01.camia fuel map of europe


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01.camia fuel map of europe

  1. 1. Fuel type map of Europe: JRC approachand current development Andrea Camia, EC Joint Research CentreForest Fires 2012New Forest, UK 22-24 May 2012
  2. 2. Outline• Background (EFFIS)• Wildland fuels• Fuel mapping• Method and current development of the Fuel Map of Europe• Conclusions
  3. 3. European Forest Fire Information System
  4. 4. Input Models, data Output integration, analysis Wind speed Burned area vs Monthly Severity Rating in EUMed Fire Danger Forecast (June to October 1985-2005) Fine Fuel Moisture Duff Moisture Drought Code 500,000 Code (FFMC) Code (DMC) (DC) 450,000 y = 2199.1e0.4099x R2 = 0.7551 M o n th ly b u r n e d a r e a (h a ) 400,000 Remote 350,000 300,000 BUILD UP 250,000 INITIAL SPREAD sensing INDEX (ISI) INDEX (BUI) 200,000 150,000 Active Fire Detection 100,000 50,000 - FIRE WEATHER INDEX 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 (FWI) MSR Weather Fire Monitoring forecast Av burned area (m2) Pre-fire Stage fire Damage Assessment Post-fire Stage Bv biomass (g m-2) Geo-datasets Fire Emissions CO2 = ∑Av × Bv × C × Ev C burning efficiency (g g-1) v Post-fire Soil Erosion Regional estimates Data Databases Data of CO2 emissionsData Evemission coefficient for CO2 EU Fire Database WEB mapping interface (http://effis.jrc.ec.europa.eu)
  5. 5. 30 May 2012 5
  6. 6. EFFIS on-going developmentsFollowing the European Parliament Resolution of Sept. 2006 for thefurther development of the European Forest Fire Information System(EFFIS) 1. EFFIS rapid damage assessment (RDA) and damage assessment (DA) further development of the existing system; 2. Development of a fuel map of Europe 3. Forest fire causes determination and harmonization 4. Economic and social impacts of forest fires 5. Estimation of forest fire emissions and smoke dispersion modeling 3 million EUR and duration of 40 months Budget of
  7. 7. Wildland fuels•Crown fuels Foliage, branches, Aerial lichens, mosses•Surface fuels Shrubs, Herbs Litter, Slash•Ground fuels duffPhysical properties: load, particle size, bulk density, S/V ratio, depth…
  8. 8. Fuel characterization • Landscape • Stand • Groups • Individuals • Particles • Cells
  9. 9. Fuel Mapping challengesFuel classificationFuel recognitionFuel mapping• High variability in time and space• High cost of direct fuel measurements• Vertical stratification of fuels• Stand history• Fuel models
  10. 10. Fuel Characteristic Classification SystemSandberg et al. 2007 http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/fera/jfsp/fcc/
  11. 11. Approaches to fuel mapping1. Field survey2. Direct fuel mapping with remote sensing3. Indirect fuel mapping with remote sensing4. Biophysical modeling and environmental gradients(Keane et al. 2001)
  12. 12. Fuel mapping context• Scale Continental, National, Regional, Local• Application Fire behavior, fire potential, fire emissions, carbon budget, fuel management, fire effects, ecosystem modeling…• Users fire managers, researchers, policy makers, systems
  13. 13. Fuel map of EuropeBasic requirements Fuel classification scheme suited to the European environments Fuel classes to fit the coarse scale and the heterogeneity of the European landscapes. Tool to support different assessments to be made at EU scale, through specific EFFIS modules: • fire potential (fire danger and fire risk mapping), • fire effects • fire emissions • biomass consumption. Baseline for initiating a novel system of classification of fuel complexes in Europe.
  14. 14. Land Use‐Land Ecoregions Potential Vegetation Cover Select “Wildland Fuels” Potential Wildland Vegetation Fuels Types (PVT) FUEL  Level 1  Classification rulesMethod and main  FUEL Level 2 (Fuel Complexes) Actual vegetation:  conflicts & validationdata processing  Fireflow for the Fuel  ParametersMap of Europe FUEL Level 3 (Fuel Types)
  15. 15. Step 1 (Fuel Level 1):To define the basic set of vegetation land‐cover types by ecoregion FL1a FL1b Ecoregions 12 Environmental Zones ( Land Use‐Land Cover (Metzger et al. 2005) CORINE 2000 (250 m) (EEA, 2002) + + 3 Biogeographical Regions Map of Europe MGC‐MERIS (250 m) (Switzerland) (ESA, 2006) (Turkey, Cypruss) (Roekaerts 2002) Vegetation land‐cover types FUEL LEVEL 1
  16. 16. Environmental Stratification of Europe (Metzger et al. 2005) 15 Eco‐regionsBiogeographical Regions Map of Europe (Roekaerts et al. 2002)
  17. 17. FL1b MAPOutput of FL1: Wildland fire spatial domain and main fuel categories Pastures/ grasslands,  sparsely vegetated areas,  moors & heaths,  sclerophyllous vegt.,  transitional woodlands,  forests (broadleaved,  coniferous, mixed),  agroforestry areas,  marshes, peatbogs.
  18. 18. Step 2 (Fuel Level 2):To define Fuel Complexes (FC) by  Potential Vegetation Types (PVT)combining FL1 Wildland fuels with  BOHN (2000/2003) COUNCIL MAP (1987) detailed information on Potential  (Anatolian Peninsula, Cyprus)Vegetation Types RIVAS‐MARTINEZ (1987) MAP  (Canary Islands, Spain) Reclassification criteria: FL1 ‐ Physignomy Wildland Fuels (WF) ‐ Structure:vertical strata by Ecoregion ‐ Species composition 101 Potential Wildland Vegetation Fuels Types (PVT) Overlay CLASSIFICATION RULES:  Expert opinion, CLC,  Bohn’s substitute  FUEL Level 2 communities Extended FC list
  19. 19. Vegetation succession
  20. 20. 101 PVT relevant for fuel characterization
  21. 21. Reclassification of PVTs relevant for fireExample: Baetic Quercus ilex woodlands (S Spain) (Bohn et al. 2000/03)
  22. 22. Land Use‐Land Ecoregions Potential Vegetation Cover Select “Wildland Fuels” Potential Wildland Vegetation Fuels Types (PVT) FUEL  Level 1  Classification rulesOutput of  Fuel Level 2:  FUEL Level 2 Actual vegetation:  (Fuel Complexes) conflicts & validation209 Fuel Complexes (FC) Fire Parameters FUEL Level 3 (Fuel Types)
  23. 23. Fuel types of Europe42 Fuel types in 9 groups:1. Peat bogs (2)2. Grasslands (4)3. Shrublands (6)4. Transitional Shrubland/Forest (7)5. Conifer forests (9)6. Broadleaved forests (6)7. Mixed forests (4)8. Marshes, riparial and coastal vegetation (3)9. Agro-forestry areas (1)
  24. 24. Grassland fuel types 3 Pastures 4 Sparse grasslands 5 Mediterranean grasslands and steppes 6 Temperate, Alpine and Northern grasslands
  25. 25. Shrubland fuel types 7 Mediterranean moors and heathlands 8 Temperate, Alpine and Northern moors and heathlands 9 Mediterranean open shrublands (sclerophylous) 10 Mediterranean shrublands (sclerophylous) 11 Deciduous broadleaved shrublands (thermophilous) 12 Alpine open shrublands (conifers)
  26. 26. Shrubland fuel types 7 Mediterranean moors and heathlands 8 Temperate, Alpine and Northern moors and heathlands 9 Mediterranean open shrublands (sclerophylous) 10 Mediterranean shrublands (sclerophylous) 2010 Thermo‐Mediterranean xerophilous shrublands  2013 Palm (Phoenix theophrasti) alluvial shrublands  11 Deciduous broadleaved shrublands (thermophilous) 2018 Anatolian and aegean Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana shrublands  12 Alpine open shrublands (conifers) 2021 Juniperus thurifera open Mediterranean shrublands  2022 Montane presteppe Juniperus excelsa shrublands  2027 Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica shrublands (partially with Sorbus spp., Acer spp.)  2028 Quercus pyrenaica‐ Quercus ilex shrublands  2029 Quercus canariensis shrublands  2030 Quercus trojana shrublands  2012 Mediterranean shrublands dominated by Quercus coccifera  2033 Luso‐extremadurian Quercus ilex open shrublands  2034 South Iberian Quercus ilex shrublands  2037 Quercus suber shrublands  2038 Quercus alnifolia shrublands 
  27. 27. Shrubland fuel types 7 Mediterranean moors and heathlands 8 Temperate, Alpine and Northern moors and heathlands 9 Mediterranean open shrublands (sclerophylous) 10 Mediterranean shrublands (sclerophylous) 2019 11 Deciduous broadleaved shrublands (thermophilous) Mediterranean Pinus brutia shrublands  2011 Mediterranean coastal shrublands (Ceratonia spp., Juniperus spp.)  12 Alpine open shrublands (conifers) 2031 Mediterranenan coastal Quercus ilex shrublands  2032 Central Iberian Quercus ilex shrublands  2035 East Iberian Quercus ilex shrublands  2036 South east european Quercus ilex shrublands  2039 Wild olive tree (Olea europaea) shrublands 
  28. 28. Transitional shrubland/forest fuel types 13 Shrublands in Mediterranean conifer forests 14 Shrublands in Mediterranean sclerophylous forests 15 Shrublands in Mediterranean montane conifer forests 16 Shrublands in thermophilous broadleaved forests 17 Shrublands in beech and mesophytic broadleaved forests 18 Northern open shrublands in broadleaved forests 19 Shrublands in Alpine and Northern conifer forests
  29. 29. Conifer forest fuel types 20 Mediterranean long needled conifer forest (mediterranean pines) 21 Mediterranean scale‐needled open woodlands (juniperus, cupressus) 22 Mediterranean montane long needled conifer forest (black and scots pines) 23 Mediterranean montane short needled conifer forest (firs, cedar) 24 Temperate conifer pantation 25 Alpine long needled conifer forest (pines) 26 Alpine short needled conifer forest (fir, alp. spruce) 27 Northern long needled conifer forest (scots pine) 28 Northern short needled conifer forest (spruce)
  30. 30. Broadleaved forest fuel types 29 Mediterranean evergreen broadleaved forest 30 Thermophilous broadleaved forest 31 Mesophytic broadleaved forest 32 Beech forest 33 Montane beech forest  34 White birch boreal forest
  31. 31. Mixed forest fuel types 35 Mixed mediterranean evergreen broadleaved with conifers forest 36 Mixed thermophylous broadleaved with conifers forest 37 Mixed mesophytic broadleaved with conifers forest 38 Mixed beech with conifers forest
  32. 32. Aquatic vegetation fuel types 39 Riparian vegetation 40 Coastal and inland halophytic vegetation and dunes 41 Aquatic MarshesAgro-forestry areas fuel types 42 Agro‐forestry areasPeat bogs fuel types 1 Peat bogs  2 Wooded peatbogs
  33. 33. Initial foreseen usage of the fuel mapin EFFIS• Improve fire danger assessment• Feed the new EFFIS fire emission and atmospheric dispersion module• Input into long term fire risk map of Europe• Study on climate change impact on forest fires
  34. 34. ConclusionsFuel mapping is a challenging exercise, highly dependent upon the context and objectivesThe Fuel Map of Europe has been developed with a method adapted to the coarse scale and the intended use of the productThe Fuel Types identified can constitute a baseline for future applications. Work is still on going to assess quantitative properties of fuel typesFuel maps developed at finer scales may consider the reference fuel classification scheme but should follow methodologies focused on the local application