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Skeletal Systems
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Skeletal Systems

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Skeletal Systems Skeletal Systems Presentation Transcript

  • SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • SKELETON
    • In order to retain their shape and form, living things need some type of support
    • In single-celled organisms,this support is provided by the cell membrane
    • In multicellular animals, the support is provided by some form of skeleton.
  • TWO TYPES OF ANIMAL SKELETON
    • EXOSKELETON- Outside skeleton ,arthropods(SPIDERS,CRUSTACEANS,INSECTS AND CRABS)
    • Endoskeleton – an inside skeleton vertebrates
    • The skeleton of humans is composed of a special connective tissue (Tissue that joins other tissues together) also called BONE.
    • Skeleton system:
    • The human skeleton system consists of 206 bones
  • TYPES OF TISSUE PRESENT
    • Bone tissue,fibrous connective tissue which forms the ligaments that connect bone to bone.
    • FUNCTIONS OF SKELETON SYSTEM
    • Provide a framework that supports the body,the muscles that are attached to the bones move the skeleton.
    • Protects some internal organs from the mechanical injury the rib cage protects the heart and the lungs or skull aroun the brain.
    • Contains and protects the red bone marrow, hematopoiesis (blood forming) tissues( red blood cells OR Erythrocytes)
    • some white blood cells(LEUKOCYTES)
    • are also produced in bones.
    • Provides a storage site of inorganic salts such as calcium.calcium maybe remove from bone to maintain a normal blood calcium level which essentially for bllod clotting and proper functioning of the muscles and nerves.
    • Bones also providea system of levers( Rigid rods that can be moved about a fixed point ) on which a group of specialized tissues(MUSCLES) act to produce motion.
  • STRUCTURE OF BONES
    • Bones are a solid network of MOIST, LIVING CELLS (OSTEOCYTES), LIVING TISSUE. AND FIBERS (COLLAGEN) THAT ARE SUPPORTED BY A MATRIX (DEPOSITS) OF CALCIUM SALTS
    • The Calcium Salts give bones the STRENGTH and PROTECTIVE functions.
    • The function of OSTEOCYTES is to REGULATE the amount of Calcium that is deposited in, or removed from, the Bones Matrix.
  • Structure of bones
    • Each bone is surrounded by a tough Membrane called the PERIOSTEUM, A FIBEROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANE WHOSE COLLAGEN FIBERS
    • MERGE WITH THOSE OF THE TENDONS AND LIGAMENTS THAT ARE ATTACHED TO THE BONE.
    • The Periosteum, contains a network of Blood Vessels, which supply Oxygen, Nerves and Nutrients to the bone.
    • The Jointed Surfaces of Bones are covered with ARTICULAR CATRILAGE, WHICH PROVIDES A SMOOTH SURFACE FOR MOVEMENT.
  • STRUCTURE OF BONES
    • Beneath the Periosteum is a thick layer of COMPACT BONE. One of two types of Bone tissues.
    • Compact Bone is dense and similar in texture to Ivory; it is far from being SOLID. A thick layer of Compact Bone enables the Shaft of Long Bones (called the Diaphysis) to endure the large amount of stress it receives upon impact with a solid object.
  • STRUCTURE OF BONES
    • Compact bone is composed of cylinders or tubes of mineral crystals and protein fibers called LAMELLAE.
    • In the center of each cylinder is a narrow channel called HAVERSIAN CANALS THAT CONTAIN BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES.
    • Blood Vessels run through interconnected Haversian Canals, creating a network that carries nourishment to the Living Bone Tissue
  • STRUCTURE OF BONES
    • The second type of bone Tissue, SPONGY BONE, it is the inside Layer of Compact Bone.
    • Spongy Bone IS NOT soft and spongy. But actually quite strong, near the ends of bones (EPIPHYSIS) where force is applied, spongy bone is organized into structures that resemble the supporting girders of a bridge.
  • STRUCTURE OF BONES
    • THE STRUCTURE OF SPONGY BONE HELP AND STRENGTH TO BONE WITHOUT ADDING MASS. It is arranged along points of pressure or stress, making bones both light and strong.
    • Embedded in COMPACT and SPONGY bone are cells known as OSTEOCYTES, that can either deposit the calcium salts in bone or absorb them again.
  • STRUCTURE OF BONE
    • OSTEOCYTES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR BONE GROWTH AND CHANGES IN THE SHAPE OF BONES.
    • The cavities of bone contain a soft tissue called BONE MARROW.
    • THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF BONE FOUND IN MOST BONE.
    • A. YELLOW BONE MARROW- found in most bones, but primarily fills the shafts of long bones and is made up of blood vessels, nerve cells, but consist mostly of fat cells 9adipose tissue). It serves an energy reserve. It can also be converted to red bone marrow and produce blood cells when severe blood loss occurs.
  • STRUCTURE OF BONE
    • B. RED BONE MARROW- FOUND IN SPONGY BONE, THE ENDS OF LONG BONES, RIBS VERTEBRAE, THE STERNUM, AND THE PELVIS – PRODUCES RED BLOOD CELLS AND SPECIAL WHIYE BLOOD CELLS CALLED LYMPHOCYTES, AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF BLOOD (PLATELETS).
  • CLASSIFICATION OF BONES:
    • BONES CANE BE CLASSIFIED AS ONE OF FOUR TYPES BASED ON THEIR SHAPE:
    • 1. LONG BONES - THE BONES OF THE ARMS, LEGS, HANDS, AND FEET (BUT NOT THE WRIST OR ANKLES). The shaft of the long bones is the DIAPHYSIS , and the ends are called EPIPHYSIS. The Diaphysis is made up of compact bone and his hallow, forming a canal within the shaft. This marrow canal contains yellow bone marrow, which is mostly adipose tissue. The Epiphysis are made of Spongy Bone covered by a thin layer of Compact Bone.
  • CLASSIFICATION OF BONES:
    • 2. SHORT BONES - the bones of the wrist and ankles.
    • 3. FLAT BONES - the ribs, shoulder blades, hipbones, cranial bones.
    • 4. irregular bones - the vertebrae and facial bones.
    • 5. SHORT, FLAT AND IRREGULAR BONES ARE ALL
  • DEVELOPMENT OF BONES
    • 1. BONE GROWTH BEGINS LONG BEFORE BIRHT. THE BASIC SHAPE OF A LONG BONE, SUCH AS AN ARM BONE IS FIRST FORMED AS CARTILAGE .
    • 2. Cartilage is a tough but flexible CONNECTIVE TISSUE., THAT UNKLE BONE DOES NOT CONTSIAN BLOOD VESSELS.
  • RED BONE MARROW
    • Found in spongy bone , the ends of long bones, ribs, vertebrae, the sternum and the pelvis-produces red blood cells and special white blood ceels called lymphocytes and other elements of blood (platelets)
  • CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
    • Bones can be classified as one of four types based on their shape :
    • 1. Long bones- the bones of the arms,legs, hands, and feet ( but not the wrist or ankles) The shaft of the long bones is DIAPHYSIS , and the ends are called EPIPHYSIS.
    • Diaphysis is made up of compact bone, and is hallow, forming a canal within the shaft. This Marrow canal contains Yellow bone marrow, which is mostly adipose tissue. The Epiphysis are made of Spongy bBone covered by a thin layer of Compact Bone.
  • Short Bones
    • Bones of the wrist and ankles.
    • Flat Bones –The ribs , shoulder blades, hipbones, and cranial bones .
    • Irregular Bones – The vertedbrae and facial bones.
  • Development of Bones
    • Bone growth begins long before birth.The basic shape of a Long bone,such as an arm bone is the first form as CARTILAGE.
    • Cartilage is a tough but flexible connective tissue that unlike bone does not contain blood vessels.
    • Cartilage cells must rely on the Diffusion of nutrients from tiny blood vessels( capillaries )
    • The cells that make up cartilage are scattered in a network of fibers composed of an elastic protein called collagen.
    • Cartillage is dense and fibrous,can support weight but is still extremely flexible.
    • Many bones in a newborn ,baby are composed almost entirely of cartilage’soft spot’ of a babies head!
    • Latter the cartilage cells will be replaced by cells that form the bones. The cartilage is replaced during ossification or the process of bone formation.
    • Ossification begins to take place up to seven months before birth as mineral (calcium and Phosphorous) Deposits are laid down near the center of the bone ( center of ossification in each bone.
    • Boe tissue forms as osteocytes secrets mineral deposits that replace the cartillae or a bone matrix gradually replaces the original cartilage.
    • The long bones develop and grow through out childhood centers of ossification in their epiphysis.
    • Growth occurs in the epiphyseal disc or plate (Growth plates) at the junction of the diaphysis with each epiphysis ( at each end of the bone)
    • An EPIPHYSEAL Disc still cartillage and the bone grows in length as more cartillage is produced on the epiphysis side.
    • On the diaphysis side ,osteoblast ( cells that produce bone matrix ( A blast cell is a producing cell and osteo means bone to replace cartillage
    • Such places include the tip of the nose ,the external ear ,the voice box(Larynx and the ends of bones where joints are formed,cartilage is also found where the ribs are attached to the breastbone (STERNUM) thus, allowing the rib cage to move during breathing.
    • Cartilage provides an important combination of strength and flexibility.
  • SKELETAL ORGANIZATION
    • All the bones in the body makes up the skeleton. there are 206 total bones in the human body.
    • The skeleton supports the body’s weight, enables it to move and protects many of its internal organs.
  • HUMAN SKELETON TWO DIVISIONS
    • A. The Axial Skeleton – consists of the skull, vertebrae, column and the rib cage.
    • B. The Appendicular Skeleton – consists of the bones of the arms and legs,shoulder and the pelvic girdle.
  • AXIAL SKELETON
    • The skull consists of 8 cranial bones and 13 facial bones,22 total
    • The ears consists of 6 bones and floating in the throat at 1 bone at the hyoid.7 total.
    • The vertebra; column( SPINAL COLUMN OR BACKBONE ) consists of 7 cervical (NECK) vertebral,12 thoracic,5 lumbar and 5 fused vertebrae into 1 sacrum and 4 to 5 small fused vertebrae into 1 coccyx ( your tail bone) 26 total
    • The rib cage (Thoracic Cage) Consits of the 12 pairs of ribs 24 bones and the sternum,or breastbone,25 total
  • APPENDICULAR SKELETON BONES
    • The pectoral girdle consists of 4 bones and upper limb consists of 60 bones ;60 total.
    • The hands and wrist consists of 54 separate bones.
    • The pelvic girdle consists of 2 bones and the lower consists of sixty bones ;60 total
  • FRACTURES AND THE REPAIR
    • A Fracture means that a bone has been cracked or broken .a bone fracture may be simple crack or the bone may actually break into two or more pieces.
  • DIFFERENT TYPES OF FRACTURES
    • Simple (Closed) the broken parts are still in normal anatomical position;sorrounding tissue damage is minimal (Skin is not pierced)
      • Compound ( Open)the broken end of a bone has been moved and it pierces the skin,there may be extensive damage to sorrounding blood vessels,nerves and the muscles.
    • GREENSTICK- The bone splits longitudinally( breaks along the long axis of the bone. The bones of children contain more collagen than do adults bones and tend to splinter rather than break completely.
    • COMMINUTED- Two or more intersecting breaks create several bone fragments.
    • IMPACTED- The broken ends of a bone are forced into one another; many bone fragments may be created.
    • SPONTANEOUS (PATHOLOGIC)- A bone breaks without apparent trauma; may accompany bone disorders such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
    • THE REPAIR PROCESS
    • Even simple fracture involves significant bone damage that must be repaired if the bone is to resume normal function.
    • Fragments of dead or damage bone must first be removed. This is accomplished by OSTEOCLAST (A BONE-DESTROYING CELL; REABSORBS BONE MATRIX AS PART OF GROWTH OR REPAIR OF BONES), WHICH DISSOLVE AND REABSORB THE CALCIUM SALTS OF BONE MATRIX.
    • Imagine a building collapsed; the ruble must be removed reconstruction can take place. This is what Osteoclasts do.
    • The NEW BONE must be produced.
    • The INNER LAYER of the PERIOSTEUM contains OSTEOBLASTS that are activated when bone is damaged. The Osteoblasts produce bone matrix to knit the broken ends bone together. Holding a broken ends close to each other and keeping them completely speeds the healing of bones. That is why a bone fracture is often treated by encasing the fractured limb in a cast.
    • Since most bone has a good blood supply, the repair process is usually