What it Means to Be Fundable


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This slide show outlines some of the key elements for which investors are seeking in companies seeking investment capital.

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What it Means to Be Fundable

  1. 1. What it Means to Be Fundable Presented by Bart Greenberg Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics July 22, 2008
  2. 2. You Have the “Right” Business Structure
  3. 3. You Avoided the De Facto Partnership <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership of IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicarious Liability </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. You Avoided “Wrong” State of Formation <ul><li>California vs. Delaware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California is shareholder friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delaware is management friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Case of the So-Called Quasi-California Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Why You DON’T Necessarily Want to Be in Nevada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will most likely pay taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The law is not as well defined </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. You Kept it Simple! <ul><li>Don’t Over-Build at Start-Up. Avoid the Following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple operating companies or special business units (Subs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related party engineering, development or service companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restructuring Can Be Expensive and Involve Negative Tax Consequences </li></ul>
  6. 6. You Have the Right Team
  7. 7. You Didn’t Put off the Inevitable <ul><li>Most Start-Ups Tend to Be Too Quick to Hire and Too Long to Fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t hire Just because someone will work for equity or for free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things will get worse and much more complicated to unwind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid Urge to Hire friends & Family </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Those With “Checkered” Pasts </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Your Own Limitations </li></ul>
  8. 8. You Properly Handled the Inevitable <ul><li>DON’T Violate California Labor Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An employee who is discharged must be paid all wages, including accrued vacation, at time of termination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An employee who quits must be paid all wages, including accrued vacation, within 72 hours of quitting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALWAYS get releases from liability on separation (even if you have to pay for it!) </li></ul>
  9. 9. You Protected Your IP
  10. 10. You Transferred IP into the Company <ul><li>Two Typical Approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution for equity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors to Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from creditors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional “Fields of Use” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax considerations </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. You Have Clear Title to the IP <ul><li>The “Moonlighting” Founder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under Section 2870 of the California Labor Code, Employer owns IP unless: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee developed entirely on her own time; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee did not use employer's equipment, supplies, facilities or trade secret information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception for any of the following IP, that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relates at time of conception to employer's business, or actual or demonstrably anticipated research or development of employer; or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results from any work performed by employee for employer. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. You Have Clear Title to the IP (cont.) <ul><li>Other Employment Related Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get employment agreement in place before employee starts work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obligations to execute assignments and to reasonably cooperate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-solicitation of employees, customers and vendors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for pre-existing duties of confidentiality to former employer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask to see employment agreement from former employer </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. You Have Clear Title to the IP (cont.) <ul><li>Issues Relating to “Work for Hire” ( i.e. , Contractors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GET consulting agreement in place BEFORE consultant starts work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a suitable agreement, you may “own” nothing more than a limited license to use what was developed, even though you paid for the work! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate for ownership UP FRONT, before a deal is pending </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. You Used Equity Sparingly
  15. 15. You Avoided Oral Promises of Equity <ul><li>Oral Agreements ARE Enforceable </li></ul><ul><li>The Problems with Oral Agreements are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms are never well defined or fully thought out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult for employer to disprove claimed existence of such an arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Sleeping Dogs” Tend to Wake Up When Exit is imminent </li></ul>
  16. 16. You Avoided Using Equity as Currency <ul><li>Know What is Market. How Much is Too Much? </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an Accurate Capitalization Table </li></ul><ul><li>Look for Alternative Ways to Finance the Business: Bootstrap! </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T Forget About Compliance with Applicable Securities Laws </li></ul>
  17. 17. You Made Sure Strings Were Attached <ul><li>Use of Restricted Stock and Vesting </li></ul><ul><li>ALWAYS use a probationary period </li></ul><ul><li>Repurchase Rights Upon Termination </li></ul><ul><li>All Equity Should Be Made Subject to a Shareholders’ Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights of First Refusal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repurchase Rights on Trigger Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags, Drags and Shotguns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proxies and Voting Agreements </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. You Maintained Corporate Formalities
  19. 19. You Treated Company as Separate Entity <ul><li>Hold and Properly Document Meetings to Authorize All Requisite Corporate Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain and Keep Separate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minutes Books & Accounting Records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance & Licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts and Leases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letterhead and Stationary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t Run Personal Items Through the Company </li></ul>
  20. 20. If So, You Avoided the Following: <ul><li>Alter Ego Liability (aka “Piercing of the Corporate Veil”) to Third Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts May Be Voidable at Option of Third Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Liability to Equity Holders for Breach of Fiduciary Duties </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Opportunity is Exceptional
  22. 22. Products & Services <ul><li>The Product has Real Benefits (Rather than Just Nifty Features) </li></ul><ul><li>The Product/Service Addresses a Real PAIN in the Market </li></ul>
  23. 23. Target Market <ul><li>There is a Well-Defined Target Market that you Can Serve </li></ul><ul><li>You Meet the Needs of the Target Market </li></ul><ul><li>You Can Then Leverage and Scale to Other Target Markets </li></ul>
  24. 24. Marketing/Sales Plan <ul><li>Your Target Market is Not Defined Too Widely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack the Target Market First </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then Seek to Fill Demand in Other Markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You Have Researched and Not Just Made Assumptions about Your Target Market </li></ul>
  25. 25. Marketing/Sales Plan (cont.) <ul><li>You Understand and have Identified the Mediums You Will Use to Advertise and Promote your Product </li></ul>
  26. 26. Competitive Analysis <ul><li>You DO Have Competition (and That is a GOOD Thing)! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A business does not operate in a vacuum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management must comprehend external factors that can impact the business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Not Underestimate the Strength of Competitors </li></ul>
  27. 27. Management Team <ul><li>Do Not Assume that Previous Success in Other Industries Applies to Your Current Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Attract and Assemble an ACTIVE and Knowledgeable Board of Advisors </li></ul><ul><li>Make Sure Founders and Senior Management Have “Skin in the Game” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Operational Plan <ul><li>Understand the Process by which You Manufacture, Distribute and Sell Your Product or Service </li></ul><ul><li>Account for all Production Costs (Direct and Indirect) </li></ul><ul><li>Foresee and Plan for Contingencies to Meet Production and Staffing Challenges </li></ul>
  29. 29. Financial Projections <ul><li>Present Sales and Profit Projections that Are Realistic ( i.e. , no “hockey stick”) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and Be Able to Articulate Financial Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Underestimate Expenses and Budget for Unexpected Costs </li></ul>
  30. 30. Exit Strategy <ul><li>Don’t Just Assume You Have a Business with the Potential to Go Public </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Explain how Your Investor will Specifically Recoup their Investment and a Sufficient Return </li></ul>
  31. 31. Questions?
  32. 32. What it Means to Be Fundable Thank you! Presented by Bart Greenberg Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP (714) 371-2518 [email_address]