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Bone rounds 3 1-11
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Bone rounds 3 1-11

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  • 1. Musculoskeletal Pathology Brian Caserto March 1 2011
  • 2. 1. Bovine, Mdx (3)
  • 3. 1. Bovine, Mdx (3) • Meningo(encephalo)co ele • Hydranencephaly • Crania bifida/ Craniaschisis
  • 4. 2. Dog, MDx (3 possible)
  • 5. 2. Mandibular Squamous cell carcinoma, with bone lysis • Melanoma • Acanthomatous epulis • Fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin • Gingival hyperplasia
  • 6. 3. Dog, MDx
  • 7. 3. Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy/ Metaphyseal Osteopathy
  • 8. 4. Bovine, Mdx
  • 9. 4. Septic ArthritisHumerus,Multifocal tocoalescing ulcerativearthritis withsubchondral bonenecrosis
  • 10. 5. Dog, Mdx
  • 11. 5. Humerus, Osteosarcoma
  • 12. 5. Humerus, Osteosarcoma
  • 13. 6. Foal • Bone, Multifocal necrotizing osteomyelitis and physitis with sequestra • E coli, Strep spp, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Rhodococcus equi,Arcanobact erium pyogenes, Actinobacillus equuli
  • 14. 6. Foal • Sequestra- large necrotic bone separated from blood supply • Involucrum- Granulation tissue or reactivebone around the sequestra • Foals most commonly in secondary ossification centers, and can cause articular cartilage defects
  • 15. 7. Dog, Mdx • Spine, intervertebral disc degeneration and prolapse with spinal cord compression • Vertebral osteosclerosis
  • 16. 8. Horse, Mdx
  • 17. 8. Rupture of the DDF tendon DDFTendonRupture Normal
  • 18. 9. Rabbit, Osteofluorosis • Tarsus and metatarsus, diffuse periosteal hyperostosis • Caused by fluoride toxicity • Accompanied by gastric mucosal hyperplasia • Histo Periosetal and endosteal hyperostosis
  • 19. 10. Rabbit • Atrophic rhintis • Pasteurella multocida 12A • Bronchopneum onia, otitis media
  • 20. 11. Pig • Muscular cysticerciasis • Cysticercus cellulosae (taenia solium) • Measly pork
  • 21. 12. Pig • Skeletal muscle (epaxial), myonecrosis (rhabdomyolysis), extensive, bilateral • Inherited defect in the Ryanodine receptor --> uncontrolled increase in sarcoplasmic calcium --> prolonged muscle contraction -- > acute rhabdomyolsis
  • 22. 13. Chicken • Tibial Dyschondroplasia • Osteochondrosis • Broiler chickens • Rapid growth diets • Genetics • High Phosphorus to calcium ratio • Fusarium roseum
  • 23. 14. Rhesus Monkey • Skull, fibrous osteodystrophy • Vitamin D deficiency
  • 24. 15. Corriedale Sheep • Rickets • Parathyroid hyperplasia
  • 25. Corriedale Sheep
  • 26. Rickets/Osteomalacia• Anything that • Phosphorus interferes with deficiency- mineralization uncommon (Cattle >Sheep > • Vit D Deficiency- Horses) Sunlight, ingested , • Calcium depressed by deficiency- carotenoids rapidly corrected serum calcium not likely to be cause of faulty mineralization
  • 27. Rickets• Inherited errors of • Type 2 - Vit D Vit D metabolism Resistant Rickets- Defect in • Type 1- Vit D 1,25 Dependent dihydroxycholeca Rickets- defect in lciferol receptor renal alpha-1- hydroxylase • cant use D2, and D3 is • treat with present in 1,25 (OH)2 D3 high amounts without hypercalcemi
  • 28. Hypophosphatemic rickets• Vit D resistant • hypophosphatemia (impaired renal resorption and intestinal absorption), normocalcemia, skeletal deformities • Plasma 1,25 Dihydroxy D3 levels are low
  • 29. 16. Wallaby • Mandibular pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis (Lumpy Jaw)
  • 30. 17. Aborted calf • Thought this might be a growth retardation lattice (BVD), but histolgically normal primary and secondary spongiosa with local band of reduced hematopoiesis
  • 31. 18. Bovine • Synovial fossae in the elbow joint, normal non- weighbearing surfaces develop as a consequence of joint modeling • found in horses, cows, and pigs
  • 32. Bone Growth
  • 33. More Bones!
  • 34. Bovine DJD
  • 35. DJD• Osteophyte• Enthesophyte• Synovial chondromatosis
  • 36. Goat
  • 37. Chicken
  • 38. Crane
  • 39. Bovine, calf. MDx,Associated condition
  • 40. Posterior ArthrogryposisSpina bifida cystica
  • 41. Posterior ArthrogryposisSpina bifida cystica
  • 42. Terms• Spina bifida- absence of the • Spinal dysraphism (raphe= dorsal portions of the suture)- term applies to the vertebrae (secondary to neural tube- Applies to spinal failure of the neural tube to cord and may have vertebral close completely) abnormalities • occulta- skin overlying • Myeloshisis (“marrow”= the defect is normal, and fatty=spinal cord/bone spinal cord may be grossly marrow+ cleft)-same as normal dysraphism • cystica- a cystic swelling • Dermoid sinus- congenital in protrudes through the Rhodesian ridgebacks- vertebral defect incomplete separation of the neural tube from the overlying • Meningomyelocele- dorsal midline ectoderm spinal cord is missing segments
  • 43. Arthrogryposis• AM- Arthrogryposis multiplex- Angus cattle, AR- Front and rear legs affected• BVD/Akabane virus infection in utero• Toxic- Lupins (crooked calf disease), Veratrum californicum (day 29 gestation), Conium maculatum (pigs, cows), Jimsonweed, Wild black cherry, locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis), Hybrid sorghum and Sudan grass in foals
  • 44. Spina bifida
  • 45. Spina bifida
  • 46. Dog, Mdx
  • 47. Palato-cheiloschisis
  • 48. Fish, Disease name, Cause
  • 49. Cat, Mdx, Cause
  • 50. 12. Cat • Feline hypervitaminosis A • Spondylosis, Osteoarthropathy
  • 51. Cat • Feline Osteochondromatosis • FeLV FSV particles • Affects long bones as well as intramembranous bones
  • 52. Dog uap
  • 53. Dog
  • 54. Foal
  • 55. Chicken • Rickets •Similar to osteochondrosis •Cysts often present in long standing cases
  • 56. Chicken
  • 57. Nutritional DisordersRickets (bending of the tibiotarsus, distortion of the ribs and enlargement of the costocondral junctions)Manganese deficiency Tibial chondrodystrophy, displacement of gastrocnemius tendon (Perosis)Riboflavin (B2) deficiency  Curly toe paralysisNutritional Etiology• Calcium or phosphorus deficiency or an imbalance in these nutrients will result in rickets in immature birds or osteomalacia in mature breeders and commercial egg-production flocks.• Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) deficiency results in rickets in immature flocks housed in controlled environment units.• Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency results in an abnormal gait progressing to recumbency and paralysis with hyperextension of the neck.• Riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency results in a deformity of the feet termed “curled toe paralysis”.• Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency results in abnormal gait and convulsions. This condition can also occur following administration of toxic levels of nitrofurans to immature flocks.• Manganese deficiency results in chondrodystrophy. This occurs in growing chicks due to decreased formation of bone below the growth plates of the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus. Mildly affected chickens show stunting and enlargement of the hock joint with reduction in the length of the leg bones. The lesion progresses to severe deformation of the hock joint culminating in displacement of the gastrocnemius (Achilles) tendon (perosis). Chondrodystrophy is characterized by a high prevalence in the flock, bilateral involvement of the hock joints and reduction in length of the long bones. Confirmation of the diagnosis requires analysis of feed to determine manganese content. Dietary level should range from 80 to 120 ppm for optimal growth.• Choline and pyridoxine deficiency may result in bilateral enlargement of hock joints, sometimes with displacement of the gastrocnemius tendon.• Chondrodystrophy should be differentiated from valgus-varus abnormality of genetic origin.
  • 58. Slipped Gastrocnemius Tendon
  • 59. Bovine
  • 60. Layer chicken • Cage Layer Fatigue • Osteoporosis-fractures of limbs, with osteomalacia histologically • Muscle weakness also a feature • Occurs in animals in cages, but resolves if on the ground • Relative calcium deficiency (below 2:1 ratio)
  • 61. Cage Layer Fatigue
  • 62. Horse
  • 63. Bovine
  • 64. Osteopetrosis
  • 65. Horse
  • 66. Ox
  • 67. Bovine
  • 68. OX
  • 69. Ox
  • 70. Ox, Associated finding
  • 71. Ox
  • 72. Ox, Pathogenesis
  • 73. Dog
  • 74. Dog
  • 75. Horse
  • 76. Horse
  • 77. Cynomolgus Monkey
  • 78. Rhesus Monkey,Condition, Cause
  • 79. Squirrel Monkey
  • 80. European Pond turtle
  • 81. Monitor Lizard
  • 82. Cane toad
  • 83. Iguana
  • 84. Goat
  • 85. Suffolk Sheep
  • 86. Hereditarychondrodysplasia • Multiple irregular ossification centers in long bones- hypertrophic cartilage forms nodules thatf ail to develop normally, lack of subchondral bone predisposes to degenerative arthropathy- bone growth in utero is normal • Suffolk and Hampshire sheep • Long limbs, necks, kyphosis/ scoliosis, sternal deformity, valgus deformities below the carpus, roman nose, deviated nasal septum, shortening of maxilla, elongation of the occipital condyles- affects all endochondral bones and
  • 87. Sheep
  • 88. Holoprosencephaly• Failure of the rostral • V. cerebrum to divide californicum- normally antagonism of sonic • Arhinencephaly- hedgehog aplasia of the gene- involves olfactory bulbs the rostral and tracts extremity of the notochord • craniofacial and the abnormalities- surrouding cyclopia mesenchyme (synophthalmus)
  • 89. Caribou
  • 90. Deer
  • 91. Sea Lion
  • 92. Elk
  • 93. Dog
  • 94. ArthritisActinobacillus suis (Pig), E coli (All), Erysipelas, Strep, Haemophilus, Mycoplasma Arcanobacterium hyorhinis (pig), Mycoplasma (ox) pyogenes (Ox)
  • 95. Bovine Fluoride Toxicity
  • 96. Bovine Lymphoma
  • 97. Camel
  • 98. Dog
  • 99. Horse
  • 100. Dog, MCE
  • 101. Sheep
  • 102. Elk
  • 103. WT DEER
  • 104. Pig
  • 105. Hole in the Head disease
  • 106. Foal
  • 107. Horse
  • 108. Foal
  • 109. Osteogenesis imperfecta presumptive
  • 110. OGIMp Presumed
  • 111. Alpaca Osteomyelitis
  • 112. Horse
  • 113. Aborted bovine calf
  • 114. Bovine, Synovial fossa (normal)