National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationIssues Affecting Water Quality and Availability inMexico’s Lerma River and La...
Water Quality and Availability in Mexico’s Lerma River• Community Concerns   Water shortage due to unsustainable use of t...
Project Methodology                                                            Satellites Utilized                        ...
Study Area      Study Area & PeriodOur study is focused on the LermaRiver and three of the five statesthrough which it run...
Overpopulation                                                The Lerma River watershed is                                ...
Overexploitation of Lake Chapala•     Current aqueduct withdrawals 180 Mm^3 annually from Lake Chapala              Manma...
Water Stress                                                             Current water stress of Jalisco is 40.76%• Future...
Deforestation of RegionNational Aeronautics and Space Administration   DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
Agriculture Type and Efficiency                                                     • Compared to smaller, more traditiona...
Land Use / Land Cover Change Map(2001-2009)                                                 Data source: https://wist.echo...
Land Use / Land Cover Change Map                                                 Data source: https://wist.echo.nasa.govNa...
Area Sown of Major Crop Products (2001-2009)• Compared with 2001, the area sown of  the most popular grain maize has been ...
Health Concerns                                                           Diseases included:                              ...
Agriculture & Health Concerns                                                            Many correlations have been      ...
Mathematical Model for Water QualityProjections• Model will be able to predict when Lake Chapala will meet US EPA standard...
Predictions for Various PollutantsPollutan              Present [ ]                  EPA      Minimum Estimated    t      ...
Conclusions   • Lake levels of several substances (DDT, phosphates) would not reach EPA     standards for several years   ...
Water Pollution final presentation
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Water Pollution final presentation

  1. 1. National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationIssues Affecting Water Quality and Availability inMexico’s Lerma River and Lake Chapala asMonitored by NASA EOSWise, VARebecca Tate – The University of Virginia’s College at WiseJ. Casey Cavanagh – Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityZhaohui Chi – Texas A&M UniversityLuis Jiménez - Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de MonterreyJosé Juárez Olivas - Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de MonterreyJuan Manuel Sáenz Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey www.nasa.gov
  2. 2. Water Quality and Availability in Mexico’s Lerma River• Community Concerns  Water shortage due to unsustainable use of the Lerma’s water by dense population, large demand from agriculture, and large scale industrial activity  Deforestation and its affect on rain rate  Health effects of using contaminated water• Potential Partners  Comisión Nacional del Agua  Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo Science Advisors  Instituto Nacional de estadística y geografía DeWayne Cecil, PhD• Decision Making Process & Partner Needs National Oceanic and Atmospheric  Use NASA satellites to measure rain rate and water Administration availability as well as land use and contaminant Jorge Garcia, PhD concentrations Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterreyhttp://www.watersongs.org/schedule.htm Luis Ángel Garza Rodríguez, PhD National Aeronautics and Space Administration Universidad Regiomontana DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  3. 3. Project Methodology Satellites Utilized Landsat 5 Data Acquisition, Processing & Analysis • Landsat images uploaded into ERDAS software • Satellite images imported into ArcGIS • Lake Chapala pollution concentration prediction model created with Microsoft Visual Studio C++ • GRACE – Jet Propulsion Lab • Population and agricultural data were plotted in time series to predict their trendingNational Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  4. 4. Study Area Study Area & PeriodOur study is focused on the LermaRiver and three of the five statesthrough which it runs (Guanajuato,Jalisco, and Michoacan), as wellas the river’s destination, LakeChapala. The majority of ourinformation is obtained from theperiod 2000-2010. National Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov 4
  5. 5. Overpopulation The Lerma River watershed is one of the most densely populated areas in Mexico. The population of our study states, included in this watershed, has greatly increased in the past two decades. This growth is proving to be unsustainable with the reduction of water availability and quality of the area’s sources, the Lerma River and Lake Chapala.National Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  6. 6. Overexploitation of Lake Chapala• Current aqueduct withdrawals 180 Mm^3 annually from Lake Chapala  Manmade desertification of Lake in 2003• Additional aqueduct being designed to tap an additional 60 Mm^3/year• Population of Guadalajara expected to reach 7mil by 2025 http://goo.gl/Xov7uNational Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  7. 7. Water Stress Current water stress of Jalisco is 40.76%• Future projections place most of Mexico in serious water scarcity by 2030• Deforestation of the area has caused a reduction in cloud cover and precipitation• Over exploitation of Lerma has decreased expected flow rate of 1765.8 Mm3/year to 524.7 Mm3/year  70.2% reduction in flow rate• Lake Chapala was only at 68% capacity in 2009 http://www.conagua.gob.mx/english07/publications/EAM2010Ingles_Baja.pdfNational Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  8. 8. Deforestation of RegionNational Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  9. 9. Agriculture Type and Efficiency • Compared to smaller, more traditional irrigation, large scale, modern irrigation uses more efficient methods of watering plants, such as drip irrigation and sprinkler systems. • Small scale, traditional irrigation, which comprises most of the irrigation in our study area, relies on flood irrigation and can also have less sanitary and regulated waste disposal.Image source:http://www.conagua.gob.mx/english07/publications/2030_water_agenda.pdf Data source: http://cityfarmer.org/chapala.html National Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  10. 10. Land Use / Land Cover Change Map(2001-2009) Data source: https://wist.echo.nasa.govNational Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  11. 11. Land Use / Land Cover Change Map Data source: https://wist.echo.nasa.govNational Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  12. 12. Area Sown of Major Crop Products (2001-2009)• Compared with 2001, the area sown of the most popular grain maize has been decreasing in the following seven years.• Meanwhile, the areas sown of the other two major crop products have been enlarged, particularly by Jalisco State. Crops Water Requirements (mm/ha) Grain maize 1 350-800 Data source: http://www.inegi.org.mx Pasture 2 8.9x 10-4 - 12.7 x 10-4 1: http://www.netafim.com/crop/corn 2: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  13. 13. Health Concerns Diseases included: •Cholera •Typhoid •Diarrhea •Malaria •Parasitical and Helminthes Infections Cysticercosis Schistosomiasis Data source: http://www.sinais.salud.gob.mx/basesdedatos/National Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  14. 14. Agriculture & Health Concerns Many correlations have been found between the use of agrochemicals and the occurrence of Hodgkin’s and non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma.Photo source: http://healthmap.wordpress.com/Data source: http://www.sinais.salud.gob.mx/basesdedatos/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  15. 15. Mathematical Model for Water QualityProjections• Model will be able to predict when Lake Chapala will meet US EPA standards• Concept stems from differential equations using volumetric flow rates into and out of a tank.• Program was entirely conceptualized and developed during Summer 2011. Santiago River Lake Chapala Lerma RiverNational Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  16. 16. Predictions for Various PollutantsPollutan Present [ ] EPA Minimum Estimated t (mg/L) Standard Year PO4 0.571 .025 2057 Cd 0.0096 .005 2021 TDS 837 500 2029 Pb .109 .015 2040 Hg .0006 .0002 2027 DDT 3.4 .001 2131 National Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov
  17. 17. Conclusions • Lake levels of several substances (DDT, phosphates) would not reach EPA standards for several years • Decrease in precipitation • Increase in deforestation • High rates of death related to agrochemical use and water pollution in our study area • Decrease of sown area of grain maize, increase of other domestic crops that require less waterImage source: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/12011900?source=wapi&referrer=kh.google.com National Aeronautics and Space Administration DEVELOP National Program http://develop.larc.nasa.gov 17

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