Democracy is a system in which people decide matters as a group.
The term is typically used in the context form of government in
which all the citizens have a vote.
The principles of democracy are also applicable to other bodies,
such as universities, unions, companies or other organizations.
People have more freedoms and rights in democracies.
What is a democracy?
Democracy: Meaning & Concept
The term democracy is derived from the Greek words, demos and
Kratos, the former meaning the people and the latter power.
Democracy thus means power of the people. Definition of
democracy, as a form of government, are various, Democracy,
according to the Greeks, is the Government in which people rule
In the words of President Abraham Lincoln, "it is a government
of the people, by the people and for the people". On the other hand
“Democracy is that form of government in which the mass of the
population possesses the right to share in the exercise of sovereign
Forms of Democracy
There are two types of democracy: (1) Pure or Direct, and (2) Indirect or
1.Direct Democracy: - When the people themselves directly express their
will on public affairs, the type of government is called pure or direct
democracy. Direct Democracy was established in ancient Greek city-states.
This system now prevails only four cantons of Switzerland.
2.Representative or Indirect Democracy: Indirect Democracy the
will of the state is formulated and expressed not directly by the people
themselves, but by their representatives to whom they delegate the power
deliberation and decision-making. This type of government was established
in England in the seventeenth century. In France, it was established in 1830
and in Italy in 1948. Today this system is seen in many countries like-
Bangladesh ,Japan, Sri Lanka, India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the
United States of America, West Germany, Italy, France, Holland, Denmark,
Sweden, Norway, Austria and Belgium.
Basic Principles of Democracy:
4. The people as ultimate source of sovereignty.
5. Fundamental rights to the people.
6. Independence of Judiciary.
7. The people are considered as an end and State as the means in a
8. Welfare State.
We have passed about forty-one years since independence
but our achievements in the spheres of democracy and
development are not noteworthy. In Bangladesh every political
leader or party, civil or military, popular or unpopular, big or
small, in or out of power, talk about democratic incessantly.
Our society with an under developed political culture and
poverty ridden illiterate and incompetent masses is lacking
democratic political organizations, institutions and practices.
Democracy & Bangladesh
YEAR 1973 1979 1986 1988 1991 1996 1996 2001 2008
AL BNP JP JP BNP BNP AL BNP AL
The chart of Bangladesh’s Parliament
Present features of Bangladesh Democracy
i) Absence of democratic political culture.
ii) Absence the rule of law.
iii) Absence of strong civil society.
iv) Absence of strong political leadership.
v) Corruption and terrorism.
vi) Lack of political morality.
vii) Problems of Parliamentary Committee System.
viii) Problems of Public Administration
ix) Problems of Political Parties.
x) Problems of Press and Media.
xi) Problems of Local Government.
xii) The Leadership Problem.
The people of our country are almost homogeneous.
Provision for caretaker government.
Peoples eagerness for democracy.
Peaceful transition of power.
Response of civil society.
Independence of press, media and newspaper.
Role of NGO.
March to ward too party system.
Prospects of Democracy
From the above discussion we can say that from very early of
civilization democracy was
discussed from various viewpoints and applied it various way.
Today most of the people
want to enjoy this form of government. The people of
Bangladesh are not out of them. But
Bangladesh has been facing various problems to institutionalize
democracy since its
independence. Yet it, prospects of democracy in Bangladesh
today are not insignificant. I
think the suggested policy measures given above would be
helpful for the policy makers of
the state for democratic development. For this the media, civil
society and socio-political
organizations and institutions must play the pioneering role.