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Uxpa 2012 ucd and change management
 

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UCD and Change management - presentation at UXPA 2012 Las Vegas

UCD and Change management - presentation at UXPA 2012 Las Vegas

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    Uxpa 2012 ucd and change management Uxpa 2012 ucd and change management Presentation Transcript

    • UCD and Change Management UXPA 2012 Las Vegas Henning Brau Tobias Limbach June 7th, 2012
    • 01. DETERMINING POSITIONS
    • 01. DETERMINING POSITIONS TODAY‘S SCOPE: IMPLEMENTING USER-CENTERED-DESIGN IN A COMPANY CONTEXT USABILITY SOFTWARE TESTING REQUIREMENTS CONCEPTS DESIGNPage 4 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 02. CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND UCD
    • UCDneedstoliveUXManagersWeare thelawyersoftheusersiterativeora gileprocessasNielsenalready5use 02. CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND UCD rsareenough300%ROI&UXMatters THE UNFULFILLED PROMISE & COMMON APPROACHES Communication http://www.insideoutshop.de/ images/GuruGuruEssen.jpg http://www.12manage.com/images/picture_design_thinking.jpg Knowledge http://www.bluehaired.com/corner/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/this-is-service-design-thinking.jpghttp://branddna.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/c2bfque-es-el-design-thinking1.jpg Page 7 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 02. CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND UCD UX-CRUSADES IN COMPANIES − We are experts! − We have established methods! − We generate added value! − We have standards on which our work is based on! − We are the lawyers of the user! http://www.monacensis.de/tipps/wehrtechnik/Die_Muenchner_Sagitari/images/schlacht.jpgPage 8 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 02. CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND UCD UX-CRUSADES – MISSIONARY ZEAL AND THEN WHAT? UCD is not the only way to happiness (did you know?)Page 9 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 02. CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND UCD UCD IS NOT THE ONLY WAY TOWARDS HAPPINESS − Product development is paradigmatic » Visual Design = aesthetic/creative » Engineering = problem solving/efficient » UCD = phenomenological/reactive − Paradigms pursue the same goal and attain it. − There is no right way. − Who keeps only to peers / builts up his own sect with followers, looses access to other paradigms.Page 10 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 03. PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE
    • 03. PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS = SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND POWER SYSTEMS upper Goals & Values A-Level management • Definition of overall company goals C-Levels - Normative - • Definition of company values Power-Distance-Reduction middle E1 (Board) management Portfolio & Orientation • Integration into business areas E2 (Center) - Strategic- • Introduction and management of strategic lower orientation E3 (Dept.) management Implementation - Operative - • Process definition E4 (Team) • Process execution and optimization members of staff Engineer  Change could apply to different levels; participation raises power distancePage 12 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 03. PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE BASICS: ABOUT THE INERTIA OF MASSES Newton’s laws: − “Every body persists in its state of being at rest except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed.” Changes need sufficient energy. − “To every action there is always an opposite reaction.” The change’s recurring action potential must be bigger than the one for preserving the state of being at rest.  Documentation / Communication without context = Counter movements http://de.academic.ru/pictures/dewiki/78/Newtons_laws_in_latin.jpgPage 13 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 03. PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE ENERGY SOURCES FOR ORGANIZATION CHANGES Revolutionary Evolutionary Answer to crisis A commitment is the trigger » Changed market forces (Crash) » Unfulfilled promises of salvation » Technological Developments (iPhone) » Anticipation of trends » Social Trends (Bio/Eco) − Change does not seem necessary, − When a paradigm promises to solve thus high potential of resistance crisis = Change probable − Without creating the critical mass − Resistances are generally given, but = no change „lame duck“ if critical situation is acceptedPage 14 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 03. PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE CONTRADICTIONS What is the Change Management Paradox?Page 15 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 03. PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT MEANS REDUCING UNCERTAINTIES Require- Implemen- Testing & Further Concept Sundown ments tation Deployment Development − There are time schedules − There are budgets − There are methods and processes Why? In order to create security.Page 16 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 03. PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE CHANGE MEANS CREATING INSECURITIES FREEZE UNFREEZE FREEZE Note: Friction creates heat.Page 17 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 03. PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE RESISTANCE – REACTANCE THEORY (BREHM, 1972) 1. Consequence of a perceived restriction of room for free action (self-efficacy). 2. Reaction: regain lost room for perceived self-efficacy (actively / passively). − Resistance is necessary, has reasons, and has rationalization within its context − Never try to break or rationalize away resistance! − Participation raises awareness of own room for action and enhances quality − Measures that create acceptance reduce reactancePage 18 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE APPROPRIATE ROLE WITHIN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT OF USABILITY/UX CONTEXT TESTING REQUIREMENTS CONCEPTS USABILITY/UX MANAGER − Is responsible for the UCD across units User Requirements Engineer − Competent in processes and methods Interaction Designer − Plans and monitors the UCD Information Architect − Defines tasks and results User Interface Designer Usability/UX Tester − Ensures quality of executionPage 21 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE CHANGE MANAGER VS. USABILITY / UX PROFESSIONAL CLIENT DESIGN CLIENT CUSTOMER 1 USABILITY/UX CHANGE MGR. DEVELOPMENT USER CUSTOMER 2 CUSTOMER 3 • Focus on user group(s) and their goals in a • Focus on internal customer group(s) and their specific context goals within the organization • System design from the user’s point of view • Organization design from the customer’s point of view • „Lawyer of the user“: Cooperation with Peers • Neutral partner within the organization • Micro politics as source of irritation • Micro politics as means for workPage 22 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE CHANGE MANAGER AND. USABILITY / UX PROFESSIONAL USABILITY/UX CHANGE MGR. • Is working with people • Needs to understand different contexts • Needs to know motivations and expectations of people • Needs to be creative to convince peoplePage 23 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE SOME BASIC RULES: #1: BE NEUTRAL Anyone who is the beneficiary is in danger of being noncredible. If the change manager’s trust balance is negative, the project is probably lost. − The change manager moderates, mediates, and documents » Is a man of conviction – no fervent crusader » Is factual in a comprehensible way in his decisions » Is partner of all lots » Is planner and companion, not shaperPage 24 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE SOME BASIC RULES: #2: DEFINE A CLEAR SCOPE Change Processes fail if they become too large because the critical mass cannot be attained. If goals are set, a strategy can be established: − Change Processes are potentially never-ending, therefore a project character is needed » Definite start, definite end, definite deliverables, definite intermediate steps  Project management − 10 stakeholders have 100 opinions about what is needed » Consult extensively, but push for a binding decision − Document the scope, do not deviate from it » If expansion is needed, reduce elsewhere – or stop!Page 25 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE SOME BASIC RULES: #3: CREATE NUMBERS (KPI) – CREATE SECURITY Target figures and methods of project management create security, especially in technical domains: − Gather plausible, resilient figures (time, expenses, benefits) − Let yourself be measured based on these figures − Be realistic – do not make promises which you cannot keep 10 steps saved 300 users x 30 employees x 4 usages a day x 50 walks per shift x 3 seconds = 3.3 million steps / year = 3.3 million steps / year = 86 workdays = 27,5 workdaysPage 26 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE SOME BASIC RULES: #4: KNOW AND USE QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality Management according to ISO 9001: − Quality = Product meets certain usability demands for a specific context (US product liability law: “fitness for use“) − ISO 9241-part 110: Effective, efficient, and satisfactory achievement of objectives in a specific context − When a company is certified according to ISO 9001 or works for a certified company, the QM representative has great influence on the companyPage 27 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE SOME BASIC RULES: #5: BE COMPETENT, COMMUNICATEE TARGET GROUP ORIENTED Change Processes fail if the change agent is seen as outside of the field or out of touch. Therefore, context and user research is necessary: − Acquire extensive knowledge about special fields and their vocabulary − Analyze and understand fundamental processes, roles, and tasks − Analyze potential to change, know positive impacts as well as negative ones − Work out strategies of communication based on factors relevant for acceptance: » Level » Units » OccasionsPage 28 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE SOME BASIC RULES: #6: INVOLVE MANAGERS BY COLLECTING ASSIGNMENTS The lower level cannot evade your work if you have an assignment of the next higher one: − Never tell management what you want to do but ask: 1. What potentials and risks the change would have in his area 2. What you should do for him in what time frame in order to realize the potentials 3. Who from his team you can involve − Give announced feedback on a regular basis in a form suitable for management: » This was the assignment » This was achieved with these people » These difficulties occur/occurred » These suggestions need to be confirmedPage 29 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE SOME BASIC RULES: #7: INVOLVE EXTENSIVELY, BUT FORCEFULLY Participation can be ordered, but not personal dedication. Cooperation must be mandatory and aligned with personality in order for multiplier effects to take place − Implementation is achieved on level of operation » Creation of a network of committees across special fields − Identification (conferences!) and team spirit must be actively created − Approval process on a higher level provides for sustainability − Clear stages of escalation in the hierarchy create pressure to succeed − In the beginning there are small, clear-cut goals, where cooperation takes placePage 30 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE SOME BASIC RULES: #8: LEARN TO HANDLE RESISTANCES Reason for resistance Course of action Information deficit of stakeholders; rumors and Communication: Deliver targeted information for misjudgment stakeholders from a reliable source One-sided information deficit of change agents; Participation with regard to content: Win and engage stakeholders have considerable potential for resistance multipliers, also against initial resistances; avoid one- sided communication! Stakeholders’ resistance caused by adjustment Protect affected stakeholders; offer support, trainings problems Win-loss situation for stakeholders; powerful groups of Negotiate contents; accept deviations from plan without interest extending the scope in order to have your foot in the door Resistance against mandatory imposition Disciplinary intervention by means of hierarchy; point out consequencesPage 31 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • 04. MANAGE THE CHANGE ROLES & TASKS OF A SUCCESSFUL CHANGE MANAGER 1. Definition of scope with client 2. Analysis of organization and processes (as-is) with client, including stakeholder analysis CLIENT CUSTOMER 1 3. Recognise potentials for change 4. Acceptance projection 5. Identification of alliances CHANGE AGENT 6. Strategy development - network of committees - measures CUSTOMER 2 CUSTOMER 3 - participation - communication 7. Coordination, Monitoring and Implementation of Tracking 8. Continual Improvement Processes (CIP)Page 32 | June 7th, 2012 | UCD and Change Management
    • Thank you for your attention
    • Tobias Limbach Henning BrauTEAM MANAGER UX DESIGN DIRECTOR USER EXPERIENCE CONSULTINGTobias.limbach@uid.com henning.brau@uid.com www.uid.com