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  • 1. Martinez 1Angela MartinezMrs. VasquezLanguage artsMarch 8, 2012 Slavery In this research paper I’m going to talk about slaveryand I’m also going to talk about my novel (United infreedom.) I’m writingthis research paper to learn more aboutthe 1920’s, when therewas slavery. My book is about twoAfrican American twin brothers one of them is a slaveand the other one is a free man and they reunite afteryears and they become soldiers in the civil war but ,there is a problem... they are fighting against eachother. Slavery was a system in which people were treatedas property to be bought and sold, and are forced towork.Slavery in the United States was a form of slave laborwhich existed as a legal institution in North America formore than a century before the founding of the UnitedStates. Slavery and Christianity ... Religious violence;Christian history... Menu Slavery from biblical times untilnow Slaves can be held against their will from the time oftheir capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to
  • 2. Martinez 2leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation.Historically, slavery was institutionally recognized by manysocieties; in more recent times slavery has been outlawed inmost societies but continues through the practices of debtbondage, indentured servitude, serfdom, domesticservantskept in captivity, certain adoptions in whichchildren are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, andforced marriage.Slavery was known in almost every ancientcivilization, and society, including Sumer, Ancient Egypt,Ancient China, the Acadian Empire, Assyria, Ancient India,Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, the Islamic Caliphate,the Hebrews in Palestine, and the pre-Columbiancivilizations of the Americas. Suchinstitutions were amixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, theenslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, andthe birth of slave children to slaves.The number of slavestoday is higher than at any point in history, remaining ashigh as 12 million to 27 million, though this is probably thesmallest proportion of the worlds population in history. Mostare debt slaves, largely in South Asia, who are under debtbondage incurred by lenders, sometimes, even forgenerations. Human trafficking is primarily used for forcingwomen and children into sex industries. In pre-industrialsocieties, slaves and their labor were economicallyextremely important. In modern mechanized societies, thereis less need for sheer massive manpower; Norbert Wienerwrote that "mechanical labor has most of the economicproperties of slave labor, though... it does not involve the
  • 3. Martinez 3direct demoralizing effects of human cruelty."Slaveryremained a major institution in Russia until 1723, whenPeter the Great converted the household slaves into houseserfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally convertedinto serfs earlier in 1679.Russias more than 23 millionprivately-held serfs were freed from their lords by an edict ofAlexander II in 1861.State-owned serfs were emancipated in1866.During the Second World War (1939–1945) NaziGermany effectively enslaved many people, both thoseconsidered undesirable and citizens of countries theyconquered.As late as 1908, women slaves were still sold inthe Ottoman Empire. A slave market for captured Russianand Persian slaves was centered in the Central Asiankhanate of Kiva. Darrel P. Kaiser wrote, "Kazakh-Kirghiztribesmen kidnapped 1573 settlers from colonies [Germansettlements in Russia] in 1774 alone and only half weresuccessfully ransomed. The rest were killed or enslaved."According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere (who sat on theViceroys Council), there were an estimated 8 or 9 millionslaves in India in 1841. About 15% of the population ofMalabar was slaves. Slavery was abolished in British Indiaby the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843. In Istanbul about one-fifth of the population consisted of slaves.Slavery in theAmericas had a contentious history, dating back at least tothe Aztecs, and played a major role in the history andevolution of some countries, triggering at least onerevolution and one civil war, as well as numerous rebellions.Slavery was prominent in Africa, across the Atlantic Ocean
  • 4. Martinez 4from the Americas, long before the beginnings of thetransatlantic slave trade. The maritime town of Lagos,Portugal, Europe, was the first slave market created inPortugal (one of the earliest colonizers of the Americas) forthe sale of imported African slaves – the Mercado deScarves, opened in 1444. In 1441, the first slaves werebrought to Portugal from northern Mauritania. An estimated 12 million Africansarrived in the Americas from the 16th to the 19th centuries.Of these; an estimated 645,000 were brought to what is nowthe United States. The usual estimate is that about 15 percent of slaves died during the voyage, with mortality ratesconsiderably higher in Africa itself in the process ofcapturing and transporting indigenous peoples to the ships.Approximately 6 million black Africans were killed by othersin tribal wars.There are more slaves today than at any pointin history, remaining as high as 12 million to 27 million, eventhough slavery is now outlawed in all countries. Severalestimates of the number of slaves in the world have beenprovided. According to a broad definition of slavery used byKevin Bales of Free the Slaves (FTS), an advocacy grouplinked with Anti-Slavery International, there were 27 millionpeople in slavery in 1999, spread all over the world. In 2005,
  • 5. Martinez 5the International Labor Organization provided an estimate of12.3 million forced laborers in the world.Thanks to the ILOSpecial Action The Programmed has successfully raisedglobal awareness and understanding of modern forced labor;assisted governments to develop and implement new laws,policies and action plans; developed and disseminatedguidance and training materials on key aspects of forcedlabor and human trafficking; implemented innovativeprogrammers which combine policy development, capacitybuilding of law enforcement and labor market institutions,and targeted, field-based projects of direct support for bothprevention of forced labor and identification andrehabilitation of its victims. Siddhartha Kara has alsoprovided an estimate of 28.4 million slaves at the end of2006 divided into the following three categories: bondedlabor/debt bondage (18.1 million), forced labor (7.6 million),and trafficked slaves (2.7 million). Kara provides a dynamicmodel to calculate the number of slaves in the world eachyear, with an estimated 29.2 million at the end of 2009.OnMay 21, 2001, the National Assembly of France passed theTuber law, recognizing slavery as a crime against humanity.Apologies on behalf of African nations, for their role intrading their countrymen into slavery, remain an open issuesince slavery was practiced in Africa even before the firstEuropeans arrived and the Atlantic slave trade wasperformed with a high degree of involvement of severalAfrican societies. My novel is about two African Americantwins who separated when young. One of the twins grew up
  • 6. Martinez 6as a slave in Virginia while the other younger twin was afree man in Pennsylvania. Until one day the twins reuniteand meet each other and get to like each other as brotherslike they always were. Then both of the twins wanted to goto war so they went until…. they had to do it so poor, thetwo twins passed away in war because they had to. They’remother was very sad because she had lost both of her kidsin the civil war. Slaves were not considered citizens inantebellum America. Before the fourteenth amendment tothe national constitution (July 28, 1868), blacks held nolegal rights in this country. Whites controlled politics, andused them to keep slaves and free blacks on a subordinatesocietal level. "Slaves had no head in the state, no name,title or register: nor could they take by purchase or descent;they had no heirs, and therefore could make no will:whatever they acquired was their masters: they could notplead nor be pleaded for, but were excluded from all civilconcerns whatsoever: they were not entitled to the rightsand considerations of matrimony, and, therefore, had norelief in the case of adultery: they could be sold, transferred,or pawned as goods of personal estate " . (December, 1662)ACT XII. "Negro women’s children to serve according to thecondition of the mother.” WHEREAS some doubts havearisen whether children got by any Englishman upon a negrowoman should be slave or free, Be it therefore enacted anddeclared by this present grand assembly, that all childrenborn in this country shall be held bond or free only accordingto the condition of the mother, And that if any Christian shall
  • 7. Martinez 7commit fornication with a negro man or woman, he or sheoffending shall pay double the fines imposed by the formeract" (Virginia Slave Laws, Virginia General Assembly).(October, 1669) Act 1 “An act about the causal killing ofslaves. WHEREAS the only law in force for the punishment ofrefractory servants resisting their master, mistress oroverseer cannot be inflicted upon negroes, nor the obstinacyof many of them by then violent means suppress, Be itenacted and declared by this grand assembly, if any slaveresist his master (or other by his masters order correctinghim) and by the extremity of the correction should chance todie, that his death shall not be accepted by felony, but themaster (or that other person appointed by the master topunish him) be acquit from molestation, since it cannot bepresumed that perpended malice (which alone makes furtherfelony) should induce any man to destroy his ownestate"(ibid.). These were some of the laws about slavery.1. Prop VI. " The slave, being personal chattel, is at alltimes liable to be sold absolutely, or mortgaged or leased, atthe will of his master" 2. Prop. XI "Slaves cannot redeemthemselves, nor obtain a change of masters, though crueltreatment may have rendered such change necessary fortheir personal safety"3. Prop. X. "Slaves being objects of property, if injured bythird persons, their owners, may bring suit, and recoverdamages for the injury.4.Prop. XI "Slaves can make no contract."
  • 8. Martinez 85. Prop. XII Slavery is hereditary and perpetual" (George M.Stroud, A sketch of the LawsRelating to Slavery, p. 88-89).