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    Wilson presentation Wilson presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Human Brain Development *Neural Tube Formation QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. *Brain Growth QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. *Synapse Formation TIFFQuickTime™ thisdecom and a (Uncompressed) pictur are needed to seeBy Cheryl Wilson, Belmont High School http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_development http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_090407.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_with_mHtt_inclusion.jpg
    • 1. Neural Tube Formation- 2. Brain Formation- induction, proliferation & shape changes Proliferation, differentiation & migration QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray16.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_development http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_development Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fetus.jpg
    • 3. Wiring the Brain & Nervous SystemEach neuron, once in place, must send axon connections to exactly the correct target! Gray matter-neuronal cell bodies (brownish when fixed) TIFFQuickTime™ thisdecompressor and a (Uncompressed) picture. are needed to see White matter-neuronal axon (connections) QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Some neurons have axons 3 feet long!!! Finding the proper target to make a connection with is a highly complex process! http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Nervous_system_diagram.png http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Visible_Human_head_slice.jpg Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • Growth, differentiation, development and normal functioning of the nervous system (like all organ systems) requires:Correct Gene Expression at the Correct Time and Place. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Complete_neuron_cell_diagram_en.svg
    • Neural Tube Formation in the Human Embryo-Cross Section Neural Crest Central Canal Neural Tube Ectoderm Body Cavity Mesoderm Endoderm Skin Neural Crest Neural Plate Neural Tube Neural Groove Early Neural Crest Neural Fold Neural Tube Notochord & Somites Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • Longitutinal Cross Section of Early Embryo Cephalic End Neural Tube (neurons and glia) Central Canal (will be QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor spinal canal and ventricles) are needed to see this picture. Caudal End http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_development Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • The 3-Vesicle Stage of Embryonic Brain Development QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Encephalon.pnghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:4_week_embryo_brain.jpg and edited by CW Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • The 5-Vesicle Stage of Embryonic Brain Development Metencephalon Mylencephalon QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:6_week_embryo_brain.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Encephalon.png and edited by CW Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • Overview of Brain Development 1. Neural Tube Formation QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor QuickTime™ and a TIFF needed to see thisdecompressor are needed to see this picture. are (Uncompressed) picture. 2. Brain Formation QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. 3. Wiring the Brain & Nervous System http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/1b/Development_of_nervous_system.png and edited by CW http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:4_week_embryo_brain.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:6_week_embryo_brain.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_bulbar_region.svghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_development Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • Longitutinal Cross Section of Early Embryo Cut Cephalic End Neural Tube Cross-Section Neural Tube (neurons and glia) QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Central Canal (will be spinal canal and ventricles) Caudal End http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_development Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • Inside Out Brain Growth in the Human Embryo- Neurons proliferate on the ventricular side of the neural tube Neurons migrate towards the marginal side in waves Each wave of neurons travel past the earlier layers Again. Neural Tube (early CNS) Central Canal (early spinal cord or brain ventricles)Ventricular zone(inner) Most neurons migrate radially from the ventricular zone towards Again. the marginal zone, Marginal zone following glial cell fibers. (outer) The next wave of migrating neurons goes Again. past the previously-settled cells. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • Correct temporal-spatial gene expression is critical for the correct neurons to find each other! 3. Once neurons have reached their final 2. Cells migrate destination, they must now past the last wave of QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor send out their axons to are needed to see this picture. cells to deposit make connections with the correct target and be responsive to receive the correct signals.1. Ventricular zone-Where proliferation/celldivision occurs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_development With labelling by CW Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
    • QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray754.png Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.