Lecture 6 Religion In America

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Lecture 6 Religion In America

  1. 1. Lecture 4 Religion in America
  2. 2. I Religion in America • Religion has always played an important role in the history of the United states. • 宗教在美国的发展过程中,对美利坚民族的形成起 到了不可替代关键作用。对美国人的精神塑造功不 可没。虽然政教分离是美国的基本国策,但艾森豪 威尔总统的一句话道破天机:“我们的政府如果不是 建立在深厚的宗教信仰之上,就没有意义。” • 美国人可以选择不同的宗教信仰,可以选择不相信 宗教,但无法在现实生活中拒绝基督教的道德规 范,特别是新教传统对美国人能的道德和文化风尚 起到了决定性的影响。
  3. 3. 2005年科学杂志的调查60%的 美国人不相信 进化论
  4. 4. • 在美国,信用制度的建立也有赖于宗教信 仰,美元上印有“我们信仰上帝,”不仅表明 美国人的信仰,也表明美国人以上帝的名 义起誓,证明钞票的信用。在早期,如果 一个人宣称他没有宗教信仰,很可能无法 从银行得到钱。因为银行认为没有宗教信 仰的人是没有信用可讲的。
  5. 5. In God We trust
  6. 6. • 历任总统就职,都把右手放在圣经上宣 誓,牧师在一旁作证。政要的演讲往往以 上帝保佑美利坚作结语。 • 美军中有随军牧师,最高可授予将军衔, 专做官兵的思想工作。 • 圣经从来都是最畅销的书,音像制品销量 最大的不是流行音乐,而是教堂音乐。 • 美国虽然实行政教分离制度,但并不意味 着政治与宗教毫不相干。彻底的 政教分离 是不存在的。 在美国,宗教与政治从来都 是相互信赖,相互配合,共同为美国 的事 业服务。
  7. 7. • 在美国,从喧嚣的首都到僻静的乡村,对上帝 的敬畏成为人们共同遵守的自我约束和戒律。 总统布什的工作会议开始之前,要带领全体内 阁成员对上帝祈祷。他们的信仰和一百多年前 托克维尔所阐明的那样,“我不太清楚上帝的意 图,但我不能因为自己无法 深知而就不相信 它,我宁肯怀疑自己的智慧而不愿意怀疑上帝 的公正。” • 国际问题专家王缉思指出,只有理解占世界人 口三分之二以上的有神论人群如何思维和推 理,才能真正把握国际政治的真谛。 要真正了 解美国,我们需要了解宗教对美国的影响。
  8. 8. 美国宗教分布图, • Ninety percent of Americans say that they believe in God, although not all of them participate in traditional religious organizations. • About 80% of Americans are Christians (50% Protestant, 24% Catholic, 10% other Christian faith p.52), • 2 % are Jews, • another 4 % belong to other religious faith such as Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism. • There are now about as many Muslims living in the United States as there are Jews. People of Hispanic origin now make up about one-half of the Catholic church.
  9. 9. • The Asian immigrants have brought with them the traditional religions of East Asia – Daoism, Confucianism, and Shintoism, as well as Buddhism. • (Confucianism, a teaching, tradition, philosophy or religion? 儒 家,儒教,孔教,儒学? 韩国儒教,东南 亚儒教;五四前,儒教)
  10. 10. 华尔街三一教堂
  11. 11. A 天主教在美国 • The Catholic faith was first brought to the North American continent by the Spanish in the 1500s. For the next 300 years, Catholic missionaries and settlers from Spain and then Latin America came to what is now California and the Southwest. Many of the cities were named by these missionaries and settlers – San Francisco, Santa fe, San Antonio, for example. • French Canadian Catholic missionaries also came with explorers and traders from Quebec, down the Mississippi river to New Orleans. • IN the 1600s, the European settlers began establishing colonies along the east coast of North America.
  12. 12. 天主教地铁宣传
  13. 13. • 哥伦布远不是作为“基督的传播者”出发赴印度,他 指出了欧洲人意识中把金钱的力量与宗教神灵结合 起来的关系。“黄金是可贵的,正是黄金赢得了一切 财富,拥有黄金的人不仅可以在人世间为所欲为, 甚至可以直到天堂中交朊友。”(雅克·布洛兹说“中 国的富庶令欧洲人向往。哥伦布受到游记的刺激, 多次航海寻找中国。1492年,携带天主教各国国王 的信件,第一次航行失败。第二次航海时,坚信古 巴就是亚洲的岬角the Bahama Islands,他命令其船 组的所有人都在公证人面前发誓说他们坚信已经踏 上了“标志着印度边界的陆地。”哥伦布失宠以后, 1502年再次出发寻找印度洋,抵达中美洲海岸时, 认为到达了马可·波罗所描述的“蛮子人地区” (Mangi), 安南和马六甲半岛,至死拒绝承认仅仅 发现了新大陆。
  14. 14. • 在无意识发现新大陆后,葡萄牙人伽马于1498年进入印 度西海岸的卡里卡特港。教皇亚历山大1493年把欧洲之 外的世界分成两部分,指定整个亚洲为西班牙人的传教 区,因而也是征朋地,把非洲海岸分给了葡萄牙人。于 是葡萄牙人以战争相威胁,获准把分界推向西方,其 后,它得以吞并巴西。 • 天主教Catholic Church:外方传教会(Foreign Missions)西 方各国天主教会派遣传教士往国外进行传教活动的组 织。15世纪罗马教皇亚历山大六世为葡萄牙、西班牙划 分殖民地势力范围,(当时两国的海上运输很先进,哥 伦布航行)欧洲国家的天主教各主要修会如本笃会、多 明我会、方济各会、耶稣会等各自设有外方传教机构, 向海外殖民地传教;在拉丁美洲、非洲以及亚洲的南部 和东部,还经常使用暴力进行年传教活动。1660年法国 最先成立“巴黎外方传教会”,专对中国和印度支那地区 派遣传教士。
  15. 15. • 这个时期再没有统一基督教世界 Christendom了。改革、教会分立和新的祖 国已打破了基督教国家的统一。此时,分 裂欧洲以及每个城邦国家的已不再是教皇 和皇帝的冲突了。而是对独立很敏感的民 族国家。 • 亨利八世和教皇断绝了关系,英格兰成立 了自己的教会(英立甘宗Anglican church, 英 国圣公会);博絮埃确定了法国教会自主 论。基督教国家的国王们经常发动战争。 每个国家都嫉妒心十足地注视着邻国的发 展。
  16. 16. B)天主教 • The largest single religious group is that of Roman Catholics, 24%. The majority of the Catholics are descendants of immigrants from Ireland, Italy and Poland. Most of the early Catholics stayed near the east coast. They were concentrated in New York and Massachusetts and are still a very important element of the population in those two states. By the Civil War, over a million Irish Catholics, many of them driven by hunger , had come to the United States
  17. 17. • Anti-Catholic prejudice was so strong that, on a few occasions, it broke out in mob violence. More often prejudice took the form of discrimination, particularly at the polls. It ends at 1960, when John F. Kennedy, a Roman Catholic won the presidential election.
  18. 18. the Great Hunger(土豆遭灾), Ireland, 1845- 1850, 爱尔兰总统1997年赠
  19. 19. • As Catholics grew more confident about their place in American life, they began to seek some way in which they could obtain public funds to help meet such expenses as education. But other American groups call for even less government connection to religion. Non-believers, and some religious people objected to prayer and Bible reading in public schools. They thought that a modern government in a free society should be basically secular.
  20. 20. B 新教教派在美国 • Although there were some Catholics, the vast majority of the European settlers were Protestant, most from England. As the new nation formed, it was the Protestant branch of the Christian faith that had the strongest effect on the development of the religious climate in the United States. • It is well-known that the American mainstream culture was developed from what is called “WASP” (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant盎格鲁-萨克逊白人新教文 化,俗称大黄蜂文化)culture. According to Samovar (Communication between cultures), it is still a white, male , Christian culture.
  21. 21. • Samovar (Communication between cultures), it is still a white, male , Christian culture. • The Protestant branch of the Christian faith broke away from the Roman Catholic church in Europe in the 16th century because of important differences in religious beliefs. At the time of the Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic church was the center of religious life in western European countries; the Catholic pope and the priests played the role of parent to the people in spiritual matters. They told people what was right and wrong, and they granted them forgiveness for sins against God and the Christian faith.
  22. 22. • The Protestants , insisted that all individuals must stand alone before God. If people sinned, they should seek their forgiveness directly from God rather than from a priest speaking in God’s name. In place of the power and authority of priests, Protestants substituted what they called the “priesthood of all believers.” This meant that every individual was solely responsible for his or her own relationship with God.
  23. 23. • Largest Denominations of Protestantism in the United States: • After the Protestants broke away from the Catholic church, they found that they could not agree among themselves about many beliefs. Therefore, the Protestants began to form separate churches, called denominations. • There are more than 100 other Protestant sects, many of them hardly known to anyone except their own members. • 1) Baptist, (基督教新教)浸礼会,(主张全身浸 水的)浸礼教徒; (=St. John the Baptist)圣徒约 翰,施洗约翰
  24. 24. • Baptists are a group of Christian denominations, churches, and individuals who subscribe to a theology of believer‘s baptism (as opposed to infant baptism), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local church. They are generally characterized by the practice of immersion 全身浸水以表示成熟负责 仸的皈依经历,相信这种用圣水浸礼的人就获 得了新生(as opposed to affusion 天主教的注水 礼,往额头上洒水)and a disavowal of authoritative creeds.
  25. 25. Baptist
  26. 26. • Baptist churches are regarded as falling within the family of Protestantism, and some churches or individuals further identify with evangelicalism or fundamentalism. • Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ widely from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, and their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. • the Baptist faith is said to have originated from within the Separatist movement. Prior to the Reformation, the Church of England (Anglicans) had broken away from the Catholic Church. Then came the mainstream Protestant Reformation.
  27. 27. • 黑人Baptist • The great majority of the Baptists seems to have no difficulty in reconciling their Christian belief and practice with their racial prejudice. 浸礼会的大多数教徒很容易把他们虔诚的 宗教信仰同种族歧视一致起来。 他们从 《圣经》中找出依据,说白人高于有色人 种是上帝的意志。(白人对其他种族的歧 视,三K党) • Meanwhile , most of the blacks are Baptists too, but they go to different churches from the white. (Philadelphia ,Atlanta )
  28. 28. • 2) Methodist卫理公会, adherents of the group which grew up in 18th century England following the lead of John Wesley, Wesley 大 学 • 3) Lutheran路德宗, Lutheran Church,,以马 丁·路德的宗教思想为依据的各教会。十六 世纪产生于德国。强调“因信称义”,强调圣 经的权威高于教会的权威。18世纪传入美 国,
  29. 29. • 4)Presbyterian, 长老会, from Scotland Presbyterian denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbýteros (πρεςβύτεροσ), “elder.” The Presbyterian Church (USA) numbers 2.3 million members in all 50 states and Puerto Rico美属波多黎各.
  30. 30. Presbyterian, 长老会, from Scotland
  31. 31. • 5) Episcopalian主教派,美国新教圣公 会, Episcopal (capitalized) refers to Anglicanism and churches belonging to the Anglican Communion; Episcopalian, as a noun, is an adherent of an Episcopal Church. • 安立甘宗Anglicans; Anglican Church, Church of England,英国国教,殖民时期为官方宗 教;
  32. 32. Episcopalian美国新教圣公会, Charlestown
  33. 33. • 6) the United Church of Christ • 7)Congregationist 公理会教友,由新英格兰地 区的清教演变而来。清教Puritanism,新教教 徒中的一派。16世纪中叶起源于英国。原为英 国国教会(圣公会)内以加尔文学说为旗帜的 改革派。要求清洗国教内保留的天主教旧制和 繁文缛节,提倡勤俭。16、17世纪移居荷兰, 后又移居美国。现在没有。 • 8) 胡格诺教派Huguenots from France,16、17 世纪出现的法国 加尔文教派.加尔文宗 Calvinism;起源于法国,后传入英国
  34. 34. 8) 胡格诺教派Huguenots from France
  35. 35. • At first, some denominations hoped to force their views and beliefs on others, but they failed. The idea of separation of church and state became accepted when the Constitution was adopted in 1789. • New England established another American tradition—a strain of often intolerant moralism. (photo) The Puritans believed that governments should enforce God’s morality. They strictly punished drunks (Arlington, a dry town for 40 years) , adulterers (《红字》) ,violators of the Sabbath (New Jersey, stores closed on Sundays) and other religious believers different from themselves (today Bush, the nation under one God, • 对其他国家,文化的无端指责,扮演世界警察与清教传 统中intolerant moralism 的关系 . 清教徒为了自己的信仰 自由来到美国,但不允许其他人有不同的信仰自由。
  36. 36. • Outgrowth of English Separatism • There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church. They became known as "Puritans". Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists.
  37. 37. • Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. • Roger Williams, one of the Puritans who protested that the state should not interfere with religion, was driven out of Massachusetts. • In 1635, he set up Rhode Island colony, which guaranteed religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
  38. 38. Tombs of Mayflower passengers ,separatists
  39. 39. C fundamentalism 原教旨主义 • God’s Witness, • 呼喊派, • Mormon教, • Amish教
  40. 40. 呼喊派
  41. 41. • The contemporary fundamentalist movement has its origins in the 18th century when the First Great Awakening was deeply influencing American religious life. • In the same time period the Methodist 卫理公会 movement was beginning to renew parts of British Christianity, although this was at first resisted by the majority of the Anglican established church. • Much of this religious fervor was a reaction to Enlightenment thinking and the deistic 自然神论 writings of many of the Western philosophical elites.
  42. 42. • 原教旨主义一词源于美国。《现代社会学大字 典》的解释是:“原教旨主义是一个宗教运 动,强调圣经内文的正确无误、不容置疑,及 圣经拥有最高权威。” • 19世纪末,自由派神学家纷纷改变自己的宗教 信仰,以求迎合圣经考证学Higher Criticism和 各种科学理论——例如进化论——所提出的主 张。这大大动摇了许多人对圣经的信心。为了 应付这个情势,美国保守派的宗教领袖制订了 称为基本要道的信纲。20世纪初期,他们出版 了一系列研讨这些基本教义的书刊,名为《基 本要道:真理的证言》,“原教旨主义”(又称 基要主义)一词就是从这个书名衍生出来的
  43. 43. • “原教旨主义”一词除用来指基督新教的宗教运 动之外,也用来指其他宗教,例如天主教、伊 斯兰教、犹太教、印度教的宗教运动。伊斯兰 原教旨主义又翻译为基要主意或根本主义,是 当今伊斯兰世界的一个极端思潮。“原教旨主 义”之所以得到伊斯兰世界的广泛支持,说明 广大穆斯林对现代世界中不合理现象的憎恶和 对现有各种解决方法的失望。一般认为伊斯兰 原教旨主义是传统文化对现代化的一个调适过 程,也有学者认为伊斯兰原教旨主义是对西方 文明的挑战。伊斯兰与基督教的新文明冲突。
  44. 44. II 政府与宗教的关系 • 1Church and State • The first Amendment insured that American government would not meddle in religious affairs, or require any religious beliefs of its citizens. But did it mean that the American government would have nothing at all to do with religion? Or did it mean that government would be religiously neutral, treating all religions alike?
  45. 45. • In some ways, the government supports all religions. Religious groups do not pay taxes in the United states. The armed forces and hospitals as well pay chaplains of all faith.(Harvard graduate student, over 50, a chaplain in Harvard Hospital). • Presidents and other political leaders often call on God to bless the American nation and people. Oaths are administered, but those who, like Quakers, object to them, can make a solemn affirmation, or declaration, instead. ( 按着圣经发誓,面对国旗发誓,)
  46. 46. • When disputes about the relationship between government and religion arise, American courts must settle them. • American courts have become more sensitive in recent years to the rights of people who do not believe in any God or religion. But in many ways what supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas wrote in 1952 is till true. “We are a religious people, whose institutions presuppose a Supreme Being.”我们的社会习 俗习惯都是以上帝存在为前提的。
  47. 47. • 宗教与美国政治: • 1 使命观是美国政治文化的核心内容 • 美国人根深蒂固的使命观源于清教徒狂热的宗教理性。自认是古代以 色列人的继承人,“表现出强烈的命运感、上帝选民感 和特殊使命 感”。五月花号上的布雷福德称“我们将建成山颠之城,世界上所有的 人的眼睛都在瞧着我们。” • 19世纪40年代,美国国力增强,鼓吹美国是“上帝选中的国家” , 是自由的殿堂,受“上帝的委托”对人类的发展和命运承担一种特殊的 责任。开始北美大陆扩张 ,印第安人的生存方式在滚滚西进的车轮下 不复存在,世代居住着墨西哥人的土地在枪炮声中并入美国版图。 • 其后,美国又把目光放到了海外,但这次是向外推行它的民主制和价 值观, 称它是“放之四海而皆准的真理。”美国本身就是一场成功的试 验,因此负有向全世界推广的神圣使命。看今天在伊拉克,阿富汗举 行的民主选举和他们的连篇累牍的报道就是这种使命观的结果。 • 从这个逻辑出发,美国在其外交政策中,认为为了完成上帝赋予的神 圣使命,使用仸何手段都是合理的。 • Evangelism
  48. 48. • 冷战结束后特别是“9.11”以来,宗教对美国外交政策影 响趋于显著,“以信仰为基础”的外交的宗旨即为在海外 倡导或实际推进所谓宗教自由。 • 美国的宗教非政府组织主要通过影响美国的外交政策向 目标国施压。它们认为国际人权机制是不重要的,美国 所捍卫的才是真正的人权。(美国人权报告) • 2008年是美国“1998年国际宗教自由法”立法十周年,布 什在7月14日白宫的纪念活动上表示,“这一法案为美国 政府在海外推进宗教自由创造了重要的外交工具”,并且 “使宗教自由适得其所,即美国外交政策的中心”。这一 法案成立为美国在全球事务中利用宗教和人权问题扩大 自身发言权提供了有力的杠杆。 • 2009年4月,肯尼迪政治学院的一个讲座,宗教对美国 政府外交政策的巨大影响。 • 董小川著:《20世紀美國宗教與政治》,人民出版社 2002年版,
  49. 49. • 2 宗教对具体政策的影响。 • 如 公立中小学是否要求学生进行祈祷的问题 (尤其是一些仪式上,如毕业典礼,体育比赛 前,哈佛每年的毕业典礼前一天在校内的教堂 举行仪式。录像),在学校是否教授创世论还 是进化论,学校中可否挂宗教标志,如十诫牌 等,这些都与宪法第一修正案中政教分离的精 神相违背。 • 如对堕胎问题的干涉。一名医生因此被杀。 • 3宗教与教育, • 最初的九所长青藤大学:哈佛、耶鲁、普林斯 顿、威廉·马丽学院、宾大、哥伦比亚、布 朗、王后学院、达特毛斯都是出于宗教原因建 立的。
  50. 50. Memorial Church at Harvard Yard
  51. 51. 教堂前的戈尔演讲
  52. 52. 美国政要的演说中离不开上帝 • 罗斯福就职演说 • The Almighty God has blessed our land in many ways. He has given our people stout hearts and strong arms with which to strike mighty blows for freedom and truth. He has given to our country a faith which has become the hope of all peoples in an anguished world. • So we pray to Him now for the vision to see our way clearly——to see the way that leads to a better life for ourselves and for all our fellow men——to the achievement of His will to peace on earth.
  53. 53. • 奥巴马就职演讲 • We remain a young nation, but in the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish things. The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that precious gift, that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation: the God-given promise that all are equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness. 我们的国家仍 旧年轻,但借用圣经中的话,该是抛开那些孩子气 的时候了。现在,需要重新拿出我们的坚韧精神, 选择自己的历史。我们要延续代代相传的宝贵礼 物,延续神圣的理想,那就是上帝赐予我们的承诺 --人人平等,人人自由,人人都有机会去追求最 大程度的幸福。
  54. 54. • We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus - and non-believers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace. 我们是一个由基督徒、穆斯林、犹太教 徒、印度教徒和无神论者共同组成的国家。我们吸 收了各种文化的精髓,从世界的每个角落学习。因 为我们经历过内战和种族隔离的痛苦洗礼,并在黑 暗中更加坚强和团结,我们无法保证,但是我们相 信憎恨终将消弭,分隔终将散去。
  55. 55. • “America. In the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our hardship, let us remember these timeless words. With hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come. Let it be said by our children’s children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God’s grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations. ” • 美国,面对我们共同的危机,在这艰难的寒冬,让我们 牢记那些永恒的字句。怀着希望和美德,让我们再一次 勇敢地面对冰冷的现实,迎接任何可能的风浪。让我们 的子孙传唱,当我们面对挑战时,我们没有怯懦、没有 退缩,更没有踟蹰不前。我们在上帝的关爱下眺望远 方,我们在自由的道路上继续前进,我们的精神将永远 闪耀着光芒。
  56. 56. Sunday-closing Laws
  57. 57. • Sunday-closing laws, often called "blue laws," prohibited certain activities such as alcohol and retail sales on Sunday. • In America, these laws date back to the colonial period, starting with the first blue law in 1610 that required the citizens of Jamestown to keep the Sabbath day holy. • But it was not until the early twentieth century that such statutes became common. The prohibition movement prompted an increase in legislation regulating public and private conduct, such as restricting the sale of cigarettes and forbidding amusements and all unnecessary work on Sunday.
  58. 58. • Sunday closing laws were a real hardship to Jews and Seventh Day Adventists and other religious believers. 星期日关门不营业不娱乐法对犹太 教徒,周六安息日派和其它宗教信徒造成里极 大的困难。(在New Jersey 周日不能买东西, 麻州酒庄星期天关门很早) • Church groups and some merchants' associations supported these measures, arguing that society would benefit if citizens were required to take a day of rest. • In Virginia, people were arrested and fined for such activities as selling Coca-Cola or peanuts, and for showing movies or operating public swimming pools.
  59. 59. • 1961 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Sunday-closing laws were constitutional, since such laws were civil and not religious in nature. However, the police found that strict enforcement was impractical, and the General Assembly eventually enacted 21 exemptions to the blue laws. This led to such inconsistencies as prohibiting hardware stores from opening on Sunday but allowing drug stores to sell nuts and bolts on that day.
  60. 60. • In 1974 the legislature allowed each city and county the right to suspend or retain Sunday- closing laws. Finally, in 1988, a group of Virginia Beach businessmen initiated the case that ended blue laws in the state. The Virginia Supreme Court struck down the closing laws because the numerous exemptions had changed them from general laws to special legislation, and special legislation is prohibited by the state constitution. The ruling was handed down宣布 on a Saturday, and the next day many stores were open for business.
  61. 61. • 3 美国宗教特点 • 1)三教与犹太基督教传统; • By the 1950s, a kind of “ three faiths” (书名) model of the United States had developed. Americans were considered to come in three basic varieties: Protestant, Catholic and Jewish, the order reflecting the strength in numbers of each group. 但不符合历史发展线 索 • Judeo-Christian tradition
  62. 62. • Judeo-Christian这一术语(有时写作Judaeo- Christian ,Judæo-Christian)用以指犹太教拥 有的继而被基督教接受,并被认为是(与古希 腊-罗马文明一起)西方法制与伦理价值观之 根本基础的一套观念和价值体系。这一术语尤 指两教共同的圣经文本(基督教《旧约》,亦 即犹太教称《塔拿赫》)作为二者共同的道德 传统,尤其包括《摩西十诫》;并暗示现代西 方世界的一套共同的价值观。其中赋予犹太- 基督教传统的最普遍的价值观就是《创世纪》 (人人生而平等)和《出埃及记》(以色列人 逃离暴君统治奔向自由)中的自由与平等观。
  63. 63. • 在美国,历史学家们用“犹太-基督教”这一术 语来指称希伯来圣经(即《旧约》)和新约对 新教思想和价值观的影响,尤其是对清教,基 督教长老会和福音派的影响。美国早期的几代 创始人将其视为希伯来圣经的继承人,希伯来 圣经关于自由、责任、艰苦工作,道德、正 义、平等,选民意识以及对世界的道德使命等 教义成为了美国文化的核心成分,即所谓的 “美国信条。”这些希伯来圣经中的观念被新教 教徒们带进了美国历史,被视为“美国独立战 争”,“独立宣言”和美国宪法的基石。
  64. 64. • 到1952年艾森豪威尔总统讲到“犹太-基督教观念”是 “形成我们的政府观” 的 “深厚的宗教信仰”。“„犹太-基 督教‟这一短语作为标准的自由主义术语进入了当代词 汇,表达了这样一个观念即西方价值观建立在一个包括 犹太人在内的宗教共识之上。 • 到80年代,将美国描述为以一个核心的犹太-基督教文 化为基础的说法已经深入人心,不再引起多少争议。但 自由主义世俗论者则拒绝将“犹太-基督教”作为一种独 特的基督教美国的代码。认为它忽视了现代犹太传统、 天主教传统和更多的自由派基督教传统。 • 支持这样观念的人说,“美国是历史上唯一一个将其定 义为犹太-基督教的国家。西方世界由许多基督教国家 和世俗国家组成,只有美国自称犹太-基督教国家。 • 美国的独特性还在于它始终将世俗政府与以宗教价值观 为基础的社会结合。犹太-基督教价值观是使美国区别 与其他国家的价值观……
  65. 65. • 2)宗教多样化 • The United States has always been a fertile ground for the growth of new religious movements. E.g. the ancestors of the Amish in Pennsylvania, very strict Protestants who live in rural areas and scorn modern life, came from Germany in the 18th century to escape persecution. 阿门教派是新教的一支,至今 保持德国中世纪的农业社会生活方式,拒 绝使用电、机器等现代设备。
  66. 66. • Many religious communities and secular utopias, or experiments in new forms of social living, were founded in 18th and 19th century America. Most did not last long. 20th –century Americans who follow the impulse to withdraw from security and “join a commune” are following in an old American tradition. (18、19世纪,许多宗教团体和世俗的乌托邦组织或 试验新的社会生活方式在美国成立。著名的有宣扬 独身主义的震教派Shakers; 应该空想社会主义者罗 伯特·欧文建立的模范工业城; 20世纪要求离开社 会,加入公社的那些美国人的冲动继承了美国的这 种历史传统。如60年代的反主流文化的嬉皮士,)
  67. 67. • Small sects and cults regard the larger society as hopelessly corrupt. Prohibition of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine are common. (Arlington , no selling of alcohol, a dry town for 40 years.) • Sometimes dramatic expectations about the future- predictions of the end of the world or the dawning of a new age – form the main tenets, or doctrines, of the group. (末世论,这些小教派时 有发生。) • A few prefer faith healing to modern medicine or object to certain medical practices. E.g. Jehovah’s Witness refuse a blood transfusion for oneself or his/her child.
  68. 68. • Questions like these often come before the courts in the United States. They are generally settled according to a principle the Supreme court established when it ruled that the Mormons, a large and prosperous Christian sect , could not marry more than one wife. Individuals may believe anything they please in America, but they may not do anything they want, even if the action is based on a religious belief. • Mormons are one of the fastest growing church groups in the united States.(2008年加州同性恋立 法)
  69. 69. • But other questions reflect continuing conflicts in American life. When a 1973 Supreme Court decision made abortion legal in America, many Catholics were shocked. Many Evangelical Protestants and Orthodox Jews also objected. Yet more liberal Protestant and Jewish clergymen joined non-believers in maintaining that abortion is a basic right in a pluralistic or religiously varied society.
  70. 70. • 3)American Character of Religion • Firstly , Americans with different religions live together under the same law. The freedom of religion and the separation of state and church guaranteed in the constitution is believed to be the basic principles against religious persecution. (But in reality, it was not true in history.) because of this tradition, various religious groups in America have coexisted more harmoniously than the Old world.
  71. 71. • Secondly, the religious beliefs of Americans continue to be strong with social progress. Every Sunday, all over America, people pour into the churches. (去普利茅斯看五月花号 时,上午、下午均遇见去教堂的老人,) • New church buildings, some with interesting architecture, keep pace with the ever- growing suburbs. (各地的教堂照片)
  72. 72. first Parish
  73. 73. circular church
  74. 74. Church on Wall street
  75. 75. St. Philips
  76. 76. 犹太会堂
  77. 77. 正统派犹太会堂
  78. 78. 犹太会堂
  79. 79. Katz家的住棚节
  80. 80. 天主教 地铁站宣传
  81. 81. 哈佛普珥节
  82. 82. 纽约大乘寺
  83. 83. • In England, four-fifths of the people go to church less than once a month, and in Sweden the vast majority hardly ever go to church at all. In America, through all the social and economic changes religion has remained a constant factor. • In Europe, scientific and economic advance and rising material prosperity have accompanied by a decline in religious observance, but in the United States this has not happened.()
  84. 84. • In the United States every church is a completely independent organization, and concerned with its own finance and its own building. • (Ray Solomon, Rutgers 大学法学院院长, 犹太教会堂的委员会委员,自筹资金)
  85. 85. 哈佛数学系教授夫妇和学生一起过 住棚节
  86. 86. Boston 教堂音乐会
  87. 87. Harvard Christmas Revel
  88. 88. • There has been little concentration on doctrine or religious arguments such as in European history. (欧洲过去,牧师不许教民 去另一个教堂) • If one goes to a Protestant church, he or she will hear morality preached, but not a word of doctrine. (Andrew, a Catholic belonging to one church, but he often goes to another church, because he likes to find more friends there.)
  89. 89. • Churches and religious sects are expressions of group solidarity rather than of rigid adherence to doctrine. Baptist ministers are invited to preach in Methodist churches, a rabbi of Reform Judaism is invited to a conservative Judaism synagogue, a Black priest to a Jewish synagogue. (Feb. 2009, in Philadelphia) • A Protestant family(Jewish family) moving to a new place will probably try out several of the nearby churches/ synagogues before deciding on the one that suits them best, not for doctrinal reasons, but that is where they find their friends.
  90. 90. ZION BAPTIST CHURCH PHiladelphia, Reverend James A. Pollard,
  91. 91. Jess and Obama
  92. 92. • “ Several explanations may be offered. In American history, religion has not been identified with an oppressive or dominant social class or set of political institutions. “ • <美国文化背景> (“美国的宗教从来没有和社会上的 统治阶级在一起,和政治机构也没有关系。”不确切。早 期美国社会、政府都是清教徒,大学培养的是宗教人士。 哈佛肯尼迪学院教授的研究成果,正统派教徒对美国外交 政策的影响就说明了这一点。)
  93. 93. • The Pilgrim fathers (Mayflower photos), and many of those who followed them, left Europe to be free to worship in their own way, not as the established authorities told them to. Although some religious groups were also persecuted in early America and Catholics were prejudiced against, generally speaking, Americans have enjoyed greater religious freedom than Europeans.
  94. 94. • 自殖民地时代始,美国曾长期是基督新教一统天下。 发表《独立宣言》时,美国人中有80%是新教徒,天主 教徒占总人口的0. 8% ,信仰基督教(包括各教派)的人 占美国总人口的绝对多数;而犹太教徒仅占总人口的 0. 1%。 随着欧洲基督徒的大量到来,美国信仰基督教 的人口更加庞大,绝大多数欧洲白人移民的宗教信仰 就成了决定美国民族文化价值取向的关键。 • 新教徒不仅在美国总人口中占绝对优势,而且成为美 国政治、经济和社会精英群体中的主流,代表了多数 工商业、企业的所有者和管理者。精英们的思想和 价值观,无论是宗教的、经济的,还是社会的,所建立 的表达方式———有时是一种扭曲的时尚———都在 引导着中、下阶层的民众。 1933年,哥伦比亚大学教 授T·艾贝尔提出“美国政府的理念和原则以及美国的 社会生活都是来自于基督新教并由基督新教所支撑 的”,这种思想在许多美国人心目中根深蒂固。
  95. 95. • Paradoxically, the original basis of freedom creates a social pressure in favor of religion.矛盾的是,宗教自由的历史 基础反而造成了一种使人信仰宗教的社会压力。 (photo, atheist lecture in Harvard, Evangelical people, like my classmate, visiting scholars invited to Prof. qiu chengtong’s home(photos) , pushing you to convert, the Chinese American Christians in a university, help new comers, then persuade. Many Chinese feel hard to say no, others seek friendship in a unfamiliar world. ) • Most people want to identify themselves with dominant values, and going freely to the church of one’s church is a way of doing so, and of gaining acceptance in the face of a subtle demand for conformity. 大多数人希望自己和社会 的主流价值观保持一致,自觉自愿的选择去一个教堂就 是达到这一目的的方式之一,也是面对社会上无形压力 要求大家保持一致而得到别人承认的方法。
  96. 96. • And the church is a place where people can meet others with whom they would like to make friends. Religion, for most people, is important mainly as a means of getting together with others in a context which is so little defined that its values, expressing merely generally good will, can be easily share.
  97. 97. • The national religion • After 9/11, there was an outpouring of love, charity, and patriotism around the country. Eighty percent of them displayed the American flag- in the windows of their houses, on their cars, even on their clothing. And over and over, crowds spontaneously sang “God Bless America,” a patriotic song that is more popular than the national anthem. • (照片,文件夹爱国主义)
  98. 98. God Bless America
  99. 99. Patriotism, national religion
  100. 100. • Bush,this is a nation under one God. The war against Iraq is the war against Muslim terrorists. • This mixture of religion and patriotism is what some scholars have called the national religion of the United states.
  101. 101. Solder’s Day,Patriotism, national religion
  102. 102. 向国旗致敬,老兵
  103. 103. 向国旗致敬,新兵
  104. 104. Solder’s Day
  105. 105. • The roots of the national religion go back to colonial times. In the countries from which the American colonists emigrated, the dominant values of the nation were often supported by an organized national church. Although Americans made certain that no organized national church would exist in their country, they have over the years developed a number of informal practices which combine national patriotism with religion. The main function of it is to provide support for the dominant values of the nation. Thus, it does in an informal and less organized way what nationally organized churches did for European nations in earlier times.
  106. 106. • Some scholars believe that this can have harmful effects on the society. Sometimes these practices can help to create a climate in which disagreement with current national practices is discouraged or not tolerated. When citizens have disagreed with their government’s decision to wage war, other citizens accused them of being unpatriotic. For example, the Vietnam war, protesters were told “ America, love it or leave it”. Also the US decision to invade Iraq in 2003. Wang Jian 的儿子,不愿意打伊拉克,以 后不能在政府部分工作。
  107. 107. • 陆建德:《谈美国的爱国主义》 • 美国的爱国主义教育卓有成效,每到紧要关 头,爱国主义情怀就变成强大的凝聚力。世贸 大厦遭袭击后,纽约市警察和消防队员立即赶 到现场,他们不顾个人安危冲入大厦,很多人 以身殉职。“9.11”事件后美国举国感到悲痛 与震怒,但爱国热情也空前高涨(80% 的家 庭)。不管是在城镇还是乡村,星条旗处处飘 扬。为救助伤员,各地都掀起了献血热,就连 美国中央情报局收到的求职申请也比往年大大 增加。所有这一切使人想起肯尼迪激发爱国心 的名言:“不要问你的国家能为你做些什么, 而要问你能为你的国家做些什么。”
  108. 108. • 爱国主义情愫贯穿于整个美国的历史。独立战争 中,那些反抗英国统治的殖民者自称“爱国者”(请 注意同名美国电影)。 • 然而美国式爱国主义的几个基本特征在早期殖民地 生活中就呈现出清晰的轮廓。1630年,英属北美马 萨诸塞湾殖民地首任总督约翰•温思罗普在横渡大西 洋的阿贝拉号船上为新大陆的开发、治理写了《基 督仁爱的典范》一文。他说,上帝与船上的清教移 民有共同的事业,双方订立圣约,移民将受主之托 拟定条款,同心合力建造举世瞩目的“山上之城”。 早期英国赴美移民为了树立信心,习惯于自比上帝 的选民以色列人,而他们在北美的殖民地就顺理成 章地变为“新以色列”、“英格兰的以色列”。他们不断 套用《圣经》语言、故事来为殖民事业正名,坚决 相信《圣经》中预言的基督复活后亲自统治的“千年 王国”就是自己脚下那片肥沃的土地,新英格兰命中 注定将是没有罪恶的伊甸园。(intolerant moralism)
  109. 109. • 在美国独立的那一年,诗人弗瑞诺和布雷肯里 奇在长诗《美洲光辉的升起》中写道: 纯洁的教会,禀上帝之旨降临, 在世上建立她永恒的最后居所, 理想之国升起。 “理想之国”原文为“Zion”,也译作“锡安山 ”,在耶路撒冷,是《圣经》中所记载的古大卫 王及其子孙的宫殿及神庙所在地。这几句诗充 分表明,一百多年前,英国殖民者制造的神话 在这新独立的国家获取了蓬勃的生命力。
  110. 110. 每年爱国日4月19日,市民自发组织 表演,再现独立战争第一战的血腥
  111. 111. 准备迎敌
  112. 112. The British men are coming
  113. 113. • 美国式的爱国主义热情有时要由敌人来煽扬, 没有敌人也得虚构敌人。美国媒体喜欢渲染、 夸大美国受到的威胁,不断制造危机意识。世 界各国对此已习以为常。 • 早期清教移民也充满敌我意识。他们杀戮印第 安人,抢夺他们的土地,却幻想自己是在与“ 反基督力量”做最后的斗争。美国独立后爱国 者们不断扩张疆域,上帝永远站在他们一边。 照上帝的意旨,密西西比河的出海口就在古 巴,因而古巴应该属于美国的版图。第25仸总 统麦金莱上任后发起西班牙战争,据他自述, 他曾跪在地上祈求上帝保佑,他听到上帝的声 音:“并吞菲律宾。”
  114. 114. Thanksgiving
  115. 115. • “9.11”事件后全世界有机会感受美国的爱国 主义。这种爱国主义在美国本土令人感动,但 它表现为外交政策时,也有令人担心的一面。 也许美国还可以培养一种对自己是否正确不那 么坚信不疑的精神,一种设身处地地理解他人 的精神,一种能将别人的利益与自己的利益一 并考虑的精神。有了这样的精神,美国就会静 下来想一想一些针对自己的恐怖袭击为什么会 发生,并采取措施让绝望的人看到希望。不 然,美国的爱国精神还是仅限于一种自我肯定 的仪式。
  116. 116. 911后原世贸中心前的球体挪到纽约 港口
  117. 117. 不息的火焰

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