate fiscal deficits – If fewer generations are taken into effect, surpluses decrease andIf fewer generations are taken into effect, surpluses decrease and deficits increasedeficits increase •• Foreign born, like natives, cost taxpayers most as children and asForeign born, like natives, cost taxpayers most as children and as elderly (eventual $80,000 surplus per immigrant over 300 years)elderly (eventual $80,000 surplus per immigrant over 300 years) – Children consume public educationChildren consume public education – Elderly consume government-funded health careElderly consume government-funded health care •• Foreign born cost taxpayers more than native bornForeign born cost taxpayers more than native born – Foreign born have more childrenForeign born have more children – Foreign born on average are poorer and receive more income transfersForeign born on average are poorer and receive more income transfers – Foreign born earn less wages, e.g., pay less taxesForeign born earn less wages, e.g., pay less taxes 48
    • ““The New Americans” 1997 –NRCThe New Americans” 1997 –NRCin W.A. Kandel’s CRS Cct. 19, 2011 report, “Fiscal Impacts of the Foreign-Born Population”in W.A. Kandel’s CRS Cct. 19, 2011 report, “Fiscal Impacts of the Foreign-Born Population” 49
    • Fiscal Impact ofFiscal Impact of Immigrant Life-StagesImmigrant Life-Stages (Kandel, W.A. for CRS, 2011 p. 14)(Kandel, W.A. for CRS, 2011 p. 14) 50
    • Fiscal Impact on Federal andFiscal Impact on Federal and State/Local TaxesState/Local Taxes (Kandel, W.A. for CRS, 2011 p. 15)(Kandel, W.A. for CRS, 2011 p. 15) 51
    • Fiscal Impact ofFiscal Impact of Immigrant Life-StagesImmigrant Life-Stages (Kandel, W.A. for CRS, 2011 p. 17)(Kandel, W.A. for CRS, 2011 p. 17) 52
    • 53 UNM CBIG SupportersUNM CBIG Supporters UNM Center for Regional StudiesUNM Center for Regional Studies Latin-American and Iberian InstituteLatin-American and Iberian Institute UNM Office of the Vice President of Student AffairsUNM Office of the Vice President of Student Affairs Dart – Border Journalism NetworkDart – Border Journalism Network Dow Jones Multimedia FundDow Jones Multimedia Fund UNM College of Arts and SciencesUNM College of Arts and Sciences UNM Teaching Allocation ServicesUNM Teaching Allocation Services UNM Dept. of Communication & JournalismUNM Dept. of Communication & Journalism University Communication and MarketingUniversity Communication and Marketing Universidad Fray Luca PaccioliUniversidad Fray Luca Paccioli Tec de Monterrey, Estado de MTec de Monterrey, Estado de Méxicoéxico COMI – Centro de Orientación de Migrante de OaxacaCOMI – Centro de Orientación de Migrante de Oaxaca
    • 09/30/13 54 Cross-Border Issues GroupCross-Border Issues Group The Ebb and Flow of ImmigrationThe Ebb and Flow of Immigration:: Getting Away from the BuzzGetting Away from the Buzz Specialized Reporting InstituteSpecialized Reporting Institute Funded by McCormick FoundationFunded by McCormick Foundation ©© Richard J. SchaeferRichard J. Schaefer Dept. of Communication & JournalismDept. of Communication & Journalism schaefer@unm.eduschaefer@unm.edu Carolyn GonzalesCarolyn Gonzales University Communication & MarketingUniversity Communication & Marketing cgonzal@unm.educgonzal@unm.edu UTEP, El Paso, TexasUTEP, El Paso, Texas Sept. 26-29, 2013Sept. 26-29, 2013
    • 55
    • MexicoMexico ViolenceViolence Overblown?Overblown? 56
    • Violence by RegionViolence by Region (UNDOC 2010)(UNDOC 2010) 57