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ACADEMIC WRITING
AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY IN SOUTHFLORIDA
It is hard to believe vibrant African based cultures of the Cari...
The freedom the Maroons experienced was viewed as a direct threat against the whites. General
Andrew Jackson, the seventh ...
Miami from the North provided support for the black community. March 1959 marks the inaugural year
of the Miami branch of ...
Despite mounting evidence of a cover-up and having the future first woman Attorney General Janet Reno
as lead prosecutor, ...
Math
Algorithm is a procedure with detailed instructions and a definite end-state. A prime example of an
algorithm is a re...
Lunch Lady Lois at Miss Lovely’s School for Young Ladies surveyed the student population of 346 girls
to find which type o...
membership list. Several tribes including the Seminoles require an ancestor to be on the membership list
from the Dawes Co...
Writing
Maroons were freed black men that adopted many aspects of Seminole culture. The alliance between the
two groups wa...
6. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat
crackers. How many...
Crunchy 35
Creamy 173
Honey Roasted 123
Does not like any type 15
13. Using the table determine the mode of the peanut but...
21.
22.
23.
24.
Science
Genetic testing to establish biogeographical ancestry is controversial. In the case of the Seminol...
Students
Consider all the new things seen and information learned. How can you put this into words? Consider
what was your...
3. Estimate which component will be the greatest in volume.
4. Fill in the blanks with your best guess.
______ Roasted she...
12. What percentage of the students did not even like the taste?
The formula for the peanut butter recipe:
500 ml or 2 cup...
Nutella
Look at the original survey table. Assign the variable r for the girls who do not like peanut butter. Solve
the fo...
25. 200 = Honey Roasted + _______
26. 93= Creamy - ______
27. DNL = 173 - _____
Design four-word problems based on the sur...
The scientific issue at hand is whether or not genetic testing can overrule tribal law. Unless an ancestor
was on the Dawe...
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ACADEMIC WRITING Sample Joe

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ACADEMIC WRITING Sample Joe

  1. 1. ACADEMIC WRITING AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY IN SOUTHFLORIDA It is hard to believe vibrant African based cultures of the Caribbean were non-existent over two hundred years ago. These islands previously only hosted Native Americans and did not encounter Africans until the slave trade. The journey from Africa to Southern Florida and the Caribbean was riddled with historical atrocities. There was a new, disturbing way of life for the Africans. Slaves, particularly the Gullah and Igbo, would come to see Florida as a sanctuary. While the rest of the world saw the state as a potential goldmine, the victims of Diasporas saw a swampy maze in which they could escape. Miami would come to represent both hardships and hope for the Africans originally sold by their own people. A brief overview of African- American history in South Florida authenticates contributions and adversity encountered in Miami. The Spanish protected slave runaways as long as the former slaves fought for Spanish causes. Freedom was exchanged for fighting; most readily accepted this deal while some fled to Cuba and further uncertain futures. Some drowned seeking their freedom while others fell victim to the Everglades. Many refused the yoke of their masters and longed to be free again. Luckily, the displaced Africans and their progeny would encounter Native American allies in the process. Seminoles, like the Spanish, sought an association with the runaway slaves. This tribal group did not renounce their way of life to accommodate the white man and in return sympathized with the African plight. Whereas the Spanish had offered them only protection, the Seminoles wanted to share their way of life and give them the same freedoms the white man had wanted to take away from the tribesmen. These runaways would later be known as Maroons or free Blacks. In this union, Seminoles would gain important allies in the wilderness and the Maroons would secure freedom. Outsiders falsely labeled the Maroons as slaves of the chiefs; however,the relationship was more of landowner and tenant. Maroons had to pay dues to the chief in livestock or crops, but could elect their own leaders and carry weapons. It is estimated by 1822, 800 Blacks lived amongst the Seminoles. However,the Africans were never considered part of the tribe and any interracial offspring were not accepted as Native American. As a result of the cultural shifts, a melting pot of cultures comprised of African, Indian, Spanish and slave traditions began forming the new African identity. For example, the Africans ate Native American food, such as swamp cabbage,fry bread, and alligator. These foods had to be adopted in order to survive in the swamps. In addition to new foods, many practiced the Christian based faith of their owners. Lukumi from Cuba is a mix of Yoruba beliefs and Catholicism. Slaves were not allowed to practice their religion, so they masked their spirituality under the saints and Catholic rituals. Many of the African/slave languages blended into a pigeon language or patois. Creole is a modern example of a master’s tongue mixing with African speech. Africans still retained their culture despite having to enlist new survival methods from outsiders. But these outsiders also provided a new liberty for the Africans the right to bear arms, unthinkable in the Antebellum South. The Native American ordained self-defense autonomy instilled a great amount of fear in slaveholders, as an armed slave revolt was a reasonable concern.
  2. 2. The freedom the Maroons experienced was viewed as a direct threat against the whites. General Andrew Jackson, the seventh President from 1829-1837 targeted these multiracial communities in 1816. This was the start of the First Seminole War (1817-1818) and Jackson would carry on two more wars to claim the lands of the Native Americans and gave the Africans work on it. The Second Seminole War (1835-1842) was the peak of the Black-Seminole alliance. Whites had begun relocating the Seminoles to reservations in Oklahoma and Kansas. Africans deeply loathed losing their allies as much as the Native Americans hated losing their way of life. As retaliation, the Seminoles and Africans attacked plantations and freed Africans. In The Third Seminole War (1855-1858), slaves actively tried to be rescued during tribal attacks. Some historians have described these actions as the largest slave rebellion in American history. However,it was short-lived; in 1863 President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation theoretically ending slavery. However,the tradition of a displaced group helping the Africans continued through to the Civil Rights era. Although President Lincoln had outlawed slavery in 1862, southern states restructured their economies and constitutions a good bit later. In what was thought to be a transitional approach, black codes were created. These laws enacted in 1865 gave newly freed slaves the rights and privileges of second-rate citizens without the power to vote. Slave owners feared the loss of their labor force would render their plantations worthless. Many Southern whites feared Blacks would consider themselves their equals; therefore,black codes were composed to regulate the freedoms of the former slaves. Black Codes provided a legal avenue to ensure white supremacy; segregation was an open symbol of black inferiority. Adding to the tension, Southern landowners feared their plantations would perish since labor was no longer free or guaranteed. In 1866, the South had the staunchest resistors to equality and was put under military control to enforce the new civil liberties. However,there was an unspoken social system of discrimination and exclusion in the South. The segregation policy from 1876-1964 was called Jim Crow laws and varied from Black Codes as the codes regulated freedoms directly after the Civil War while the laws segregated the races in 1890. Failure to comply with these regulations resulted in fines and jail time. Many of these conventions were not openly challenged until the 1960’s with the Civil Rights Movement. Some examples of Florida’s Jim Crow laws include: 1. Intermarriage was prohibited. 2. Blacks and whites could not live under the same roof. 3. Each race would have a school. 4. Railroad cars would be segregated and any violators would be whipped. 5. The races could not swim together or use the same public facility. Miami is unique in the era of the Civil Rights. Tallahassee had support from the Florida State University students while Orlando counted on the city’s administration and concerned individuals. In the Tropical City, the Jewish community solely reached out to support the movement. An unlikely alliance formed as it had with the Seminoles, with another persecuted group. Many Jewish liberals who had migrated to
  3. 3. Miami from the North provided support for the black community. March 1959 marks the inaugural year of the Miami branch of C.O.R.E. or the Congress of Racial Equality. The alliance formed between Blacks and Jews to repealJim Crow laws. C.O.R.E expanded its numbers as it was involved in direct action protests that garnered media coverage. This took the form of interracial sit-ins at restaurants usually in crowded downtown areas. Blacks had separate lunch counters and it was against the law for them to sit in the white section. Some lunch counter protests lasted a few minutes while some lasted hours. This woke some members of the community, as many Miamians were complacent. Many non- Blacks were not aware of the need for civil liberties in their city nor had the desire for integration. The South had always been segregated without any challenges from the people. Blacks had enough tried to change social norms. The alliance illustrated the possible racial harmony that could be achieved through nonviolence. Many Jews were in distress after the Holocaust and some felt helping another group would heal their wounds as a community. Eventually, C.O.R.E. changed tactics and began voter registration drives and switching to higher profile sit-ins at department stores like Jordan Marsh, the premier store of its time rather than lunch counters. This also proved challenging as some stores reneged on their promises of desegregation and segregationists sometimes beat demonstrators before arresting them. C.O.R.E members had their lives threatened on a daily basis and accrued police records. After such well-documented events, the state recognized the need for a biracial commission to ensure civil liberties. Now Miami is an internationally integrated city having a substantial African, Jewish, American, European and Caribbean population within the city limits. The complex nature of the Civil Rights aftermath in Miami has been an interesting study. Colored Town was renamed Overtown after desegregation and went from boom to bust. The repeal of Jim Crow laws in the 1960’s meant Blacks could move past the wall of segregation and many chose to leave the historic neighborhood. Henry Flagler built Overtown, previously called Railroad Junction-Colored Town, for his railroad workers in the late 1890s. In the best interest of expanding Miami, the municipal government invested heavily in the neighborhoods with the result of a vibrant community emerging. This liveliness lasted up until the repeal of Jim Crow. There were internationally famous hotels, exotic food, and a sense of pride in their surroundings. Second Avenue was dubbed “Little Broadway” and grew to be a focal point within the vast Black communities. The repeal of Jim Crow laws in the 1960’s meant Blacks could move past the wall of segregation and many chose to leave the historic neighborhood. Overtown and Liberty City communities began to dwindle as famous clubs such as the Zebra Lounge located inside the historic Mary Elizabeth Hotel lost its luster and position as the epicenter of Black culture. An even more devastating blow in the early 1960s was the decision to tear through the historic community and justify building I-95. In spite of numerous protests, many in the Black community had to move out of their homes and continue their family history elsewhere. The 1970’s saw a failed attempt of urban renewal. The idea is to tear down dilapidated buildings and replace them with new ones. In what would come to characterize the city’s attitude towards the historic community, buildings were torn down, but not replaced. This came to be known as Miami’s urban removal policy. After decades of civil abuse, activists in Overtown and Liberty lashed out in civil disobedience harking back to the era of Civil Rights. Numerous incidents of disrespect and frustration led to widespread community defiance. The most famous was the McDuffie Riots. Four law enforcers beat an African-American former Marine turned insurance agent to the equivalent of dropping out of a four-story building in December 1979.
  4. 4. Despite mounting evidence of a cover-up and having the future first woman Attorney General Janet Reno as lead prosecutor, an all-white jury acquitted the police officers. Protests of the verdict in Liberty City, the Black Grove, Overtown and Brownsville quickly turned into riots. A deadly three-day rampage left 18 dead, 3,000 jobless, and 100 million in damages. The National Guard had to bring in to calm the city already under curfew. National news showcased the devastation and shocked the nation in its degree of ferocity. Motorists were dragged out of their cars and beaten; stores were looted, and police cars were torched. The effects can still be seen to this day in the form of numerous vacant lots where the proud Black community once stood. The message was clear; the black communities would not tolerate being callously disrespected in the city the built by their hands over a hundred years ago. If they could not be respected in their city, they would destroy it. Miami is now trying to reestablish vital communities. To counteract the years of hardship and neglect, city developers have made many promises to attract the middle-class with the pledge of affordable housing to the beleaguered neighborhoods of Miami-Dade. Overtown and Liberty City are the poorest neighborhoods in Miami and while they have been targeted for renewal, these promises have yet to be fulfilled. However,it is up to the residents of South Florida to revitalize these multi-cultural localities. Despite urban renewaland social unrest, many in the community believe in the resurrection of Overtown and the positive legacy of Black history in South Florida. Cross-Curriculum Activities for 6th grade Reading 1. What is the significance of Black History in Southern Florida? 2. How would you rephrase the significance of the Seminole-Maroon alliance? 3. What elements would you choose to change in urban renewal? 4. What is the relationship between Jews and Blacks in Miami? 5. Propose a detailed alternative to the affordable housing crisis. 6. Assess the value and importance of direct action protests. Writing Civil Rights changed many aspects of Miami culture. We can still see some of the effects today. Describe the legacy of the Civil Rights Era in Miami.
  5. 5. Math Algorithm is a procedure with detailed instructions and a definite end-state. A prime example of an algorithm is a recipe. The computations necessary to follow directions result in a culinary treat. Sequences and recording of the procedure uses logic to create the dish. A peanut butter recipe invented by George Washington Carver for patients who could not eat properly due to illness or dental obstacles will be followed. Each grade level will have a unique recipe. The ingredients for peanut butter are as follows: Roasted shell peanuts Peanut oil Salt 1. In groups of two or three decide which units of volume should be used (i.e. ounce) for measuring the ingredients. 2. Compose a list of volume units. 3. Estimate which component will be the greatest in volume. 4. Fill in the blanks with your best guess. ______ Roasted shellpeanuts ______Peanut oil ______Salt 5. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole- wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 36 people? 6. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole- wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 42 people? 7. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole- wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 72 people? 8. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole- wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 84 people?
  6. 6. Lunch Lady Lois at Miss Lovely’s School for Young Ladies surveyed the student population of 346 girls to find which type of peanut butter liked best. The table below shows the results. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite: Crunchy 35 Creamy 173 Honey Roasted 123 Does not like any type 15 9. What percentage of the students liked Creamy the best? One formula for percent is/of=%/100 10. What percentage of the students liked Crunchy the best? 11. What percentage of the students liked Honey Roasted the best? 12. What percentage of the students did not even like the taste? The formula for the peanut butter recipe: 500 ml or 2 cups of roasted shelled peanuts 1 tablespoon peanut oil .5 teaspoon of salt. Check your answers with your group. Science Genetic testing to establish biogeographical ancestry is controversial. In the case of the Seminoles, freedmen are trying to establish their ancestry through DNA testing to receive full benefits of tribal membership. It is surprising for any Native American sovereign nation be uninviting to an outside group. Historically, Native Americans have absorbed any group that has sought them out. Maroons identified with the Seminole culture, spoke the tribal language, and participated in religious rites yet they are not considered Seminole. Freedmen were labeled in the Dawes Act of 1887 that had been enacted to divide Native American common land into lots. The Seminoles were categorized as one of the Five Civilized Tribes, which meant they had adopted many of the white man’s ways. The Dawes Rolls was a membership list that was not entirely accurate. Due to the rushed nature of the survey, many were thought to be pureblood solely based on their appearance had their information taken down in one tent for documentation. Any person with African features was sent to another tent and excluded from the
  7. 7. membership list. Several tribes including the Seminoles require an ancestor to be on the membership list from the Dawes Commission. The scientific issue at hand is whether or not genetic testing can overrule tribal law. Unless an ancestor was on the Dawes Roll, a person is not considered a member of the tribe. The Seminoles are a self- regulating government. This means they pick their leaders and rules. The U.S. government can never take a sovereign nation to court. This political society has decreed its policy on membership and was unwilling to overrule this established criteria based on science. Many “purebloods” resent what they perceive as an attempt to collect government subsidiaries by outsiders. This issue is based on science and on the right for a sovereign nation to choose its members. Imagine you are a scientist trying to convince the Seminole Nation the value of genetic testing. In 100 words explain the pros and cons of the tests. How would you explain the validity of the freedmen’s claims to membership? Use any facts you can research on the topic. Post –Activities Teachers Invite students to draw pictures of the things they remembered or liked best from their visit. Students are free to add text to the pictures to create their own “Trip to Museum Book”. This is an actual recollection of their museum experience, or the students can create a collage. If time is short, then a single sheet of paper will suffice. Students Consider all the new things seen and information learned. How can you put this into words? Consider what was your favorite part? What new piece of information changed the way you thought about the world? Which images best represent your tour? Which words and ideas stood out the most? Cross- Curriculum Activities for 7th grade Reading 1. State and interpret in your words the meaning of racial equality. 2. Who were the main characters/groups in Miami’s Black History? 3. How would you show your understanding of the difficulties of slave runaway survival? 4. Analyze is the motive to preserve historic Black communities? 5. Suppose you could have spoken to Andrew Jackson before the Seminole Wars. What would you have said to prevent the advent of three Seminole Wars? 6. Would not have building I-95 have shaped Overtown and Liberty City differently?
  8. 8. Writing Maroons were freed black men that adopted many aspects of Seminole culture. The alliance between the two groups was a major concern for Andrew Jackson. How did Maroons emerge as a power during the Seminole Wars? Math Algorithm is a procedure with detailed instructions and a definite end-state. A prime example of an algorithm is a recipe. The computations necessary to follow directions result in a culinary treat. Sequences and recording of the procedure uses logic to create the dish. A peanut butter recipe invented by George Washington Carver for patients who could not eat properly due to illness or dental obstacles will be followed. Each grade level will have a unique recipe. Part 1. The ingredients for peanut butter are as follows: Roasted shell peanuts Peanut oil Salt 1. In groups of two or three decide which units of volume should be used (i.e. ounce) for measuring the ingredients. 2. Compose a list of volume units. 3. Estimate which component will be the greatest in volume. 4. Fill in the blanks with your best guess. ______ Roasted shellpeanuts ______Peanut oil ______Salt 5. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 36 people?
  9. 9. 6. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 42 people? 7. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 72 people? 8. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 84 people? Lunch Lady Lois at Miss Lovely’s School for Young Ladies surveyed the student population of 346 girls to find which type of peanut butter liked best. The table below shows the results. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite: Crunchy 35 Creamy 173 Honey Roasted 123 Does not like any type 15 9. What percentage of the students liked Creamy the best? One formula for percent is/of=%/100 10. What percentage of the students liked Crunchy the best? 11. What percentage of the students liked Honey Roasted the best? 12. What percentage of the students did not even like the taste? The formula for the peanut butter recipe: 500 ml or 2 cups of roasted shelled peanuts 1 tablespoon peanut oil .5 teaspoon of salt. Part II. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite:
  10. 10. Crunchy 35 Creamy 173 Honey Roasted 123 Does not like any type 15 13. Using the table determine the mode of the peanut butter selections. 14. Using the table determine the median of the peanut butter selections. 15. Using the table determine the mean of the peanut butter selections. 16. Lunch Lady Lois is adding Nutella, the European equivalent of peanut butter, to the table. Predict how the numbers would change. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite. Crunchy Creamy Honey Roasted Nutella Look at the original survey table. Assign the variable r for the girls who do not like peanut butter. Solve the following equations without a calculator. 17. r + _____ = 138 18. r + ______ = 50 19. r + ______ = 188 20. If there were 165 girls in the school and 75% preferred Nutella, then how much would r stand for? _______ Look at the survey table you created. Assign the variable r for the girls who prefer Nutella. Create equations and solve without a calculator.
  11. 11. 21. 22. 23. 24. Science Genetic testing to establish biogeographical ancestry is controversial. In the case of the Seminoles, freedmen are trying to establish their ancestry through DNA testing to receive full benefits of tribal membership. It is surprising for any Native American sovereign nation be uninviting to an outside group. Historically, Native Americans have absorbed any group that has sought them out. Maroons identified with the Seminole culture, spoke the tribal language, and participated in religious rites yet they are not considered Seminole. Freedmen were labeled in the Dawes Act of 1887 that had been enacted to divide Native American common land into lots. The Seminoles were categorized as one of the Five Civilized Tribes, which meant they had adopted many of the white man’s ways. The Dawes Rolls was a membership list that was not entirely accurate. Due to the rushed nature of the survey, many were thought to be pureblood solely based on their appearance had their information taken down in one tent for documentation. Any person with African features was sent to another tent and excluded from the membership list. Several tribes including the Seminoles require an ancestor to be on the membership list from the Dawes Commission. The scientific issue at hand is whether or not genetic testing can overrule tribal law. Unless an ancestor was on the Dawes Roll, a person is not considered a member of the tribe. The Seminoles are a self- regulating government. This means they pick their leaders and rules. The U.S. government can never take a sovereign nation to court. This political society has decreed its policy on membership and was unwilling to overrule this established criteria based on science. Many “purebloods” resent what they perceive as an attempt to collect government subsidiaries by outsiders. This issue is based on science and on the right for a sovereign nation to choose its members. Imagine you are a scientist trying to convince the Seminole Nation the value of genetic testing. In 200 words explain the pros and cons of the tests. How would you explain the validity of the freedmen’s claims to membership? Use any facts you can research on the topic. Post –Activities Teachers Invite students to draw pictures of the things they remembered or liked best from their visit. Students are free to add text to the pictures to create their own “Trip to Museum Book”. This is an actual recollection of their museum experience, or the students can create a collage. If time is short, then a single sheet of paper will suffice.
  12. 12. Students Consider all the new things seen and information learned. How can you put this into words? Consider what was your favorite part? What new piece of information changed the way you thought about the world? Which images best represent your tour? Which words and ideas stood out the most? Cross- Curriculum Activities for 8th grade Reading 1. Why did the city build I-95? What were the projected benefits? 2. How would you contrast the roles of the Seminoles and the Jews in Miami’s Black History? 3. How would you compare the roles of the Seminoles and the Jews in Miami’s Black History? 4. What evidence can you uncover that the city is working towards affordable housing for all Miamians. 5. Design a direct-action protest. 6. Why was it beneficial for other misplaced groups to fight for Black civil liberties? Writing C.O.R.E. targeted crowded public places. It would be years however before a black man and a white woman could be in previously segregated eateries. Write a letter to a 1950’s department store urging the inclusion all races and genders at the white male only lunch counters. Math Algorithm is a procedure with detailed instructions and a definite end-state. A prime example of an algorithm is a recipe. The computations necessary to follow directions result in a culinary treat. Sequences and recording of the procedure uses logic to create the dish. A peanut butter recipe invented by George Washington Carver for patients who could not eat properly due to illness or dental obstacles will be followed. Each grade level will have a unique recipe. Part 1. The ingredients for peanut butter are as follows: Roasted shell peanuts Peanut oil Salt 1. In groups of two or three decide which units of volume should be used (i.e. ounce) for measuring the ingredients. 2. Compose a list of volume units.
  13. 13. 3. Estimate which component will be the greatest in volume. 4. Fill in the blanks with your best guess. ______ Roasted shellpeanuts ______Peanut oil ______Salt 5. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 36 people? 6. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 42 people? 7. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 72 people? 8. This recipe makes 1 cup or 250 ml of creamy peanut butter serves 6 people on 2 stacks of whole-wheat crackers. How many cups of peanut butter would serve 84 people? Lunch Lady Lois at Miss Lovely’s School for Young Ladies surveyed the student population of 346 girls to find which type of peanut butter liked best. The table below shows the results. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite: Crunchy 35 Creamy 173 Honey Roasted 123 Does not like any type 15 9. What percentage of the students liked Creamy the best? One formula for percent is/of=%/100 10. What percentage of the students liked Crunchy the best? 11. What percentage of the students liked Honey Roasted the best?
  14. 14. 12. What percentage of the students did not even like the taste? The formula for the peanut butter recipe: 500 ml or 2 cups of roasted shelled peanuts 1 tablespoon peanut oil .5 teaspoon of salt. Part II. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite: Crunchy 35 Creamy 173 Honey Roasted 123 Does not like any type 15 13. Using the table determine the mode of the peanut butter selections. 14. Using the table determine the median of the peanut butter selections. 15. Using the table determine the mean of the peanut butter selections. 16. Lunch Lady Lois is adding Nutella, the European equivalent of peanut butter, to the table. Predict how the numbers would change. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite. Crunchy Creamy Honey Roasted
  15. 15. Nutella Look at the original survey table. Assign the variable r for the girls who do not like peanut butter. Solve the following equations without a calculator. 17. r + _____ = 138 18. r + ______ = 50 19. r + ______ = 188 20. If there were 165 girls in the school and 75% preferred Nutella, then how much would r stand for? _______ Look at the survey table you created. Assign the variable r for the girls who prefer Nutella. Create equations and solve without a calculator. 21. 22. 23. Part III. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite. Crunchy 35 Creamy 173 Honey Roasted 123 Does not like any type 15 24. 60=Crunchy +______
  16. 16. 25. 200 = Honey Roasted + _______ 26. 93= Creamy - ______ 27. DNL = 173 - _____ Design four-word problems based on the survey table. 28. If ______________________,then ___________________________? 21. If ______________________,then ___________________________? 22. If ______________________,then ___________________________? 23. If ______________________,then ___________________________? Complete the following table. Remember the school is comprised of 346 young ladies. Peanut Butter Selections Number of girls picking the type as their favorite Decimals Percentages Crunchy 35 Creamy 173 Honey Roasted 123 Does not like any type 15 Science Genetic testing to establish biogeographical ancestry is controversial. In the case of the Seminoles, freedmen are trying to establish their ancestry through DNA testing to receive full benefits of tribal membership. It is surprising for any Native American sovereign nation be uninviting to an outside group. Historically, Native Americans have absorbed any group that has sought them out. Maroons identified with the Seminole culture, spoke the tribal language, and participated in religious rites yet they are not considered Seminole. Freedmen were labeled in the Dawes Act of 1887 that had been enacted to divide Native American common land into lots. The Seminoles were categorized as one of the Five Civilized Tribes, which meant they had adopted many of the white man’s ways. The Dawes Rolls was a membership list that was not entirely accurate. Due to the rushed nature of the survey, many were thought to be pureblood solely based on their appearance had their information taken down in one tent for documentation. Any person with African features was sent to another tent and excluded from the membership list. Several tribes including the Seminoles require an ancestor to be on the membership list from the Dawes Commission.
  17. 17. The scientific issue at hand is whether or not genetic testing can overrule tribal law. Unless an ancestor was on the Dawes Roll, a person is not considered a member of the tribe. The Seminoles are a self- regulating government. This means they pick their leaders and rules. The U.S. government can never take a sovereign nation to court. This political society has decreed its policy on membership and was unwilling to overrule this established criteria based on science. Many “purebloods” resent what they perceive as an attempt to collect government subsidiaries by outsiders. This issue is based on science and on the right for a sovereign nation to choose its members. Imagine you are a scientist trying to convince the Seminole Nation the value of genetic testing. In 250 words explain the pros and cons of the tests. How would you explain the validity of the freedmen’s claims to membership? Use any facts you can research on this topic. Post –Activities Teachers Invite students to draw pictures of the things they remembered or liked best from their visit. Students are free to add text to the pictures to create their own “Trip to Museum Book”. This is an actual recollection of their museum experience, or the students can create a collage. If time is short, then a single sheet of paper will suffice. Students Consider all the new things seen and information learned. How can you put this into words? Consider what was your favorite part? What new piece of information changed the way you thought about the world? Which images best represent your tour? Which words and ideas stood out the most?

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