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INTRODUCTION TO FIRE PREVENTION        Seventh Edition • James C. Robertson                              Chapter 11       ...
Overview• Major part of fire problem• Discouraging arson• Role of prevention                                          Robe...
The Crime• History and background  – Colonial times  – 1800s  – Uniqueness                                      Robertson,...
Statistics• Uniform Crime Reports, 2006-2007  – Statistics remain static over years  – 69,055 arsons  – 44.2 per 100,000 i...
Statistics• National Fire Prevention Association  – 2,781 civilian deaths due to intentionally    set fires in 2001     • ...
Fire investigators spend long hours digging through ruins to determine points of origin and causes.(Photo: McGill Consulti...
Model Arson Laws• First-degree arson  – Burning of building or dwelling  – Willfully or maliciously sets fire to, burns, o...
Model Arson Laws• Second-degree arson  – Burning buildings other than dwellings  – Requires fire willfully or intentionall...
Model Arson Laws• Third-degree arson  – Burning of other property    • Willfully and maliciously set fire to, burn, or    ...
Model Arson Laws• Fourth-degree arson  – Relates to attempts to burn  – Willfully and maliciously set fire may be    charg...
Arson Motives•   Fraud or profit•   Revenge•   Excitement•   Pyromania•   Conceal other crimes•   Vandalism•   Political r...
Investigation• Establish “corpus delecti”• Motive• Responsibilities of fire department  – Cause and criminal investigation...
Fire origin and cause set used by Milwaukee, Wisconsin’s, Fire Academy. (Photo: James C.Robertson)                        ...
Insurance Fraud• Requires insurance claim• Full inventory• Fire department and the insurance  industry                    ...
Fire Scene Examination•   Scene security•   Location of origin•   Establishing possible source of ignition•   Firefighter ...
Fire investigators seldom have such a simple determination scenario as this. (Photo: James C.Robertson)                   ...
NFPA 921• Guide for fire and explosion  investigation                                        Robertson, Introduction to Fi...
Fire Investigator•   Properly trained•   Identifying evidence•   Examination of scene•   Fatal fires                      ...
Preservation of Evidence•   Salvage and overhaul•   Site access control•   Handling evidence•   Spoliation•   Documentatio...
Media Relations• Controlled statements• Personnel policy• Cooperation                                     Robertson, Intro...
Civil Unrest•   History•   Need to investigate•   Scene security issues•   Evidence                                       ...
Arson Arrest• Success rate• Reason for success rate• Regional differences                                       Robertson,...
Juvenile Fire Setters•   Model programs•   Counseling•   Prevention projects•   Parental awareness                        ...
Court Decisions• Michigan v. Tyler• Michigan v. Clifford• State of South Dakota v. Jorgensen                              ...
Michigan v. Tyler• Established guidelines for right of entry  – To investigate cause and origin  – Gather evidence should ...
Michigan v. Clifford• Court reaffirmed Michigan v. Tyler  – Recognized the ability of investigator to    seize evidence in...
Problem Areas in Arson          Investigation• Identified in a joint study with the BATF  – Unique characteristics impede ...
Problem Areas in Arson         Investigation• Jurisdictional and organizational  problems confound investigations• Immedia...
Serial Arsonists• Characteristics:  – Sex  – Race  – Previous arrests  – Suicide  – Juvenile detention                    ...
Arson Control Needs• Sprinklers, education, smoke detectors,  code enforcement• Training• Safety and health of investigato...
Arson Control Needs•   Public awareness•   Wildland arson issues•   Serial arsonist control•   Juvenile fire setter progra...
Summary• Impact on number of fires• Impact on severity of fires• Potential prevention effectiveness                       ...
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Robertson ch11

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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO FIRE PREVENTION Seventh Edition • James C. Robertson Chapter 11 Fire Prevention Through Arson Suppression Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, Seventh Ed. © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  2. 2. Overview• Major part of fire problem• Discouraging arson• Role of prevention Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  3. 3. The Crime• History and background – Colonial times – 1800s – Uniqueness Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  4. 4. Statistics• Uniform Crime Reports, 2006-2007 – Statistics remain static over years – 69,055 arsons – 44.2 per 100,000 inhabitants – 42.3% structure arsons – 28.2% mobile properties Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  5. 5. Statistics• National Fire Prevention Association – 2,781 civilian deaths due to intentionally set fires in 2001 • 2,451 due to 9/11 • 330 in set-structure fires • $24 billion in property loss Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  6. 6. Fire investigators spend long hours digging through ruins to determine points of origin and causes.(Photo: McGill Consulting, Lamont “Monty” McGill, Gardnerville, NV) Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  7. 7. Model Arson Laws• First-degree arson – Burning of building or dwelling – Willfully or maliciously sets fire to, burns, or causes to be burned, or aids, counsels, or procures the burning of: • Dwellings • Occupied or vacant • 1 or 2 to 20 years Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  8. 8. Model Arson Laws• Second-degree arson – Burning buildings other than dwellings – Requires fire willfully or intentionally set • 1-10 years Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  9. 9. Model Arson Laws• Third-degree arson – Burning of other property • Willfully and maliciously set fire to, burn, or cause to be burned • Property has a value of $25 or more and is property of another • 1-3 years Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  10. 10. Model Arson Laws• Fourth-degree arson – Relates to attempts to burn – Willfully and maliciously set fire may be chargeable even if materials only distributed – Preliminary act of setting fires Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  11. 11. Arson Motives• Fraud or profit• Revenge• Excitement• Pyromania• Conceal other crimes• Vandalism• Political reasons/extremist beliefs Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  12. 12. Investigation• Establish “corpus delecti”• Motive• Responsibilities of fire department – Cause and criminal investigation – Cause only – Third party (police, county, state)• Joint police/fire teams Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  13. 13. Fire origin and cause set used by Milwaukee, Wisconsin’s, Fire Academy. (Photo: James C.Robertson) Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  14. 14. Insurance Fraud• Requires insurance claim• Full inventory• Fire department and the insurance industry Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  15. 15. Fire Scene Examination• Scene security• Location of origin• Establishing possible source of ignition• Firefighter role• Others Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  16. 16. Fire investigators seldom have such a simple determination scenario as this. (Photo: James C.Robertson) Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  17. 17. NFPA 921• Guide for fire and explosion investigation Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  18. 18. Fire Investigator• Properly trained• Identifying evidence• Examination of scene• Fatal fires Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  19. 19. Preservation of Evidence• Salvage and overhaul• Site access control• Handling evidence• Spoliation• Documentation Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  20. 20. Media Relations• Controlled statements• Personnel policy• Cooperation Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  21. 21. Civil Unrest• History• Need to investigate• Scene security issues• Evidence Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  22. 22. Arson Arrest• Success rate• Reason for success rate• Regional differences Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  23. 23. Juvenile Fire Setters• Model programs• Counseling• Prevention projects• Parental awareness Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  24. 24. Court Decisions• Michigan v. Tyler• Michigan v. Clifford• State of South Dakota v. Jorgensen Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  25. 25. Michigan v. Tyler• Established guidelines for right of entry – To investigate cause and origin – Gather evidence should the fire be determined incendiary • Court held original entry for suppression and subsequent investigation permissible without a warrant – Subsequent entries may require a warrant Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  26. 26. Michigan v. Clifford• Court reaffirmed Michigan v. Tyler – Recognized the ability of investigator to seize evidence in clear view of entry Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  27. 27. Problem Areas in Arson Investigation• Identified in a joint study with the BATF – Unique characteristics impede detection, investigation, and reporting – Lack of agency cooperation – Lack of uniformity in measuring arson variables Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  28. 28. Problem Areas in Arson Investigation• Jurisdictional and organizational problems confound investigations• Immediate need for standardization Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  29. 29. Serial Arsonists• Characteristics: – Sex – Race – Previous arrests – Suicide – Juvenile detention Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  30. 30. Arson Control Needs• Sprinklers, education, smoke detectors, code enforcement• Training• Safety and health of investigators Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  31. 31. Arson Control Needs• Public awareness• Wildland arson issues• Serial arsonist control• Juvenile fire setter programs Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  32. 32. Summary• Impact on number of fires• Impact on severity of fires• Potential prevention effectiveness Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
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