Input Models, data Output integration, analysis Wind speed Burned area vs Monthly Severity Rating in EUMed Fire Danger Forecast (June to October 1985-2005) Fine Fuel Moisture Duff Moisture Drought Code 500,000 Code (FFMC) Code (DMC) (DC) 450,000 y = 2199.1e0.4099x R2 = 0.7551 M o n th ly b u r n e d a r e a (h a ) 400,000 Remote 350,000 300,000 BUILD UP 250,000 INITIAL SPREAD sensing INDEX (ISI) INDEX (BUI) 200,000 150,000 Active Fire Detection 100,000 50,000 - FIRE WEATHER INDEX 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 (FWI) MSR Weather Fire Monitoring forecast Av burned area (m2) Pre-fire Stage fire Damage Assessment Post-fire Stage Bv biomass (g m-2) Geo-datasets Fire Emissions CO2 = ∑Av × Bv × C × Ev C burning efficiency (g g-1) v Post-fire Soil Erosion Regional estimates Data Databases Data of CO2 emissionsData Evemission coefficient for CO2 EU Fire Database WEB mapping interface (http://effis.jrc.ec.europa.eu)
EFFIS on-going developmentsFollowing the European Parliament Resolution of Sept. 2006 for thefurther development of the European Forest Fire Information System(EFFIS) 1. EFFIS rapid damage assessment (RDA) and damage assessment (DA) further development of the existing system; 2. Development of a fuel map of Europe 3. Forest fire causes determination and harmonization 4. Economic and social impacts of forest fires 5. Estimation of forest fire emissions and smoke dispersion modeling 3 million EUR and duration of 40 months Budget of
Fuel characterization • Landscape • Stand • Groups • Individuals • Particles • Cells
Fuel Mapping challengesFuel classificationFuel recognitionFuel mapping• High variability in time and space• High cost of direct fuel measurements• Vertical stratification of fuels• Stand history• Fuel models
Fuel Characteristic Classification SystemSandberg et al. 2007 http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/fera/jfsp/fcc/
Approaches to fuel mapping1. Field survey2. Direct fuel mapping with remote sensing3. Indirect fuel mapping with remote sensing4. Biophysical modeling and environmental gradients(Keane et al. 2001)
Fuel mapping context• Scale Continental, National, Regional, Local• Application Fire behavior, fire potential, fire emissions, carbon budget, fuel management, fire effects, ecosystem modeling…• Users fire managers, researchers, policy makers, systems
Fuel map of EuropeBasic requirements Fuel classification scheme suited to the European environments Fuel classes to fit the coarse scale and the heterogeneity of the European landscapes. Tool to support different assessments to be made at EU scale, through specific EFFIS modules: • fire potential (fire danger and fire risk mapping), • fire effects • fire emissions • biomass consumption. Baseline for initiating a novel system of classification of fuel complexes in Europe.
Land Use‐Land Ecoregions Potential Vegetation Cover Select “Wildland Fuels” Potential Wildland Vegetation Fuels Types (PVT) FUEL Level 1 Classification rulesMethod and main FUEL Level 2 (Fuel Complexes) Actual vegetation: conflicts & validationdata processing Fireflow for the Fuel ParametersMap of Europe FUEL Level 3 (Fuel Types)
Step 1 (Fuel Level 1):To define the basic set of vegetation land‐cover types by ecoregion FL1a FL1b Ecoregions 12 Environmental Zones ( Land Use‐Land Cover (Metzger et al. 2005) CORINE 2000 (250 m) (EEA, 2002) + + 3 Biogeographical Regions Map of Europe MGC‐MERIS (250 m) (Switzerland) (ESA, 2006) (Turkey, Cypruss) (Roekaerts 2002) Vegetation land‐cover types FUEL LEVEL 1
Environmental Stratification of Europe (Metzger et al. 2005) 15 Eco‐regionsBiogeographical Regions Map of Europe (Roekaerts et al. 2002)
FL1b MAPOutput of FL1: Wildland fire spatial domain and main fuel categories Pastures/ grasslands, sparsely vegetated areas, moors & heaths, sclerophyllous vegt., transitional woodlands, forests (broadleaved, coniferous, mixed), agroforestry areas, marshes, peatbogs.
Step 2 (Fuel Level 2):To define Fuel Complexes (FC) by Potential Vegetation Types (PVT)combining FL1 Wildland fuels with BOHN (2000/2003) COUNCIL MAP (1987) detailed information on Potential (Anatolian Peninsula, Cyprus)Vegetation Types RIVAS‐MARTINEZ (1987) MAP (Canary Islands, Spain) Reclassification criteria: FL1 ‐ Physignomy Wildland Fuels (WF) ‐ Structure:vertical strata by Ecoregion ‐ Species composition 101 Potential Wildland Vegetation Fuels Types (PVT) Overlay CLASSIFICATION RULES: Expert opinion, CLC, Bohn’s substitute FUEL Level 2 communities Extended FC list
Initial foreseen usage of the fuel mapin EFFIS• Improve fire danger assessment• Feed the new EFFIS fire emission and atmospheric dispersion module• Input into long term fire risk map of Europe• Study on climate change impact on forest fires
ConclusionsFuel mapping is a challenging exercise, highly dependent upon the context and objectivesThe Fuel Map of Europe has been developed with a method adapted to the coarse scale and the intended use of the productThe Fuel Types identified can constitute a baseline for future applications. Work is still on going to assess quantitative properties of fuel typesFuel maps developed at finer scales may consider the reference fuel classification scheme but should follow methodologies focused on the local application