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Searching the ‘Web-of-Things’ Revealing ambient intelligence using the Semantic Web Benoit Christophe – benoit.christophe@...
Overview <ul><li>The ‘Web of Things’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do we study it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we define...
The ‘Web of Things’ Proliferation of devices [1]  Ericsson.com, white paper. More than 50 billions connected devices, 2011
The ‘Web of Things’ At the convergence of (at least) 3 facts… <ul><li>Internet of Things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identificat...
The ‘Web of Things’ Our approach 1/2 A smart space Federating smart spaces Interconnecting smart spaces [2,3]
A real-world object (RWO) ‘ smart’ home A virtual object (VO) The ‘Web of Things’ Our approach 2/2 ‘ Virtualizing’ connect...
The ‘Web of Things’ For which usages? + = New web applications Novel interactions
The ‘Web of Things’ Prototype developed ‘ smart’ home ‘ smart’ office
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ In a near future… Billions of connected objects None of them sharing common data model Acces...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Three axes to investigate Model establishment Handling object specificities… and human perce...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ What it may allow <ul><li>Ex: emulating a multifunction copier through a composition of conn...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Establishing models - design <ul><li>Connected objects have a physical existence </li></ul><...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Establishing models - design <ul><li>Object description coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funct...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Establishing Models – overall picture [5] <ul><li>vo-fsm  represents finite state machine of...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Cross data models realization <ul><li>Describing structures of connected objects using the s...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Cross data models realization <ul><li>BUT! This approach has drawbacks </li></ul><ul><li>How...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Cross data models realization <ul><li>This is a problem of similarity establishment </li></ul>
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>A domain ontology seen as a complete universe [6] </li></u...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>Separate universe around a class (e.g. C i ) [6] </li></ul...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>Create representations from groups [6] </li></ul>
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>Representations can take multiple forms but: </li></ul><ul...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>Once represented, the universe can be trained by a classif...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Data models intertwining prototype
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Designing search strategies <ul><li>Adapt (predict) search strategy to the requester </li></...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Predicting type of search
Searching Web-enabled objects Using semantic profiles for searching objects <ul><li>Case of a request coming from an appli...
Searching Web-enabled objects Using semantic profiles for searching objects <ul><li>From a set of Web-enabled objects that...
Searching Web-enabled objects Do graph comparisons Graph analyzer module Lookup set of object graphs (Who has ‘A’, Who has...
Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Conclusion & Remaining works <ul><li>We hope that the Web of Things be able to benefit from ...
References <ul><li>[1]  Ericsson.com, white paper. More than 50 billions connected devices, 2011  </li></ul><ul><li>[2] B....
<ul><li>Thanks </li></ul>Benoit Christophe Bell Labs Research Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs France [email_address]
 
 
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Searching the Web of Things

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This is the slides of the short talk that I gave @SemTech 2011, the 9th of June, at San Francisco.

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  • Say that we additionally can consider the case of disjoint classes (so that we can separate the universe into more than 2 classes )
  • Say that we additionally can consider the case of disjoint classes (so that we can separate the universe into more than 2 classes )
  • Say that we additionally can consider the case of disjoint classes (so that we can separate the universe into more than 2 classes )
  • Transcript of "Searching the Web of Things"

    1. 1. Searching the ‘Web-of-Things’ Revealing ambient intelligence using the Semantic Web Benoit Christophe – benoit.christophe@alcatel-lucent.com Bell Labs Research – Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs France
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>The ‘Web of Things’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do we study it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we define and implement it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And… for which usage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototype developed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Searching the ‘Web of Things’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts and questions raised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search strategy: Modeling, Interlinking, Reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First implementations and results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and future works </li></ul>
    3. 3. The ‘Web of Things’ Proliferation of devices [1] Ericsson.com, white paper. More than 50 billions connected devices, 2011
    4. 4. The ‘Web of Things’ At the convergence of (at least) 3 facts… <ul><li>Internet of Things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification (EPC, RFID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness, simple, application agnostic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributor-based (Web 2.0 ecosystem) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pervasive computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put computing capabilities everywhere </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The ‘Web of Things’ Our approach 1/2 A smart space Federating smart spaces Interconnecting smart spaces [2,3]
    6. 6. A real-world object (RWO) ‘ smart’ home A virtual object (VO) The ‘Web of Things’ Our approach 2/2 ‘ Virtualizing’ connected objects of each smart space [2,3] REST API
    7. 7. The ‘Web of Things’ For which usages? + = New web applications Novel interactions
    8. 8. The ‘Web of Things’ Prototype developed ‘ smart’ home ‘ smart’ office
    9. 9. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ In a near future… Billions of connected objects None of them sharing common data model Accessed by anybody @ anytime… (mobile subscription keep on rising [4])
    10. 10. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Three axes to investigate Model establishment Handling object specificities… and human perception as well Allowing reasoning Web based! Data models cross understanding SAT-based algorithms or using machine learning Search strategy development Understanding (predicting) the context a search is performed Then triggering the most appropriate algorithms (accuracy vs. fastness)
    11. 11. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ What it may allow <ul><li>Ex: emulating a multifunction copier through a composition of connected objects </li></ul>Model: Some models are shared (i.e. objects have states, functionalities, etc…) While some other are not (i.e. domain based vocabularies to represent structures) F(AnythingVisual) = Picture G(VirtualDocument) = PhysicalSheet H(Sheet) = Sheet “ Document” is a type of “AnythingVisual”; “ Sheet” is a type of “Document”; “ Picture” is a type of “VirtualDocument” “ Sheet” is defined by “PhysicalSheet” F(Sheet) = Picture G(Picture) = Sheet Map: Deduce: H = G o F + =
    12. 12. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Establishing models - design <ul><li>Connected objects have a physical existence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live & die, become unavailable (idle or for the exclusive use of someone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May move across different smart spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are geo-localized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May put requirement on the user relative positioning (e.g. sheet of paper shown to the webcam lens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are owned by someone, shared between people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are reconfigurable (e.g. adding new objects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can contain other spaces (e.g. a coffee shop in a mall) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire, possess, abandon objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a social life (friends, family, etc.) evolving over time </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Establishing models - design <ul><li>Object description coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalities offered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional behavior (state-based machine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional requirements (e.g. involves user action, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership and access rights through common definition of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor location description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data produced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In terms of semantic web technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a customized OWL-S process (covering three first points) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of FOAF (fourth point) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor geo-location ontology with links to GeoNames (fifth point) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlinking all above models to define the whole VO description </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Establishing Models – overall picture [5] <ul><li>vo-fsm represents finite state machine of a Web-enabled object </li></ul><ul><li>vo-structures allows object to tell how are structured the data it uses or generates </li></ul><ul><li>vo-capability allows to map a task with a set of functionalities </li></ul><ul><li>vo-location represents geographical areas and how they are relatively localized </li></ul><ul><li>vo-core interlinks all different models and form the description model of Web-enabled objects </li></ul>Description file of a connected object instantiates ‘vo-core’ model
    15. 15. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Cross data models realization <ul><li>Describing structures of connected objects using the same vocabulary is impossible: </li></ul><ul><li>It requires agreements with all device manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>it requires data models to be changed to comply with such agreed model </li></ul><ul><li>Giving the opportunity to let providers use their own terms is the key… </li></ul>
    16. 16. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Cross data models realization <ul><li>BUT! This approach has drawbacks </li></ul><ul><li>How to know if some objects can be composed based on their I/Os? </li></ul><ul><li>How to know that objects can be used in Web applications based on their I/Os? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Cross data models realization <ul><li>This is a problem of similarity establishment </li></ul>
    18. 18. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>A domain ontology seen as a complete universe [6] </li></ul>data model ( ontology ) A class and its members
    19. 19. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>Separate universe around a class (e.g. C i ) [6] </li></ul>data model ( ontology ) A class and its members All other model elements
    20. 20. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>Create representations from groups [6] </li></ul>
    21. 21. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>Representations can take multiple forms but: </li></ul><ul><li>Are the cornerstone to find similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent a class using its elements name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent a class using its full ontological description (A has some properties, A hasComplementClass B, A hasValue only { α , β , γ }) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom class description by adding knowledge (facts, rules) based on the domain involved </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Machine learning approach <ul><li>Once represented, the universe can be trained by a classifier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The same way you represent A , then represent B (a concept belonging to another domain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test with the classifier if B seems to belong to A or Ā </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally do the reverse operation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Train a classifier with U 2 then test if A belongs to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain the joint distribution of A and B: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once joint probability distributions obtained, evaluate the distance between A and B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For instance, by using “Jaccard” distance: </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Data models intertwining prototype
    24. 24. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Designing search strategies <ul><li>Adapt (predict) search strategy to the requester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans privilege quick answer and usually comply with approximation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines can wait but need accurate (i.e. exact) results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on established ‘context of search’, trigger algorithms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using probabilistic models for fastness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using graph traversal process for accuracy </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Predicting type of search
    26. 26. Searching Web-enabled objects Using semantic profiles for searching objects <ul><li>Case of a request coming from an application looking for an object matching accurately some requirements </li></ul><ul><li>From the incoming discovery request: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract requirements of the request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate each requirement to a graph </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Searching Web-enabled objects Using semantic profiles for searching objects <ul><li>From a set of Web-enabled objects that belong to a given smart space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access semantic representation of object’ functionalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigate to the ontological definition of their I/Os </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract the graph of each I/O </li></ul></ul>Send stream functionality
    28. 28. Searching Web-enabled objects Do graph comparisons Graph analyzer module Lookup set of object graphs (Who has ‘A’, Who has ‘B’, etc.) Compute matching score Ex: Webcam has ‘B’ and ‘G’ while copier has ‘D’ and ‘I’ matching( α , camera ) = 6/11 matching( α , copier ) = 4/11 2: Lookup graphs 1: load requirement graph Results = {(camera, 55%); (copier,36%)} 3: return classified results <ul><li>Finally, match request requirements with structures uses or generated by an object </li></ul>
    29. 29. Searching the ‘Web of Things’ Conclusion & Remaining works <ul><li>We hope that the Web of Things be able to benefit from the Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining works: </li></ul><ul><li>Models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To continue to create links with other ontologies: DBPedia, Dolce, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And to check these models deal with OWA issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross data models understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing more representations of ontological concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating SAT-based algorithms instead of Machine Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering smart spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing context of search prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And obviously… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools to generate descriptions of connected objects in order to really test and validate our approach (currently, only some tools allowing creation of semantic profiles have been done) </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. References <ul><li>[1] Ericsson.com, white paper. More than 50 billions connected devices, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>[2] B. Christophe et al. The Web of Things vision: Things as a service and interaction patterns . Bell Labs Technical Journal, 16(1):55-62, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>[3] M.Boussard et al. Providing user support in web-of-things enabled smart spaces . Proceedings of the 2 nd International Workshop on the Web of Things, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Monitoring the WSIS targets, World Telecommunicaiton/ICT development report, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>[5] vo-* models, http://bring-models-to-life.appspot.com/wot/models/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>[6] A. Doan et al. Ontology Matching: A machine learning approach . Handbook on Ontologies in Information Systems, 2003 </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Thanks </li></ul>Benoit Christophe Bell Labs Research Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs France [email_address]

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