A Project Report<br />ON<br />A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS <br />AT HCL.<br /> With Reference to<br /> BY<br /> Amit Kumar Mishra.<br />Hall ticket no. - 217009672057<br />(2009 – 2011)<br />Project submitted in partial fulfilment or the award of the Degree of<br />MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION.<br /> DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT<br />OSMANIA UNIVERSITY.<br />HYDERABAD - 500007<br /> PREFACE<br />The MBA programme is well structured and integrated course of business studies. The main objective of practical training at MBA level is to develop skill in student by supplement to the theoretical study of business management in general. Industrial training helps to gain real life knowledge about the industrial environment and business practices. The MBA programme provides student with a fundamental knowledge of business and organizational functions and activities, as well as an exposure to strategic thinking of management.<br />In every professional course, training is an important factor. Professors give us theoretical knowledge of various subjects in the college but we are practically exposed of such subjects when we get the training in the organization. It is only the training through which I come to know that what an industry is and how it works. Training is an integral part of MBA and each and every student has to undergo the training for 2 months in a company and then prepare a project report on the same after the completion of training. <br />During this whole training I got a lot of experience and came to know about the management practices in real that how it differs from those of theoretical knowledge and the practically in the real life. <br />In today’s globalize world, where cutthroat competition is prevailing in the market, theoretical knowledge is not sufficient. Beside this one need to have practical knowledge, which would help an individual in his/her carrier activities and it is true that-<br />“Experience is the best teacher”.<br />ANNEXURE – I <br />DECLARATION<br />I hereby declare that this Project Report titled<br />TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT submitted by me to the Department of Business Management, O.U., Hyderabad, is a bonafide work undertaken by me and it is not submitted to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree diploma / certificate or published any time before.<br /> <br />Name and Address of the Student Signature of the Student<br /> <br /> Amit Kumar Mishra.<br /> ANNEXURE – II<br />CERTIFICATION<br />This is to certify that the Project Report title <br />TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of MBA Programme of Department of Business Management, O.U. Hyderabad, was carried out by Amit kumar mishra under my guidance. This has not been submitted to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree/diploma/certificate.<br />Name and address of the Guide<br /> Proff R. Jabez.<br /> ACKNOWLEDGEMENT<br />With immense pleasure, I would like to present this project report for Hcl Infinet Ltd. It has been an enriching experience for me to undergo my summer training at HCL, which would not have possible without the goodwill and support of the people around. As a student of Vishwa vishwani institute of system and management I would like to express my sincere thanks to all those who helped me during my practical training program.<br />Words are insufficient to express my gratitude toward Mr. Sumeet chibber the HR head, Ms. Nisha bajaj the Sr. HR Executive, Ms. Deepti Mishra and company Guide and Associate professor R .Jabez<br />And It gives me a great pleasure to express my sincere thanks to my principal Mr. Mohan Rao for giving me an opportunity to complete my Executive Training successfully in HCL INFINET LTD.<br />My heartfelt thanks go to all who helped me to gain knowledge about the actual working and the processes involved in various departments.<br />However, I accept the sole responsibility for any possible error of omission and would be extremely grateful to the readers of this project report if they bring such mistakes to my notice.<br /> <br /> Thanking You<br /> Amit Kumar Mishra <br /> R-No. 217009672057 <br /> <br /> TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />CHAPTER No. CONTENTS PAGE No. 1. ( I ) Introduction 7-8 (ii) Scope & Objectives 9-11(iii) Purpose and Nature of the study 11-12(iv) Traditional & modern approaches 13-14(v) Training process & methods 14-20 2.(i) Research Methodology 23-24(ii) Data collection 25 3. (i) Company Overview 26-30 (ii) Industry overview 31-40 (iii) Literature review 44-45 4.(i) Data Analysis 46-51(ii) Graphs and figures 52-56 (iii) Limitations & Conclusion 57-58 5.(i) Findings 59 (ii) questioners 60-62(iii) Bibliography 63<br /> CHAPTER -1<br /> INTRODUCTION<br /> <br />INTRODUCTION.<br />Employee training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities. However individual growth is not and ends in itself. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth. Training refers to the teaching /learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities, and attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. In today’s scenario change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is to learn and grow. Employees have become central to success or failure of an organization they are the cornucopia of ideas. So it high time the organization realize that “train and retain is the mantra of new millennium.”<br />TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT. <br />Q) Meaning and Definition Training and development refer to the imparting to specific skills’ ability and knowledge to an employee. <br />A formal definition of training and development is: “It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitudes or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.”Development refers “to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes, which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management development programmes, are generally voluntary.”<br />SCOPE OF THE STUDY.<br />The scope of the study covers in depth, the various training practices, modules, formats being followed and is limited to the company Reliance Money and its employees. The different training programmes incorporated/facilitated in Reliance Money through its faculties, outside agencies or professional groups. It also judges the enhancement of the knowledge & skills of employees and feedback on its effectiveness.<br /> AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT<br />The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. <br />The objectives of training are:<br />
Personal growth: Training programmes also deal with personality development of the employees (through goal setting, motivation, leadership skills, etc.) thus they personally gain through exposure to training programmes.
Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance;
Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within;
Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible.
Improves quality: Better-informed workers are likely to make less operational mistakes. Quality of products or services will definitely increase. This can be well measured through the reduction in rejections.
Designer<br /> <br /> Trainer Trainee Beneficiaries of training objectives<br /> Evaluator<br /> Fig1. Training Objectives<br />In addition to that, there are four other objectives: <br />
Ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.
Purpose of Training and Development in an organization.<br />Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include Creating pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization.<br />• Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology<br /> because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff.<br />• Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which<br /> enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee morale.<br />• Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.<br /> Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from <br /> training and developing its workers, including: Increased productivity.<br />• Reduced employee turnover.<br />• Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains.<br />• Decreased need for supervision.<br />NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT<br />In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows:<br />Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance.<br />We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms.<br />PLACE OF THE STUDY.<br /> The study was conducted in Twin City.<br />
TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING ANDDEVLOPMENT.Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. Modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.<br /> Fig 2. Training Process.<br /> THE TRAINING PROCESS.<br />(1) ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES:<br />The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources.(2) ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS:<br />Organizations spend vast sums of money on training and development. Before committing such huge resources, organizations would do well to assess the training needs of the employees. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. <br />Needs assessment occurs at two levels:<br />a) Individual b) GroupIndividual:<br />An individual obviously needs training when his or her training falls short of standards, that is, when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. The problem of performance deficiency is caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Faulty selection, poor job design, uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. Transfer, job redesign, improving quality of supervision, or discharge will solve the problem.<br />Group:<br />Assessment of training needs occurs at group level too. Any change in the organization’s strategy necessitates training groups of employees. For example, when the organization decides to introduce a new line of products, sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce, sell and service the new products. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates, low morale and motivation, or other problems are diagnosed.<br />Needs Assessment Methods:<br />Several assessment methods for are available for assessing training needs. Some are useful for organizational level needs assessment and others for individual needs assessment.<br />Methods Used in Training Needs Assessment.<br />
Group or organizational Analysis Individual AnalysisOrganizational goals and objective 1.Performance appraisalPersonnel/skill invention 2.Work samplingOrganizational climate indices 3.Interviews Efficiency indices 4.QuestionnairesExit interviews 5.Attitude surveyMBO or work planning systems 6.Training progressCustomer survey/satisfaction data 7.Rating scales
<br /> <br /> Benefits of Needs Assessment:<br />Needs assessment helps diagnose the cause of performance deficiency of employees. Causes require remedial actions. There are specific benefits of needs assessment. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the training group and their sponsoring organizations. The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programme. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants.<br />TRAINING METHODS are categorized into two groups – on-the-job methods and off-the-job methods. The most commonly used techniques are shown in the table given below. On-the-Job Method (OJT):<br />Majority of industrial training is on the job training type. OJT method is mainly adopted while orienting new employees, introducing innovations in products & services and in special skills training. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. Often, it is informal, as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks.<br /> Off-the-Job Training Method:<br />Off-the-job training is mainly adopted for orienting new employees, introducing innovations in products and services, special skills training, safety education, creative, technical & professional education and sales, administrative, supervisory and managerial education. The advantages and disadvantages of some of the important techniques of off-the-job methods are listed below:<br />a) Lectures:<br />Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. This method can be made effective when combined with other means of training.<br />b) Audio-Visuals:<br />These include television slides, overheads, video-types, films and LCD Projectors. <br />c) Programmed Instruction (PI):<br />Training is offered without the intervention of the trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book form or through a teaching machine. PI involves: 1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner. 2. Allowing the person to respond. 3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers. 4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block.<br />d) Simulations:<br />A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. It is an attempt to create a realistic decision – making environment for the trainee. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to ‘create an environment’ similar to real situations the managers incur, but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable.The other techniques of training are:<br /> Leadership games: exercises to teach different styles of leadership.<br /> Skill Games: Tests to develop analytical skills.<br /> Communication Games: exercises to build bias – free listening and talking.<br /> Strategic Planners: Games to test ability to plan ahead.<br /> Team: building games: Exercises requiring collaborative efforts.<br /> Lateral Thinking: thinking randomly to come up with new ideas.<br /> Cross: cultural training: Programmes to teach specifics of varied cultures.<br />Role playing: In role playing, students assume a role outside of themselves and play out that role within a group. This training method is cost effective and is often applied to marketing and management training.<br /> JOB ROTATION: Another type of experience-based training is job rotation, in which employees move through a series of jobs in order to gain a broad understanding of the requirements of each. Job rotation may be particularly useful in small businesses, which may feature less role specialization than is typically seen in larger organizations.<br />Applications of Training Programs<br />While the applications of training and development are as various as the functions and skills required by an organization, several common training applications can be distinguished, including <br />[technical training, sales training, clerical training, computer training, communications training, organizational development etc.]<br />Technical training: describes a broad range of training programs varying greatly in application and difficulty. Technical training utilizes common training methods for instruction of technical concepts, factual information, and procedures, as well as technical processes and principles.<br />Sales training: concentrates on the education and training of individuals to communicate with customers in a persuasive manner. Sales training can enhance the employee's knowledge of the organization's products, improve his or her selling skills, instill positive attitudes, and increase the employee's self-confidence. Employees are taught to distinguish the needs and wants of the customer, and to persuasively communicate the message that the company's products or services can effectively satisfy them.<br />Clerical training: concentrates on the training of clerical and administrative support staffs, which have taken on an expanded role in recent years. With the increasing reliance on computers and computer applications, clerical training must be careful to distinguish basic skills from the ever-changing computer applications used to support these skills. Clerical training increasingly must instill improved decision-making skills in these employees as they take on expanded roles and responsibilities.<br />Computer training: teaches the effective use of the computer and its software applications, and often must address the basic fear of technology that most employees face and identify and minimize any resistance to change that might emerge. Furthermore, computer training must anticipate and overcome the long and steep learning curves that many employees will experience. To do so, such training is usually offered in longer, uninterrupted modules to allow for greater concentration, and structured training is supplemented by hands-on practice. This area of training is commonly cited as vital to the fortunes of most companies, large and small, operating in today's technologically advanced economy.<br />Communications training: concentrates on the improvement of interpersonal communication skills, including writing, oral presentation, listening, and reading. In order to be successful, any form of communications training should be focused on the basic improvement of skills and not just on stylistic considerations. Furthermore, the training should serve to build on present skills rather than rebuilding from the ground up. Communications training can be taught separately or can be effectively integrated into other types of training, since it is fundamentally related to other disciplines.<br />Organizational development (OD): refers to the use of knowledge and techniques from the behavioral sciences to analyze an existing organizational structure and implement changes in order to improve organizational effectiveness. OD is useful in such varied areas as the alignment of employee goals with those of the organization,<br />Importance of Training and DevelopmentTraining and development programmes help remove performance deficiencies in employees.(1) The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform(2) The individual have the aptitude and motivation needed to learn to do the job better, and(3) Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors.<br />Identify Training NeedsEvaluate Training OutcomesPlan & Design TrainingDeliver Training<br />Fig 3. Training System and its Elements-A Systematic Training Cycle<br />The Benefits of Employee Training<br />• Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit<br />orientation. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization<br />• Improves the morale of the workforce.<br />• Helps people identify with organizational goals.<br />• Helps create a better corporate image.<br />• Fosters authenticity, openness and trust.<br />• Improves relationship between boss and subordinate.<br />• Aids in organizational development.<br />• learns from the trainee.<br />•Helps prepare guidelines for work.<br />•Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.<br />•Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization.<br />•Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills<br />•Aids in development for promotion from within.<br />•Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work<br />•Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and<br /> Knowledgeable<br />•Improves Labour-management relations<br />•Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation<br />Why Training Fails?<br /> The benefits of training are not clear to the top management. The top management hardly rewards the supervisors for carrying out effective training. The top management rarely plans and budgets systematically for training The middle management, without proper incentives from top management does not account for training in production scheduling Without proper scheduling from above, first line supervisors have difficulty in production norms if employees are attending training programmes. Trainers provide limited counseling and consulting services to the rest of the organization. <br /> <br /> CHAPTER -2<br /> RESEARCH METHODOLOGY<br />Every research methodology includes a research design which may be defined <br />as the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research process with economy in procedure. <br />The sampling method that I am being using is the stratified sampling method, the reason behind using this method even though the time consumption when taken into consideration is more is to divide the whole set of retailer shop I am considering for my work in to different group according to type of information gathered from each set and by that a perfect co- relation could also done. My data arch collection process would consist of series of procedures which would be further divided into primary and secondary data collection. The secondary data are those studies made by other for their own purposes. The secondary data for my research would be collected from companies own data, archives and their annual financial reports. Also the findings of prior research studies on outsourcing of accounting process would give an ample amount of historical data or decision making patterns. Also I would use internet to get some more information about the industry and use journals for getting guidance from the past researches in this topic. <br />Data Collection Methods:<br />
Interview will be collected with Senior HR Executives, investors and company professionals and questionnaires will be collected from targeted candidates. And it is collected through questionnaire, search and research through place where today’s computer has been mostly used.<br />B) Secondary Data<br />Company records and reports<br />Magazines, journals, pamphlets, advertisements.<br />Standard reference textbooks<br /> Websites like hclinfinetltd.com, naukri.com.com and timesjoc.com<br />The purpose of using the secondary data is to increase the accuracy of analysis.<br />Data Source<br />The researcher took the help of both primary as well as secondary sources. Secondary sources being interaction with various IT people of the selected and has been chosen for the research by the researcher. Secondary sources being the internet as the medium and the official sites of the companies of IT sectors and corporate selling and feedback of HCL.<br /> <br /> CHAPTER- 3<br /> COMPANY OVERVIEW<br />Company Overview<br />HCL Infinet an Internet Infrastructure initiative of the HCL group caters to the networking requirements of domestic enterprise market. Partnering with world leaders we provide state-of-the-art products and solutions for network requirements of organizations of all sizes. <br /> Fig 4. Main office of HCL infosystem.<br />Ajai Chowdhry ChairmanAn engineer by training, Ajai Chowdhry is one of the six founder members of HCL and took over the reins of HCL Infosystems, the flagship company of the group, as President and CEO in 1994. He was appointed the Chairman of HCL Infosystems in November 1999. In recognition of his contribution in championing the cause of the domestic Indian IT industry, Ajai has been conferred the DATAQUEST ‘IT Man of the Year 2007’ Award amongst other awards.HARSHCHITALE CEOHarsh Chitale joined HCL Infosystems as Chief Executive Officer in 2010 and heads the overall business strategy and operations of HCL Infosystems. He brings a wealth of experience as a senior business leader with rich business management experience in both Indian and global companies. Harsh is a recipient of the Director’s Gold Medal at IIT Delhi, from where he completed his Electrical Engineering.J.V RAMAMURTHY President and Chief Operating OfficerJ V Ramamurthy is President and Chief Operating Officer, HCL Infosystems Ltd. He brings 3 decades of diverse Industry experience and leadership to the company. A technocrat and a man of broad vision, he has spearheaded company’s entry into number of new verticals and partnerships SANDEEPKANWAR CFO & EVPSandeep Kanwar joined HCL in 1988 and in a span of eight years progressed to the position of Chief Financial Officer at the young age of 35. He is well respected amongst colleagues & customers for his financial acumen and management skills Mr. D.Mohanty Vice President (Operations)D. Mohanty, an engineering graduate in Electrical & Electronics from BITS Pilani joined HCL in 1987. With over two decades of industry experience in sales, support & marketing, currently heads the Networking Business of HCL.<br />HCL Infinet offers a complete range of networking services & solutions like:<br />Internet Bandwidth Services<br />Internet Telephony<br />Managed Data Centre<br />Co-location Services<br />a) Managed Data Centre Services <br />b) Managed Network Services<br />Corporate Messaging Solution<br />Virtual Private Network Services (VPN)<br />MPLS Networking Services<br />Wireless Broadband Services<br />Company history<br />HCL Infosystems, India's premier information enabling and integration company , has received the ISO 9001:2000 certification specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product and services that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements. ISO9001:2000 also aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including processes for continual improvement of the system and the assurance of conformity to customer and applicable regulatory requirement.<br />1999 : The Board of Directors unanimously appointed Mr. Ajai<br />Chowdhary as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer with effect<br />from 5th November.<br />2000: HCL has launched a new range of PCs (Ultima and Elite<br />models) under its Beanstalk range of PC's at its Pondicherry plant. The Company entered into an agreement with US-based In focus for distribution and technological support of the latter's data and video projection products in the country.<br />HCL Infinet, the Internet start-up of HCL Infosystems, and media group, Asian Age, have set up a joint venture called Asian Age Infinet. HCL Infosystems Ltd has launched in India the Swedish major Ericsson's Generation X Business communication too, "Next Call Centre". HCL Infinet Ltd., the Internet services subsidiary of HCL Infosystems, has tied upwith UBS Publishers' Distributors Ltd., one of the largest distributors of books in the country, to sell books online through its soon-to-be-launched portal. - HCL Infosystem has entered into a tie-up with Broad Vision for providing personalized e-business applications to is clients.<br />2001: HCL Infosystems and Intel have jointly launched an e-<br />Business solutions program, targeting new Market opportunities in <br />segments such as Internet service providers, application service <br />providers, banking and finance.<br />HCL InfiNet Ld., the Internet services subsidiary of HCL Infosystems, has launched an authenticated payment gate way for its portal, www.hclinfinet.com, in association with Citibank to enable customers to carry out secure transactions online including buying Internet access.<br />2002: HCL Infosystem joins hands with Sun Microsystems India<br />to provide end-to-end solutions to business. HCL Infosystem<br />says it is the No.1 PC Co in India in 2001.<br />2003: HCL Infosystem receives the project to completely<br />automate the Value Added Services (VAT) of Andhra Pradesh.<br />2004: HCL Infosystem forays into digital entertainment sector<br />HCL touches one lakh milestone in desktop sales<br />HCL Infosystem ties up with Union Bank<br />2005: HCL Launches Micro Balanced Technology Extended<br />(BTX) Form Factor for desktops in India on February 10, 2005.<br />HCL Infosystem unveils PC for Rs.12, 99<br />Company profile.<br />HCL Infinet is an Internet Infrastructure initiative of the HCL group. The company started its ISP/NLD operations in the year 2000 and has been catering to the networking requirements of the domestic enterprise market since then. It has an all India license to operate as an Internet Service Provider (ISP), NLD (VPN), ITSP and Call Centre (OSP) Services Provider. HCL Infinet offers state-of-the-art Managed Network Services to enterprises across the country. HCL Infinet operates through a Pan India POP footprint with direct presence in 300+ locations expanding to 850+ locations. It has proved to be a Leader in providing fully converged network platform (Data, Voice and Video application support) on VPN network to Enterprises across India.<br />Partnering with world leaders we provide state-of-the-art products and solutions for network requirements of organizations. Be it a small, small to medium or a large enterprise spread across multiple locations in the country or worldwide we have proven solution for each and every need. HCL's national presence and experience in the field of telecom & IT combined with direct support across the country and abroad brings offers our esteemed clients a high degree of satisfaction.<br />HCL operates through a network which is built on world class technology and unparallel infrastructure. The fully redundant, carrier agnostic backbone architecture enables us to deliver high network uptimes and network availability to our customers. Each of the HCL Infinet POPs are equipped to provide all the latest WAN protocols.<br /> Fig 5. End to end service provider.<br /> <br />HCL Infinet offers a complete range of network solutions like VPN, Internet, Network Management Services, Data Centre and Co-location Services and Value Added Services like Internet Telephony and Enterprise Mailing Solutions etc. With over 400 enterprise customers and with a strong presence in BFSI and Aviation segment the company has a proven record of offering robust network connectivity solutions for critical applications like banking, reservation and ticketing.<br />With multi-homing, fully redundant, carrier agnostic backbone the company has created a reliable network infrastructure which is trusted by customers for supporting critical applications. HCL acts as a one stop shop for meeting end to end IT requirements of any Enterprise customer enabling smooth ICT management. With years of experience and a long list of satisfied customer base, the company is set to emerge as a giant in the domestic network services market.<br />Our connectivity services have been fulfilling the need to run mission critical applications like ERP, Mailing, Web services etc across multi-location enterprises in various verticals as Aviation, Manufacturing, Banking and Financial Institutes, FMCG, Education etc.<br />MISSION AND VISION<br /> MISSION STATEMENT "We enable business transformation and enrichment of lives by delivering sustainable world class technology Products, Solutions & Services in our chosen markets thereby creating superior shareholder value."<br /> VISION STATEMENT "A global corporation enriching lives and enabling business transformation for our customers, with leadership in chosen technologies and markets. Be the first choice for employees and partners, with commitment to sustainability."<br /> QUALITY POLICY "We shall deliver defect free products, services and solutions to meet the requirements of our external and internal customers the first time, every time."<br />HCL Infinet Increases Competitive advantages and quality of service with integrated IT management.<br />Business Impact Summary:<br />HCL Infinet provides a wide range of connectivity and IT managed services to organizations across India. Part of the Network Services arm of HCL Infosystems, HCL Infinet has more than 400 enterprise customers in industries including aviation, fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) and manufacturing and distribution (M&D).<br />Challenge:<br />IT is fundamental to all HCL Infinet’s customer service offerings. With hundreds of internal and customer devices to monitor, HCL Infinet needs end-to-end visibility to ensure it can maintain IT performance and availability. It also needs to be able to provide customers with visibility of service performance levels in real time.<br />Solution:<br />HCL Infinet has deployed an integrated Enterprise IT management platform based on CA solutions. Through a combination of CA Service Desk Manager, CA Spectrum® Infrastructure Manager, CA eHealth® Performance Manager and CA NSM, the company can not only identify and resolve problems faster but also provide clients with access to a unified service management portal.<br />Result:<br />Quality of service for HCL Infinet customers has increased, with the company expecting incident volumes to reduce by 20 percent and availability SLAs to increase from 99.5 percent to 99.9 percent. The CA solutions have also helped HCL Infinet to contain costs, enhance efficiency and boost competitive advantage.<br />Network Operations Centre (NOC).<br />HCL Infinet’s Network Operations Centre (NOC) in Delhi is particularly key both to customer service delivery and maintaining the availability of more than 150 servers and more than 3,000 routers and switches “The NOC is responsible for making sure our infrastructure is available 24/7, and resolving any problems so that we can continue to meet our service level agreements (SLAs) with customers,” <br />With a diverse infrastructure, finding the root cause of a problem was often a difficult and therefore time-consuming process for the NOC. <br />Visibility of performance levels.<br />In addition to the role it plays in managing HCL Infinet’s own IT infrastructure, the NOC also monitors customer devices hosted and/or managed by the company.<br />HCL Infinet’s managed services encompass all areas of the IT lifecycle, including fault management, configuration management, server management, application management and security management.<br />Providing customers with visibility of performance levels across all these services is very complex but key to HCL Infinet’s competitive advantage. “Customers want to be able to access all performance data in a single place and in real time,” <br />HCL Infinet had implemented a number of tools to try to establish an integrated approach to service management and customer reporting but with limited success. “Despite making a significant investment, we were not able to create the unified performance management portal needed to meet customer demand,” <br />Results<br />Improved quality of service boosts competitive advantage<br />Improved visibility of its IT infrastructure and customer services has resulted in a number of operational and strategic benefits for HCL Infinet. For example, the company has been able to reduce the number of NOC staff required to monitor its network backbone by 25 percent.<br />As well as freeing up IT resources, HCL Infinet expects the CA solutions will also help to:<br />• Reduce the volume of incidents by up to 20 percent<br />• Increase premium customer SLAs for availability from 99.5 percent <br /> to 99.9 percent<br />• Decrease the need for on-site visits for problem resolution.<br />Managed services.<br />A managed service provider (MSP) provides delivery and management of network-based services, applications, and equipment to enterprises, residences, or other service providers. Managed service providers can be hosting companies or access providers that offer services that can include fully outsourced network management arrangements, including advanced features like IP telephony, messaging and call center, virtual private network (VPNs), managed firewalls, and monitoring/reporting of network servers. Most of these services can be performed from outside a company's internal network with a special emphasis placed on integration and certification of Internet security for applications and content. MSPs serve as outsourcing agents for companies, especially other service providers like ISPs, that don't have the resources to constantly upgrade or maintain faster and faster computer networks.<br /> Fig 6. Managed services<br /> Business Benefits 4m managed services….<br />Better control and efficiencies of scale <br />Gain Insights into application performance and end user experience<br />Speedy transition and reduce dependency on manpower through automation<br />Access to proven expertise in BFSI domain<br /> Peace of Mind<br />HCL INFINET MPLS NETWORK<br />HCL Infinet provides the following MPLS [multi protocol label switching] Services on its VPN backbone, through its Pan-India POP footprint. <br />L3VPN - A layer 3 MPLS VPN, also known as L3VPN, combines enhanced BGP signaling, MPLS traffic isolation and router support for VRFs (Virtual Routing/Forwarding) to create a virtual network. This solution is more scalable than classic provider-based frame relay or ATM-based networks, or IPSec-based VPNs.<br />L2VPN - A layer 2 MPLS VPN, also known as L2VPN, is a point-to-point pseudo-wire service. It can be used to replace existing physical links. The primary advantage of this MPLS VPN type is that it can transparently replace an existing dedicated facility without reconfiguration, and that it is completely agnostic to upper-layer protocols.<br />Internet<br />VoIP<br />Quality of Service & Classes of Services<br />Traffic Engineering<br />L2TP Dialup Backup<br /> Fig 7. MPLS Services.<br />Products by this company<br />1. Analoque photocopiers.<br />2. Audio conferencing units.<br />3. Business disaster recovery.<br />4. Fax machines.<br />5. Interactive Voice Response [IVR] systems.<br />6. projectors.<br />7. Internet development systems.<br />8. Vedio conferencing systems.<br /> <br /> HCL PARTNERSHIP ENGAGEMENTS.<br />HCL has always prided itself on its partnership engagements. Partner models are also evolving in the technology industry. Innovation has extended into the ecosystem and community based engagements are coming into play. HCL has also enhanced its relationships with partners and is creating a variety of innovative partnership models, with various approaches to risk-reward sharing. Some of the notable partner engagements: 1977Leading position on office .Automation and Laptops in India 1981Scripting an era of computing across the Microprocessor 1985Strategic relationship that has seen the computer evolve from a computing device 2004Partnering in computing and providing IT Services 1996Dominant position in mobile handset market in India. HCL partnered with Nokia to distribute their mobile phones in the burgeoning Indian market. Nokia today has more than 70% market share and the best service network in the country 2010Xilinx is the world's leading provider of programmable platforms, with more than 50 percent market share in the programmable logic device (PLD) segment of the semiconductor industry (Source: iSuppli Corp.). <br /> Hcl Joint ventures with <br /> 1991 – 96Created the HP brand for Computers in India. 1996 - 2003Significant IT Services with billion dollar enterprise value. 2001 - 2005First Indian BPO Global Delivery Centre, currently employing 2000 UK nationals. 2001 - 2005First Indian BPO Global Delivery Centre, currently employing 2000 UK nationals. 2005First Japan- India hi-tech JV for Product Engineering Services. 2006Industry First "End-To End" Product Lifecycle Solution for OEMs. <br /> <br /> HCL INFINET VENDORS.<br />HCL Infinet servers and networking devices encompass multiple vendors, including <br />
HP 2. Cisco 3. IBM 4. Juniper
5. Dell 6. Alcatel<br /> <br />7. And a variety of operating platforms, such as Linux, Microsoft Windows and Sun Solaris.<br /> ISP MEMBERS OF HCL INFINET LTD.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />LITERATURE REVIEW <br />Importance of Training and Development Organizations provide training for many reasons. They wish to orient new hires to the organization or teach them how to perform in their initial assignment. Some organizations also wish to improve the current performance of employees who may not be working as effectively as desired, or to prepare employees for future promotions, or for upcoming changes in design, processes or technology in their present jobs (Fisher et al. 1999). Training can help an organization succeed in a number of ways. Traditionally, training facilitates the implementation of strategy by providing employees with the skills and knowledge needed to perform their jobs. Recent changes in the environment of business have made the human resource development function even more important in helping organizations maintain competitiveness and prepare for the future (Goldstein & Gilliam 1990). Technological innovations require training, with employees often needing more sophisticated skills in troubleshooting and problem-solving than <br />they did previously. The pressure of global competition is also changing the way organizations.<br />operate and the skills that their employees need. For instance, organizations have been increasingly providing quality management and customer service training in an attempt to keep up with rising consumer expectations (Bellizzi & Piontkowski 1990; Lee 1991). <br />Approximately 70 per cent of employers provide some formal training (Noe 1998). The larger the company, the more likely its workers were to have been trained. In smaller companies, 75 per cent of respondents in firms with fewer than 500 employees received some training, compared with 82 per cent in companies with more than 1,000 people (Schaaf 1998). Smaller to midsize <br />firms, employing 100 to 499 people, averaged 140,040 dollars per company for training; these companies make up about 78 per cent of the Dun & Bradstreet database of 146,837 US organizations. <br />Those employing between 500 and 999 people, about 10 per cent of the database, planned to spend about 237,600 dollars each. The largest companies, those with 10,000 or more employees (1 per cent of the database), had training budgets that averaged well over 15 million dollars. <br />Small companies (50-99 employees) spend about one-third as much as large employers (500+ employees)<br />Most training goes to managerial, supervisory, white-collar, salaried employees. Eighty per cent of people at work today are hourly workers. Mincer (1997) also reported that people who in the past have received training are more apt to undergo further training in the future. Of the nearly $60 billion expended by organizations employing one hundred or more employees, 42.1 billion dollars was spent for HRD staff salaries, and another 14.7 billion dollars was <br />allocated for outside services (seminars, conferences, materials, etc.) (Blanchard & Thacker 1998). The most recent reports estimate that employers spend around one per cent of payroll on training. To keep up with the current trend, this amount is expected to increase to three per cent by the year 2000 (Chance 1998). Small Business Training and Development Issues<br />There are three prominent issues in today’s small business training environment. The first issue questions where small business will find qualified employees in an economy where capable labor is going to be a relatively scarce good. The second issue concerns how small businesses are projected to use training to raise their productivity in order to compete in the marketplace <br />(Lichtenstein 1992). The third issue is that small businesses have created most of the new jobs in recent years and will need training if they are to survive and grow. Each issue will be discussed in turn. <br />A study conducted by the American Society for Training and Development addresses the first issue. The study shows that most American workers are not getting the training they need to keep their companies competitive. With such a lack of training, it is expected that by the year 2000, there are likely to be too few well-educated and well-trained workers to satisfy the nation’s economic needs (USA Today, 1989). Other surveys illustrate the extent of the skills gap as <br />perceived by American business: a recent Coopers and Lybrand business poll posed the question:<br /> CHAPTER-4 <br /> DATA ANALYSIS <br />In order to conduct meaningful data analysis regarding the needs of the small <br />business/entrepreneurial firm, data were cross tabulated by how long the business existed-organizational life cycle stages-against a number of training and development variables affecting the success or survival of the small business and/or its entrepreneur. <br />Q1.Your Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do you agree with this statement?<br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageAgree1352Disagree14Partly agree416Can’t say728Total25100<br /> GRAPH-1. <br /> INTERPRETATION: The above graph indicates that Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy.<br />Q 2. How many training programmes will you attend in a year? <br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageLess than 10145610-202820-40624More than 40312Total25100<br /> GRAPH-2.<br /> <br />INTERPRETATION: The above chart indicates that less training programmes are held in the organization.<br />Q 3. To whom the training is given more in your organization? <br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageSenior staff312Junior staff520New staff624Based on requirement1352Total25100<br /> <br /> GRAPH-3. <br />INTERPRETATION: Training is provided on the basis of requirement.<br />Q 4. What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your organization? <br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageTime520Money416Lack of interest by staff624Non-availability of skilled trainer1040Total25100<br /> GRAPH-4.<br /> <br />INTERPRETATION :The above graph indicates that the important barriers to Training and Development in the organization is Non-availability of skilled trainers.<br />Q 5. Enough practice is given for us during training session? Do you agree with this statement? <br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageStrong agree1456Agree28Some what agree624Disagree312Total25100<br /> GRAPH-5.<br /> <br />INTERPRETATION: This graph indicates that enough practice is given for employees during training sessions.<br />Q6. The training sessions conducted in your organization is useful. Do you agree with this statement? <br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageStrong agree1560Agree520Some what agree520Disagree00Total25100<br /> GRAPH-6.<br />INTERPRETATION: The above graph indicates that the training sessions conducted in the organization is useful.<br />Q7. Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the training. Do u agree with this statement? <br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageStrong agree1456Agree624Some what agree312Disagree28Total25100<br /> GRAPH-7. <br />INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows that Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the training.<br />Q8. What are the skills that the trainer should possess to make the training effective? <br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageTechnical skills832People & soft skills624Generalists makes better624Fond of talking to people520Total25100<br /> GRAPH-8.<br /> INTERPRETATION: The above graph indicates that the trainer should possess technical skills to make the training effective.<br />Q9. What are the general complaints about the training session? <br />ResponseNo of respondantsPercentageTake away precious time of employees425Too many gaps b/w the sessions1040Train’g sessions 615Boring & not useful520Total25100<br /> GRAPH-9. <br />INTERPRETATION: The above graph indicates that there are two many gaps between the training sessions.<br />Table 1: Areas of Training<br />Table 1 provides the responses to the survey question regarding which areas of training the entrepreneurs and their employees believed they need for the success and survival of the small business, cross-tabulated by how from initial start-up to year 4, the respondents selected Marketing as the area of training in highest demand (35.6%), followed closely by Finance (34.3%) and HR (31.7%). In the early growth years, businesses in existence between 5-10 years, the areas of training the respondents selected were HR (30.3%) followed closely by Finance (28.3%) and Marketing (28.3%). In the mature growth stage, businesses in existence between 11-20 years, the same three areas were selected as being the most desirous and all were equally in demand (Finance 13.9%, HR 13.8% and Marketing 13.3%). Finally, in the mature stage, businesses in existence greater than 20 years, HR was highest in demand (24.1%) followed closely by Marketing (22.8%) and Finance (22.5%). <br />The data displayed in Table 1 shows that as the businesses moved from their initial start-up, organizational life cycle stage (0-4 years) to their mature stage (20 years or older), the entrepreneurs and the employees perceived less need for training. In fact, the trend shows that during the first three organizational life cycle stages, the demand for training consistently dropped. In the final stage (greater than 20 years in existence), however, demand for training <br />increased by approximately seventy-five per cent (75%). <br />The results shown in Table 1. seem to indicate that the perceived value of training by entrepreneurs and their employees, regardless of topical area, declines as the business moves from its initial start-up phase through its mature growth stage but then dramatically increases in the mature stage. This may be the result of various internal and external factors, some of which may be that the business is about to reform or launch new products and services or perceives a <br />threat to its share of the market and must recast itself to grow and prosper the business has existed. <br /> Table 2: Methods and Tools to Traing<br />As shown in Table 2, in the early years, from initial start-up to year 4, the methods and tools the entrepreneurs and employees selected most were: On-the-Job Training (28.2%), Conferences (27.6%) and Training Manuals (24.8%). In the early growth years, businesses in existence between 5-10 years, the methods and tools the entrepreneurs and employees selected most were: <br />On-the-job Training (30%), Conferences (26.8%) and Training Manuals (23.9%). In the mature growth stage, businesses in existence between 11-20 years, the methods and tools entrepreneurs and employees selected most were similar in perceived usefulness, i.e., On-the-job Training (14.4%), Conferences (13.8%) and Training Manuals (14.7%). Finally, in the mature stage, businesses in existence greater than 20 years, the methods and tools entrepreneurs and employees selected most were: Training Manuals (36.7%), Conferences (31.7%) and On-the-job Training (27.4%).<br />The data as displayed in Table 2 shows that as the businesses moved from their initial start-up, organizational life cycle stage (0-4 years) to their mature stage (20 years or older), the entrepreneurs and the employees are less interested in various training methods and tools. In fact, the trend shows that during the first three organizational life cycle stages, the demand for training methods and tools consistently dropped but in the final stage (greater than 20 years), demand for training methods and tools increased by over one hundred per cent (100%). <br />The results of Table 2 seem to indicate that the perceived usefulness by entrepreneurs and their employees of various of training methods and tools declines as the business moves from its initial start-up phase through its mature growth stage, but then dramatically increases in the mature stage. This again may be due to various reasons, internal and external business factors.<br /> <br /> Table 3: Training delivery options.<br />Table 3 provides the responses to the survey question regarding which training delivery options, available to train the entrepreneurs and their employees, were believed essential for the success and survival of the small business, cross-tabulated by how long the business had existed. As shown in Table 3, in the early years, from initial start-up to year 4, the preferred training delivery options available to train the entrepreneurs and employees were: One-on-one (25.6%), <br />Mentoring (25.2%) and Group Training (18.9%). In the early growth years, businesses in existence between 5-10 years, the preferred delivery options of the entrepreneurs and employees were: One-on-one (32.8%), Mentoring (25.2%) and Group Training (21.6%). In the mature growth stage, businesses in existence between 11-20 years, the preferred delivery options of the entrepreneurs and employees were: Group Training (19.8%), One-on-one (13.6%) and Mentoring (12.9%). <br />Finally, in the mature stage, businesses in existence greater than 20 years, the preferred training delivery options of the entrepreneurs and employees were: Group Training (39.6%), Mentoring (36.7%) and One-on-one (28%). <br />The data as displayed in Table 3 shows that as the businesses moved from their initial start-up organizational life cycle stage (0-4 years) to their mature stage (20 years or older), the entrepreneurs and the employees tend to use less training delivery options. In fact, the trend shows that during the first three organizational life cycle stages, the use of the various training delivery options consistently dropped, but that in the final stage (greater than 20 years) use of the <br />various training delivery options and tools increased by from one hundred to three hundred per cent. <br />The results of Table 3 seem to indicate that the perceived usefulness by entrepreneurs and their employees of various of training methods and tools declines as the business moves from its initial start-up phase through its mature growth stage, but then dramatically increases in the mature stage. This may be because the business is about to reform or launch new products and services <br />or perceives a threat to its share of the market and must recast itself to grow and prosper. Also, as the business matures, the use of group training increases as employees and entrepreneurs possess the necessary knowledge and skill to impart that knowledge to others in the business.<br /> Table 4:Training Objectives.<br />Table 4. provides the responses to the survey question regarding which training objectives. <br />LIMITATIONS<br />Every scientific study has certain limitations and the present study is no more exception. These are: <br />1. The terminology used in the subject is highly technical in nature and creates a lot of confusion. <br />2. All the secondary data are required were not available.<br />3. Respondents were found hesitant in revealing opinion about supervisors and management.<br />CONCLUSION.<br />A survey was developed to better understand the training and development issues confronting small business owner/managers in the United States as their businesses evolved from start-up phase through the maturity stage of the business’s organizational life cycle. Among the training and development issues examined were: what areas they and their employees believed were <br />needed to start, manage and grow their businesses to remain competitive, what methods their businesses used to train, what delivery options are most often encountered in the training process and what additional training areas they believed were needed to stay competitive. <br /> <br />The literature indicates that today’s small and medium enterprises are not getting the training they need to keep their companies competitive. The survey results indicate that employees need training in a number of areas to better compete in today’s market. It is clear that the entrepreneurs in the study believe that training is particularly critical in the areas of accounting, finance, and <br />employee relations. The entrepreneurs also believe that they need additional training in the areas of time management, conflict management and basic business and financial skills in order to help their organizations better compete in the marketplace. <br />A major issue affecting the success and viability of small businesses to grow and compete is the methods which are commonly used to train the entrepreneurs and their employees. The survey results indicate that entrepreneurs and their employees believe that the training methods most useful are: On-the-job training, training conferences and training manuals. Finally, training was <br />usually delivered on a one-to-one basis, or through mentoring and attending conferences. Specifically, the results showed four trends. First, the outcomes indicate that the perceived value of training by entrepreneurs and their employees, regardless of topical area, declines as the business moves from its initial start-up phase through its mature growth stage—but then dramatically increases in the mature stage. This may be the result of various internal and external factors, some of which may be that the business is about to reform or launch new products and services or perceives a threat to its share of the market and must recast itself to grow and prosper. Second, the research seems to indicate that the perceived usefulness by entrepreneurs and their employees of various of training methods and tools declines as the business moves from its initial start-up phase through its mature growth stage, but then dramatically increases in the mature stage. This again may be due to various reasons, internal and external business factors. <br />Third, investigations seem to indicate that the perceived usefulness by entrepreneurs and their employees of various of training methods and tools declines as the business moves from its initial start-up phase through its mature growth stage, but then dramatically increases in the mature stage. This may be because the business is about to reform or launch new products and services <br />or perceives a threat to its share of the market and must recast itself to grow and prosper. Last, the findings seem to indicate that the perceived need by entrepreneurs and their employees for additional training declines as the business moves from its initial start-up phase through its mature growth stage, but then dramatically increases in the mature stage.<br />We express our gratitude to our Respected Prof. Mr. R Jabez. We have dealt with this project very conscientiously and sincerely. We hope to keep doing such interesting projects in the future.<br />Thank you. <br /> CHAPTER- 5<br /> FINDINGS <br /> <br /> <br /> QUESTIONNAIRE<br />Name --------------------------------<br />Designation -------------------------------<br />Address -------------------------------<br />Contact no. -------------------------------<br />Current job --------------------------------<br /> HR Training and Development Questionnaire.<br />Your Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do you agree with this statement? <br /> Ans-<br />How many training programmes will you attend in a year? <br /> Ans-<br />To whom the training is given more in your organization? <br /> Ans-<br />What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your organization? <br /> Ans-<br />What mode of training method is normally used in your organization? <br /> Ans-<br />Enough practice is given for us during training session? Do you agree with this statement? <br /> Ans-<br />The training sessions conducted in your organization is useful. Do you agree with this statement? <br /> Ans-<br /> <br /> (8) What skills set you apart from your colleagues?<br /> Ans-<br /> (9) Do you recognize any need for further training and development in <br /> the following areas? (Please tick where applicable)<br /> (a) Job coaching. (b) Delegated tasks.<br /> (c) Recruitment procedures. (d) Presentation assignments.<br /> (e) Internal training programs <br /> (10) What other means can be used for developing better skills and <br /> knowledge?<br /> Ans-<br /> (11) According to you in which area u need to be trained?<br /> Ans-<br /> (12) How would you go about training a new employee?<br /> Ans-<br /> <br /> (13) What steps would you take to identify the right training <br /> requirements?<br /> Ans-<br /> (14) What is the impact of inadequate HR training?<br /> Ans-<br /> (15) What are the benefits of providing training on time?<br /> Ans-<br /> BIBLIOGRAPHY <br />David A. Decenzo/Stephen P. Robins (2004) Personal and Human Resource Management<br /> A. Monappa (2004), Personal Management <br />Allan Pepper (1999) A Handbook on Training and Development<br />Supply Chain Management in Global Enterprise, Author <br />(Sushil Kumar) –publication- (TATA Mc HILL)<br />