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Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)
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Paper Turing Machine (ICALT 2011)

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Programming Turing Machines as a Game for Technology Sense-Making …

Programming Turing Machines as a Game for Technology Sense-Making

To gain a better understanding of the process through which technology users become technology creators, we designed a paper-based, tangible Turing Machine and introduced it to 54 teenage students. The information collected through tinkering tasks and a questionnaire is discussed both via statistics and qualitative analysis. This initial study suggests that simple paper tangibles and tinkering have a place in future, technology-enhanced learning, and that central technological concepts can be discussed on the basis of low-cost tabletop-like games. We also notice a general interest in the historical development of technologies, that seems to enhance motivation and participation.

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  • 1. Programming Turing Machines as a game for technology sense-makingAndrea Valente Emanuela MarchettiDepartment of Architecture, Design Institute for Learning and Philosophyand Media Technology Aalborg University Esbjerg, Denmarkav@create.aau.dk ema@create.aau.dkhttp://www.create.aau.dk/av/ http://personprofil.aau.dk/profil/123867
  • 2. Our goal● Observe transition from (technology) user to creator ● How do users (and creators) make sense of their technology? Differences? Perception of self?● How? ● as a game ? ● by programming (but how?) ● ask/observe circa sense-making● Who? ● pre-university students
  • 3. Paper Turing MachinesProgramming, but...- tangible- symbols are all that counts- program is a card- manual execution
  • 4. Test (and demo)● Lets see what we did... and you can participate too!1) presentation of computation and computing machines Hilberts decision problems as motivation for TMs2) play/program, by solving given tasks, with a tangible TM● ... demo ...● Method: observation, then questionnaires
  • 5. DEMO Invert and       if write move jumpTo if write move jumpTo TASK Design and test a TM for this if write problem. move jumpTo Consider: input = 1101 in binary, output = 0010
  • 6. 54/41 = test/questionnaire Quantitative Girls/Boys Prog/Never Tech/Hum Red/Struct/Emp
  • 7. Red/Struct/Emp● Actual question asked:● You are studing a complex thing (example: the human brain). Your position is: 1) all I need to do is to study very well the components (example: neurons) 2) the most important thing is the interaction among components 3) no matter what I do, I will only get a partial understanding● Definitions:● Reductionism ... analyzing and describing a complex phenomenon ... in terms of phenomena that are held to represent a simpler or more fundamental level [google dictionary]● Structuralism ... focuses on relationships of contrast between elements in a conceptual system [google dictionary]● Empiricists assume obtaining a complete knowledge of the world is not possible, but fortunately it is also not needed in order to predict and even control the behavior of complex phenomena [Gödel, Escher and Bach]
  • 8. Quantitative Tech Hum HumBlank Blank Prog NeverProg TechProg in % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Never Tech HumNone Hum None Reduct StructRed Tech Empiric in %Struct 0 10 20 30 40 50 60Emp
  • 9. QualitativeObservations:● Tinkering helps – low-fi can works just fine!● For some, easier to alter the formalism (creative/cheating)● Curiosity, pride, positive response to challenge● Social interaction: coaching/leading emerged in groups● History matters ● Babbage, Hilbert and Turing● Elicitation of discussion by Sydney Padua
  • 10. Conclusions and future work● In just 2 hours the visiting students learned about TMs, decision problems, and could work with programming tasks.● Technically inclined individuals tend to agree with reductionist positions and are more likely to have experienced programming before university.● Humanities inclined students instead are more frequently empiricists and might find technical subjects more attracting if historically contextualized.● Technical skills like programming, which originated from rationalism might appeal more naturally to reductionist individuals.● Historical grounding interests all and possibly motivates also HUMs.● Digital immigrants (me), digital natives (my daughter)... digital authors? (script kid)● New tasks and a more playful PTM is under development (turn-based!)
  • 11.      Inv if write  move jumpTo Inv if  write move    SOLUTION jumpTo Inv if  write       move jumpTo F             Finish
  • 12. Article● Programming Turing Machines as a Game for Technology Sense-Making http://secure3.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/icalt/2011/4346/00/4346a428- abs.html

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