Sess06 2 maize   orange fleshed sweetpotato (ofsp) intercropping- potential for use to enhance food security and the scaling-up butrition effort in malawi
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  • 1. MAIZE – ORANGE-FLESHED SWEETPOTATO (OFSP) INTERCROPPING: POTENTIAL FOR USE TO ENHANCE FOOD SECURITY AND THE SCALING-UP NUTRITION EFFORT IN MALAWI Putri E Abidin, F.C. Chipungu, T. Nyekanyeka, T. Chilanga, I. Benesi, O. Mwenye, J. Kazembe, B. Botha and E. E. CareyMALAWI GOVERNMENT Prepared by Naivasha, Kenya, 30th June to 4th July 2013
  • 2. Presentation outline Background, challenges, opportunities Materials and Methods Results and Discussion Concluding Remarks
  • 3. Challenges in Malawi Climate change – maize is a staple food Declining soil fertility picture: finger millet
  • 4. Small sized landholding High levels of poverty, under-nutrition and 59 %VAD under 5 years Challenges in Malawi
  • 5. Food diversification is in the core of Agriculture’s policy The SUN 1000 Special Days initiative was launched in July 2011 High population hard working people potential manpower and eager to adopt technology OPPORTUNITIES IN MALAWI
  • 6. Mzimba-Northern Region Dedza - Central Mulanje-Southern Chikhwawa-Shire Valley - Southern INTERCROPPING MAIZE + SWEETPOTATO IS COMMONLY PRACTICED BY RESOURCE-POOR FARMERS IN MALAWI
  • 7. 2010/2011 rainy season 2011/2012 rainy season Crops: Sweetpotato: OFSP, Zondeni variety Maize: SC 627 cultivar MATERIALS AND METHODS Treatments: strip and intra cropping T-1: 2 rows OFSP and 1 row maize T-2: 1 row OFSP and 1 row maize T-3: 1 row OFSP and 2 rows maize T-4: Intra planting 3 plants OFSP and 1 plant maize T-5: Sweetpotato pure stand T-6: Maize pure stand 2 Seasons: 2010/12 & 2011/12 Planting distance: Within plants 30 cm; between rows 75 cm Fertilizers: only for maize based on recommendation in Malawi Location: on-station Bvumbwe Research Station, Blantyre Harvests: Maize: 4MAP; OFSP: 5, 6, 7MAP Data analysed by Genstat 2005 Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) was calculated
  • 8. 2010/2011 season 2011/2012 season Mean of seasons Maize wt shelled after drying (t/ha) OFSP wt marketable roots (t/ha) Maize wt shelled after drying (t/ha) OFSP wt marketable roots (t/ha) Maize wt shelled after drying (t/ha) Treatment (OFSP plants:Maize plants/plot) T1: 2 rows OFSP:1 row maize (260:140) 5.1 28.8 1.5 11 3.30 T2: 1 row OFSP:1 row maize (200:200) 5.3 21.2 1.7 12 3.56 T3: 1 row OFSP vs 2 rows maize (120:280) 4.6 19.5 1.8 17 3.22 T4: Intra 3 OFSP plants and 1 maize plant (300:100) 4.1 26.5 1.2 12 2.71 T5: OFSP monoculture (400:0) - - - 12 T6: Maize monoculture (0:400) - - 2.3 - P-value ** * * * (*) LSD 0.8 6.66 0.6 3.5 (0.529) Block (Maize) or Harvest (OFSP) B1 or H1: 5 MAP 4.7 10.8 1.6 10 3.09 B2 or H2: 6 MAP 4.8 15.9 2.0 13 3.30 B3 or H3: 7 MAP - 45.2 1.4 15 - P-value Ns ** (*) ** ns LSD 5% 5.74 (0.4) 2.7 Grand mean 4.8 24 1.7 13 3.20 cv (%) 10 28.3 25.2 28.6 24 Yields of maize (4 MAP) and OFSP cv. Zondeni (5, 6 and 7 MAP) in intercropping arrangements evaluated during 2 seasons at Bvumbwe Research Station, Malawi (** highly significant at <0.01, LSD 5%; * significant at <0.05, LSD 5%; brackets: p-value<0.1, LSD 10%; ns = non-significant)
  • 9. No. of marketable roots per plot (plant) Wt. marketable roots (t/ha) Total Yield storage roots (t/ha) Treatment (SP plants/plot) T1: 2 rows OFSP : 1 row maize (260) 359 (1.38) 19.9 23.1 T2: 1 row OFSP : 1 row maize (200) 345 (1.73) 16.7 19.2 T3: 1 row OFSP : 2 rows maize (120) 278 (2.32) 18.0 20.4 T4: Intra 3 OFSP plants : 1 maize plant (300) 387 (1.29) 19.3 21.5 P-value ** ns ns LSD 59.6 - - Environment (Harvest) H1: 5 MAP 304 10.6 12.3 H2: 6 MAP 399 14.5 16.7 H3: 7 MAP 323 30.3 34.1 P-value (*) ** ** LSD (73.6) 7.16 7.88 Season 2010/2011 rainy season 323 24.0 27.3 2011/2012 rainy season 361 13.0 14.7 P-value ns ** ** LSD - 2.52 5.56 Grand mean 342 18.5 21.0 cv (%) 41.4 42.1 42.2 Mean yields of OFSP cv. Zondeni harvested at 5, 6 and 7 MAP, intercropping with maize in four spatial arrangements over 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 (** highly significant at p-value<0.01, LSD 5%; * significant at p-value<0.05, LSD 5%; brackets: p-value<0.1, LSD 10%; and ns = non-significant)
  • 10. Treatment 2010/2011 Season 2011/2012 Season No. of Respon dents Rank No. of Respon dents Rank T1: 2 rows ofsp : 1 row maize 13 2 19 1 T2: 1 row ofsp : 1 row maize 12 3 6 2 T3: 1 row ofsp : 2 row maize 24 1 4 4 T4: Intra 3 ofsp plants: 1 maize plant 3 4 0 6 T5: ofsp Monoculture - - 5 3 T6: Maize Monoculture - - 2 5 Opinions of respondents collected during the open days conducted in rainy season of 2010/2011(n=52) and 2011/2012 (n=36).
  • 11. 2:1 OFSP/ maize row 1:1 OFSP/ maize row 1:2 OFSP/ maize rows 3:1 OFSP/ maize plant Sole Maize Sole OFSP Year 1: 2010/2011 rainy season Income from maize sale ($0.175/kg)* 312 464 564 179 Income from OFSP sale ($0.5/kg or $0.175/kg)* 9,360/3,276 5,300/1,855 2,925/1,024 9,938/ 3,478 Total variable cost 1743 1756 1770 1736 Profit (when OFSP is at $0.5/kg or $0.175/kg)* 7,929/1,845 4,007/562 1,718/ -183 8,381/ 1,921 Year 2: 2011/2012 rainy season Income from maize sale ($0.167/kg)* 88 142 210 50 383 Income from OFSP sale ($0.33/kg or $0.167/kg)* 2,383/1,192 2,033/ 1017 1,650/ 825 3,100/ 1,550 4,000/ 2,000 Total variable cost 1171 1183 1197 1163 1221 1144 Profit (when OFSP is at $0.33/kg or $0.167/kg)* 1,300/ 109 992/ -24 663/ -162 1,987/ 437 -838 2,856/ 856 Income and profit per intercropped (USD) from intercropping maize and OFSP Zondeni during 2 rainy seasons in Malawi
  • 12. CONCLUDING REMARKS Strip intercropping of maize and sweetpotato appears to have considerable potential to contribute to crop diversification, cropping system intensification and sustainability, farm profitability and household food and nutrition security in increasingly risk-prone maize production systems in Malawi Further intercropping studies with orange-fleshed sweetpotato, maize, soybeans and onion using participatory approaches under on-farm conditions are recommended.
  • 13. Acknowledgement Thank you very much for your attention! grasshoppers Sweetpotato leaves OFSP roots For support toward promoting OFSP development & promotion in Malawi A healthy local food IRISH AID, Malawi Government, Implementing Partners Farmers