TARP Presentation: Law and Justice and Governance


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  • Urban Aboriginal identity is complex and nuanced and very difficult to empirically quantify. It involves complex processes pertaining to how one self-identifies (e.g. sense of self, family background, personality, socialization experiences etc.) as well as how members of the larger society perceive them (e.g. positive or negative stereotypes, media images, effects of residential schools and colonization etc.). An individual’s identity is about “meaning” and is formed and maintained as a social process of interaction with others. Identities are both individually unique and collectively shared. Further, individuals have multiple identities based on such factors as race, gender, age, social class, occupation, nationality etc. and can change over time. Therefore, defining oneself as an Aboriginal person in a complex urban centre like Toronto where individuals are involved in numerous roles can be challenging. Some people consider that a connection to a “traditional” Aboriginal culture is fundamental to an individual’s identity. This sometimes entails a relationship to the land, knowledge of an Aboriginal language, understanding of traditional teachings and participation in cultural ceremonies. Others speak of the idea of Aboriginal “blood memory” as a biological component of an individual’s ancestry regardless of their connection to traditional culture. While the research demonstrates that a significant number of people retain connections to their community of origin for cultural maintenance purposes, for others living in the city this is not a viable option.  For the vast majority of the TARP respondents their identity as an Aboriginal person is central to their sense of who they are. Thus, for many urban Aboriginal people in Toronto other “markers” of identity are important. Some respondents suggested that the values and attitudes as well as how you live your life are critical to your Aboriginal identity. Values of caring, sharing, respect and honesty are hallmarks of Aboriginal culture. Others spoke of the shared experiences and common ways of behaving that characterize the lives of most Aboriginal people are important for an individual’s identity. Yet others emphasize the feeling of belonging and connections to a common culture and community are keys to their identity. Being a member of a group with common “status” such as First Nation, Métis or Inuit or being from the same community of origin can be a meaningful marker of identity. Participating in Aboriginal activities such as pow wows, feasts and socials, arts events and cultural ceremonies are important ways for some to reinforce their identity. In other words, there are many complex and nuanced aspects of creating an Aboriginal identity in the city and each individual is unique. The question of how individuals negotiate their individual and collective cultural identity is an unanswered question in research. There is, therefore, a need for further research on this topic.  The role that organizations play in supporting identity formation and development must be responsive to the needs of the current generation of Aboriginal people, whether the first, second or third generation of Aboriginal urban residents. The significance of Aboriginal organizations in Toronto, either through social service agencies, economic development or through the arts provide a supportive environment and multi-disciplinary opportunities to build positive identities for Aboriginal people is integral to the growth of the community. Urban identity formation has only been examined in recent years; however we see that it has been happening for decades at the grassroots level around kitchen tables across the city. The research has showed the significant link between Aboriginal organizations and identity formation for Aboriginal people in Toronto. In addition, many Aboriginal people maintain links with their community of origin to support their culture and identity. As mentioned, the Aboriginal population in Toronto has shifted in recent years. It is no longer composed exclusively of recent migrant from First Nation or Métis communities. The urban Aboriginal population is now more diverse with varied identities, including many individual with “mixed” cultural identities. Aboriginal organizations are increasingly challenged to respond to this new diverse group of Aboriginal people. Some community members are survivors of residential schools and have experienced elements of traditional culture from being raised in their communities. Others may have little or no ties to their Aboriginal community of origin and are reliant on the urban Aboriginal urban community to provide them with a culture foundation. Respondents felt strongly that there was a need for a dedicated culture centre that was separate from social service agencies (See Recommendation # 42).  As well, there was a perceived dominance of Anishnawbe people and culture in present Aboriginal organizations which tended to hinder community members from other groups from learning about their own cultures and traditions and contributed to the divisiveness within the Aboriginal community. An important issue articulated in the research was the loss of Aboriginal languages. Eighty-one percent of respondents were unable to converse in their Aboriginal language. Language is a very important component of culture.  
  • To begin, I’d like to introduce you to the concept of two – eyed seeing. This concept is from Mi’kmaq Elder, Albert Marshall and refers to a co-learning model where people come together to learn from each other, balancing western and indigenous worldviews.As we go through the presentation today, I encourage you all to consider looking at the information we give to you from multiple perspective or lenses, recognizing that by bringing the best of both worlds together, we can make really amazing things happen.
  • What is TASSC?Formally the Toronto Aboriginal Support Services AssociationHistory/ evolution http://www.flickr.com/photos/mattyp/17036700/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  • Social determinants of healthhttp://indivision.ca/imageland//3353.jpg
  • Aboriginal social determinants of health http://phprimer.afmc.ca/sites/default/files/primer_versions/57540/primer_images/image5.jpg?1321286981
  • One of the major contributions of TASSC to the Toronto Aboriginal Community is commissioning the Toronto Aboriginal Research Project. Describe TARP….history and evolutionhttp://gravityinc.ca/portfolio/graphics/tarp/aboriginal-report-1.jpg
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  • What we’ve found in the TARP report (and elsewhere) is that we can really accomplish some amazing things when we work together. So throughout this presentation, we will highlight some of the ways that you can get involved or work with us, if you aren’t already.http://www.flickr.com/photos/lollyman/4424552903/sizes/o/in/photostream/
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  • There is strong support within the Toronto Aboriginal community to develop an elected, representative political body as an expression of urban Aboriginal self-government.There is, however much uncertainty and apprehension within the Toronto Aboriginal community concerning how this can happen and what form it will take.A number of challenges to the development of Aboriginal self-government were identified including, the practical challenges of development, a lack of community cohesion, a lack of government recognition, and inter-agency competition.The City of Toronto has formally committed to supporting the Aboriginal right to self-government in the city.The Toronto Aboriginal Support Services Council (TASSC) is a representative voice of Aboriginal social service agencies in Toronto and most able to support the development of a more representative community-wide governing process. In 1995, the federal government formally announced its policy on Aboriginal Self-Government, recognizing it as an inherent Aboriginal right under section 35 of the 1982 Constitution Act. The policy specifically states that the inherent right is based on ‘the view that the Aboriginal peoples of Canada have the right to govern themselves in relation to matters that are internal to their communities.’ Over the years both the courts, and the various levels of Canadian government, have interpreted this right as applying exclusively to First Nations in relation to the settling of land and resource claims and the development of community governance structures.  In cities across Canada, there are instances of urban Aboriginal agency cooperation and coordination in the interests of enhancing community governance as well as some Aboriginal organizations exercising provincial statutory mandates in the areas such as child welfare and education. Nonetheless, there are presently no formal agreements between urban Aboriginal communities and either of the three levels of Canadian government that recognize the urban Aboriginal right of self-government. In Section 35, the 1982 Constitution Act provides constitutional protection to Aboriginal and treaty rights in Canada and specifically states that ‘existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed’, while defining Aboriginal peoples in Canada to include Indians, Inuit, and MétisFor further reading please see the federal policy statement ‘The Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government’ at http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/al/ldc/ccl/pubs/sg/sg-eng.asp#inhrsgFor further reading see Belanger’s 2008 ed. ‘Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues’. The 1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples proposed two possible models of urban Aboriginal governance. The ‘reform of urban government and public authorities’ model called for greater local political participation through designated Aboriginal political representation on municipal councils and related political bodies and the co-management of urban programs and services. As well, a ‘community of interest’ model proposed greater Aboriginal political autonomy through the voluntary association of a diversity of urban Aboriginal organizations. In this way, urban Aboriginal agencies would form an integrated Aboriginal public service that would then establish a larger city-wide politically representative bodyhttp://www.theytus.com/var/ezwebin_site/storage/images/book-list/aboriginality-and-governance-a-multidisciplinary-perspective-from-quebec/2468-1-eng-GB/Aboriginality-and-Governance-A-Multidisciplinary-Perspective-from-Quebec_theytustitlemain.jpg
  • There’s strong support to develop an elected, representative political body as an expression of aboriginal self government; but at this point there is no consensus on how it will look or how we will get there. As well, Toronto Public Health has established a community based ‘Round Table on Aboriginal Health in Toronto’ that works to address gaps in health programs and services for Aboriginal peoples. A significant expression of the ‘reform of urban government and public authorities’ is also found in the 2010 ‘Statement of Commitment to Aboriginal communities in Toronto’ in which the City of Toronto has formally committed to ‘supporting the Aboriginal right to self-determination by working inclusively with Aboriginal communities in Torontohttp://deepcutvillage.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/annual-meeting-of-the-council-2011-3.jpg
  • The city of Toronto has formally committed to supporting the Aboriginal right to self governance in this cityhttp://treatyrepublic.net/images/2010/tsawwassen-first-nation.jpg
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  • Little sense of collective citizenshiphttp://www.sundayschoolleader.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/divided-groups.jpg
  • Uninvolved middle classhttp://transformation.cer.uz/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Picture-for-Kamilov-I.-post.jpg
  • How do we engage all levels of government?http://www.callcentrehelper.com/images/stories/2010/employee-engagement21.jpg
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  • Access to aboriginal cultural activitieshttp://chrismartinphotography.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/pow-wow-dancer-7.jpg
  • What do we need for governance?Strong leadership and communication http://anovelquest.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Thing.jpg
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  • What is TASSC?Formally the Toronto Aboriginal Support Services AssociationHistory/ evolution http://www.flickr.com/photos/mattyp/17036700/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  • Recommendation # 53: That a broad-based group of Aboriginal organizations undertake a series of meeting to discuss the idea and feasibility of establishing Aboriginal urban self government in Toronto. Recommendation # 54: That discussions be initiated between urban Aboriginal organizations in partnership with the three levels of government with a view to exploring the idea of Aboriginal self government in Toronto. http://socialspark.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/recommend.png
  • Recommendation # 53: That a broad-based group of Aboriginal organizations undertake a series of meeting to discuss the idea and feasibility of establishing Aboriginal urban self government in Toronto. Recommendation # 54: That discussions be initiated between urban Aboriginal organizations in partnership with the three levels of government with a view to exploring the idea of Aboriginal self government in Toronto. http://socialspark.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/recommend.png
  • That a broad based group of aboriginal organizations undertake a series of meeting to discuss the idea and feasibility of establishing aboriginal urban self government in Torontohttp://www.pm-primer.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/doorchoice.jpg
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  • That discussion be initiated between urban aboriginal organizations in partnership with the three levels of government with a view of exploring the idea of aboriginal self governance in Toronto http://www.productivemuslim.com/wp-content/uploads/discussion.jpg
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  •   An unstable or traumatic childhood - at least half of the 1995-97 cohort had been adopted, placed in foster homes or had attended a residential school;A low level of education - two-thirds of this cohort have less than a high school education;A high level of substance abuse problems - approximately 60 per cent have problems with alcohol and/or drugs;A large proportion of repeat offenders - three-quarters have had criminal convictions prior to their involvement with the CCP;A low level of employment - less than one-fifth were employed at the point of diversion;Little connection with the Aboriginal community - over half had no involvement with Aboriginal organizations or services;Little contact with services that could assist them with their problems - almost 90 per cent had had no contact with social workers, psychologists or psychiatrists;A high level of transiency - many efforts to locate and contact these clients as well as more recent ones were unsuccessful.For further reading please see, 2000. Evaluation of the Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto Community Council Program: Final Report. At: http://www.web.net/~alst/evales.htm
  • According to the 2006 Census, Aboriginal men living in Toronto are less likely to earn a university degree than Aboriginal women. One in four (26%) Aboriginal women aged 25 to 34 reported having a university degree, in the 2006 Census, compared to 15% of their male counterparts.  As indicated in the Demographics and Mobility Chapter 3 (Chart 3Q), TARP data points to similar education results and further illustrates that Aboriginal men respondents are also more likely to not have finished high school (21%) or have a high school diploma (23%) than Aboriginal women or 2 spirit respondents. http://www.softwarehamilton.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/education.jpg
  • In terms of employment status, Aboriginal men are more likely to be unemployed and less likely to be employed in full-time positions then the overall Aboriginal population in Toronto. In Chart 5D we see a percentage of unemployment for Aboriginal men in Toronto that at 24% is 6% higher than the overall rate of 18% experienced by TARP respondents generally. Moreover, at 37% the proportion of Aboriginal men that have secured full-time permanent or contract positions is 15% lower than the 52% reported for TARP respondents generallyhttp://www.greenvalleyrecycling.ca/images/employment.gif
  • There is a limited availability of Aboriginal housing units as well as mainstream social housing.Housing is related to transition issues for Aboriginal people. Without sufficient support, those in transition from life on the streets, in shelters, from prison or from addiction rehabilitation facilities risk jeopardizing their housing situation because they lack the basic skill set to maintain a household. http://cdn.harmonyapp.com/assets/4f19941adabe9d54620099e8/bwhomelessteen.jpg
  • Recommendation: culturally based residential treatment and detox centerhttp://relationsinharmony.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/alcohol-and-drug-aduse.jpg
  •  In understanding the TARP findings on Aboriginal people and the justice system in Toronto it is important to first provide an overview of some of the larger, national patterns of Aboriginal over-representation. As the first major study of Aboriginal people and the justice system, the 1988 Manitoba Justice Inquiry was conducted in response to the deaths of Helen Betty Osborne (1971) and J.J. Harper (1988). In examining a diversity of issues including, jail times, bail, pre-trial detention, charging, time with lawyers, and incarceration rates, the inquiry found that,  Aboriginal over-representation is the end point of a series of decisions made by those with decision-making power in the justice system. An examination of each of these decisions suggests that the way that decisions are made within the justice system discriminates against Aboriginal people at virtually every point. The Manitoba Inquiry concluded that the justice system had failed Manitoba’s Aboriginal people on a ‘massive scale’ and that it had been culturally insensitive and inaccessible, and has arrested and imprisoned Aboriginal people in grossly disproportionate numbers. Moreover, it found that Aboriginal people who are arrested are significantly more likely than non-Aboriginal people to be denied bail, spend more time in pre-trial detention and spend less time with their lawyers, and if convicted, they are more likely to be incarcerated.For further reading please see the 1991 Manitoba Justice Inquiry Report at http://www.ajic.mb.ca/volumel/chapter1.htmlIbidhttp://ipolitics_assets.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/prison.jpeg
  • Racial profiling from police and security guardshttp://www.thecanadiancharger.com/cms/news/images/682/stop-racial-profiling-rock.jpg
  • People involved in the justice system tend to be young, experiencing poverty, have less education and experiencing a diversity of inter-related social problems
  • In supporting aboriginal victims and offenders, aboriginal law and justice programs are contributing to community development, healing, strong aboriginal identities, and cultural revitalization http://aboriginal.scdsb.edu.on.ca/images/photo2.jpg
  • There have been significant advancements made in the support of Aboriginal people involved with the justice system in Toronto and in the creation of Aboriginal spaces of restorative justice where the community is empowered to determine the justice needs of its members.In supporting Aboriginal victims and offenders, Aboriginal law and justice programs are contributing to community development, healing, strong Aboriginal identities, and cultural revitalization.There continue to be challenges relating to police and security guard racial profiling of Aboriginal people, the undervaluing of Aboriginal victims, and the overcharging of Aboriginal offenders.Aboriginal people involved in the justice system in Toronto tend to be those who are younger, experiencing poverty, have less education, and are experiencing a diversity of inter-related social problems including addictions, mental health challenges, and social isolation.There is a need for a diversity of additional law and justice services to Aboriginal people living in Toronto. There is a need for a community-based review and evaluation of the Toronto Aboriginal Peacekeeping Unithttp://www.vector-eps.com/wp-content/gallery/law-and-justice-images/law-and-justice-image1.jpg
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  • Aboriginal Legal Services of TorontoIn keeping with the organizational mission to ‘strengthen the capacity of the Aboriginal community and its citizens to deal with justice issues and to provide Aboriginal controlled and culturally based justice alternatives’ ALST operates six main, interrelated programs, including: the Aboriginal Courtworker Program, the Community Council Program, the Galdue (Aboriginal Persons) Court Assistance Program, the Legal Advocacy Program, the Victim’s Rights Advocacy Program, and the Youth ProgramAlthough it was beyond the scope of this study to compare Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal involvement rates within the many facets of the justice system in Toronto, the community survey did reveal a significant rate of Aboriginal involvement in that 23% of respondents indicated having accessed an Aboriginal legal service (consulted with an Aboriginal lawyer, accessed the Gladue court, and/or access the Court Worker program), in past 5 years while 21% of respondents reported having experienced being either a victim, offender, or both.  http://rvhs-denyer.com/web-back/images/Check_Mark_01.jpg
  • Restorative justiceThese more positive findings on the roles of Aboriginal justice programs in supporting Aboriginal offenders and victims through community involvement and cultural training mirror those found in Proulx’s recent text on ‘Reclaiming Aboriginal Justice, Identity, and Community’. In examining the Community Council as a community-based, restorative justice process, Proulx found that the work of the Council fostered a greater sense of Aboriginal community in Toronto, while contributing to healing, strong Aboriginal identities, and cultural revitalization and transformationhttp://fhqtc.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/JusticeLogo-.jpg
  • Recommendation # 48: That education and awareness campaigns be initiated and include both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal community members, while focusing on police officers, security guards, lawyers, and judges. The topics of the campaigns will include, Anti-racism and anti-racial profiling strategies, The cultural differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as they are expressed within the mainstream justice system, and The systemic basis of Aboriginal over-representation in the justice system and the existing reforms such as s.718.2(e), the Gladue decision, and the Toronto Community Council program.  Recommendation # 49: That government funding be allocated towards the expansion of Aboriginal, community-based law and justice services across the GTA and that further support be given to the development of services in the area Aboriginal youth and victims of crime. Recommendation # 50: That government funding be allocated towards the creation of an Aboriginal, community-base Duty Council to represent Aboriginal people at bail hearing and to work with the existing court workers as part of an integrated legal support team.  Recommendation # 51: In the interest of ensuring a degree of accountability and utility to the Aboriginal community and in order to foster improved relations with the Toronto Police Service, that there be a full, Aboriginal community-based review and evaluation of the Toronto Aboriginal Peacekeeping Unit. Recommendation # 52: That a halfway house be initiated in Toronto for Aboriginal men being released from prison to assist in their readjustment to society.http://socialspark.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/recommend.png
  • Education and awareness campaigns for aboriginal and non aboriginal people (specifically police and security guards)http://www.urbaneducationcenter.org/sites/301/uploaded/images/Educational_Awareness.jpg
  • Further funding for aboriginal community based restorative justice programs http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-AujP4XT3Y_0/Ts0_1Gc6VtI/AAAAAAAAXt0/oG2IDUGeMws/s400/money%2Bbagsmy%2Bpic2.jpg
  • Full aboriginal community based review and evaluation of the Toronto aboriginal peacekeeping unit http://samatkin.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/myclass_slobodskoy_ru.jpg
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  • We need to let go of the idea that success and failure look like this
  • And instead, recognise that success actually looks more like thishttp://www.google.ca/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1194&bih=584&tbm=isch&tbnid=J2cDhD3aGW4BVM:&imgrefurl=http://jparadisirn.com/tag/nurse/&docid=2a2K8OEp8pRB4M&imgurl=http://jparadisirn.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/img_1831.jpg&w=2332&h=1742&ei=kyxZUPDdFe260AGakoHoDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=274&vpy=270&dur=8588&hovh=195&hovw=260&tx=141&ty=101&sig=106929035323857379398&page=1&tbnh=120&tbnw=160&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0,i:95
  • Consider, instead, that we have many options, none of which have to be success and familyre. And why not just lose the labels all together.Instead start with a blank slat and know that you can work together to create your own labels!We had the other slide with only two options; success and failutre.As we see here, there are actually many options. And neighter of them have to be success or failure
  • I’ll draw your attention back to where we started – and that is with the importance of building relationships with one another to address common goals.http://www.moppingupmillions.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Building-Relationships.png
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  • TARP Presentation: Law and Justice and Governance

    1. 1. Overview of Session • Elder Opening • Welcome and Introductions • Presentation • Discussion and Q&A • Elder Closing and Blessing • Lunchwww.tassc.ca
    2. 2. TORONTO ABORIGINAL SUPPORT SERVICES COUNCIL (TASSC)Law and Justice and Aboriginal People & Urban Aboriginal Governance
    3. 3. Love Respect Courage Honesty Wisdom Humility Truth1st Annual Decolonizing Indigenous Health Research
    4. 4. www.tassc.ca
    5. 5. www.tassc.ca
    6. 6. “Self-government means to be able to decide what is in our best interest…not the government deciding this for us. It is about running our own affairs and running our own lives.” (Key Informant Interview)www.tassc.ca
    7. 7. 1995 Federal Government recognizes policies on Aboriginal Governance RCAP Recommends Urban Aboriginal Governance1996 Corbiere Decision2000 Provisional Aboriginal Council of Toronto2001 “All Voices Heard: The Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy”20042010 City of Toronto formally supports Aboriginal Right to Self Governwww.tassc.ca .
    8. 8. www.tassc.ca
    9. 9. CHART 15A: Support for Urban Aboriginal Self-Government (Quantitative n=801) 35 30 25 Percentage 20 15 10 5 0 strongly support somewhat somewhat strongly unsure/no support support oppose oppose opinionwww.tassc.ca
    10. 10. www.tassc.ca
    11. 11. “Self-government means all the control being in the hands of the community and that elected leaders listen to our voices in deciding where to spend the money.” (Key Informant Interview)www.tassc.ca
    12. 12. www.tassc.ca
    13. 13. www.tassc.ca
    14. 14. CHART 15C: Challenges to Aboriginal Self-Government in Toronto (Qualitative n=119) Unsure Lack of agency control over resources Focus on housing and education Poor leadership Inter-agency competion Lack of government recognition Lack of community cohesion Difficult to put into practice 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Percentagewww.tassc.ca
    15. 15. www.tassc.ca
    16. 16. www.tassc.ca
    17. 17. www.tassc.ca
    18. 18. www.tassc.ca
    19. 19. www.tassc.ca
    20. 20. “When we are talking about self- government, don’t you have to get rid of the existing system first? We are talking about self- governance in a system that goes against the whole idea of self-government. We are pandering and competing for dollars that are tied to priorities that we didn’t agree to and that we often don’t want.” (Governance Focus Group, Aboriginal Legal Services Toronto)www.tassc.ca
    21. 21. www.tassc.ca
    22. 22. www.tassc.ca
    23. 23. “The youth are now a part of the change that is happening. They are seeing the similarities between people from different nations, and from Métis, Inuit and First Nations peoples, and are not so divisive as adults. The youth may hold the future for self-government.” (Governance Focus Group)www.tassc.ca
    24. 24. www.tassc.ca
    25. 25. “The Aboriginal nations and cultural teachings in Toronto are very diverse. I am not sure how people could come together politically….but it would be interesting to try.” (Key Informant Interview)www.tassc.ca
    26. 26. www.tassc.ca
    27. 27. www.tassc.ca
    28. 28. “People are unsure and quite fearful. They do not want another Indian Affairs in the city. They are very reluctant to trust in a leader and to try something new.” (Key Informant Interview)www.tassc.ca
    29. 29. www.tassc.ca
    30. 30. “TASSC is not appropriate as a governance body because they are social service agencies serving the community. We are support service organizations and as such we don’t want to be politically involved. We want to support each other and not have TASSC become a political machine.” (Governance Focus Group)www.tassc.ca
    31. 31. “TASSC and its many Aboriginal agencies are controlling the delivery of services in Toronto andthey represent the community… they could evolve into a larger urban governance structure.” (Governance Focus Group)www.tassc.ca
    32. 32. www.tassc.ca
    33. 33. www.tassc.ca
    34. 34. www.tassc.ca
    35. 35. www.tassc.ca
    36. 36. www.tassc.ca
    37. 37. www.tassc.ca
    38. 38. www.tassc.ca
    39. 39. 1990 Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto established Manitoba Justice Inquiry Report1991 Aboriginal Justice Strategy (Federal) Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples1996 Criminal Code Amendment R. v. Gladue1999 .www.tassc.ca
    40. 40. www.tassc.ca
    41. 41. Chart 14D: Aboriginal Involvement in the Toronto Justice System Across Gender (Quantiative n= 131) 80 70 60 50Percentage 40 victim offender 30 20 10 0 male female two spirit
    42. 42. www.tassc.ca
    43. 43. www.tassc.ca
    44. 44. www.tassc.ca
    45. 45. www.tassc.ca
    46. 46. Housing Poverty Education Employment Gang/violence Substance use Low self esteem Intergenerational trauma Unstable childhood/trauma Little contact with existing servicesDisconnected from Aboriginal community
    47. 47. www.tassc.ca
    48. 48. Chart 14A: Level of Satisfaction With Justice System (Quantitative n=471) 40 35 30Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 very satisfied satisfied somewhat somewhat not at all satisfied unsatisfied satisfied
    49. 49. www.tassc.ca
    50. 50. “Even if I have nothing to worry about, if I see the cops, I get worried. On the TTC or with the cops, I always get worried.” (Law and Justice Focus Group)www.tassc.ca
    51. 51. Chart 14C: Dimensions of Aboriginal Racial Profiling in the Justice System (Quantitative n=500) 70 60 50Percentage 40 Undervaluing of Aboriginal victims 30 Overcharging of Aboriginal offenders 20 10 0 yes no unsure
    52. 52. “We’ve had many people that come to us to talk about the treatment they’ve received from police, and they will inevitably say that it is because they are Native. The community members who are stopped by police feel that they are stopped because of who they are and not what they’ve done.” (Law and Justice Focus Group) www.tassc.ca
    53. 53. www.tassc.ca
    54. 54. “One major challenge for our clients is that judges and Crown attorneys are reluctant to change their ways of doing things and are not updating themselves and trying to understand the Aboriginal situation and seriously engage with the meaning of Gladue.” (Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto Case Study)www.tassc.ca
    55. 55. “There needs to be more culture in the mainstream system….more Elders in Jail and smudging in the courts. Right now there is such a culture clash and we can get lost in there and never get out.” (Key Informant Interview)www.tassc.ca
    56. 56. www.tassc.ca
    57. 57. “Aboriginal clients have little understanding of how the legal system works. There is definitely a need for more Aboriginal probation officers to help the youth with their legal issues.” (Key Informant Interview)www.tassc.ca
    58. 58. www.tassc.ca
    59. 59. www.tassc.ca
    60. 60. www.tassc.ca
    61. 61. www.tassc.ca
    62. 62. www.tassc.ca
    63. 63. www.tassc.ca
    64. 64. www.tassc.ca
    65. 65. www.tassc.ca
    66. 66. • Wrapping upwww.tassc.ca
    67. 67. Consultation Cooperation Consent Communication
    68. 68. Consultation Cooperation Consent Communication
    69. 69. www.tassc.ca
    70. 70. www.tassc.ca
    71. 71. Nakkumek www.tassc.ca Miigwetch Thank you
    72. 72. www.tassc.ca
    73. 73. Toronto Aboriginal Support Services Council 16 Spadina Road Contact us Toronto, ON M5R 2S7 Phone: (647) 748-6100 Fax: (647) 748-0699 Email: jbull@tassc.ca Website: www.tassc.cawww.tassc.ca