Taking HPC beyond energy efficiency;    sustainability, the new measure of success                        Michael K Patter...
Why HPC is different    • Procurement and refresh timing    • Workload and Utilization    • HPC and infrastructure link   ...
PUE – simple and effective          PUE is defined in terms of total annual energy and total            annual IT energy, ...
PUEs: Reported and Calculated                                                      PUE    EPA Energy Star Average         ...
PUEs: Reported and Calculated                                                        PUE                 It’s all about th...
Tick Tock of Energy Efficiency    Moore’s Law and IA Innovation                                                        2 S...
LRZ-Munich    IBM/Intel supplying the new LRZ-Munich system. 40C water    to the servers. Free cooling 100% of the year. P...
Free cooling in         Atlanta?     Recall that LRZ is    using 40 °C cooling           water8
Ever hear someone say something like:         “I am re-using waste heat from my         data center on another part of my ...
“I am reusing waste heat from my data center         on another part of my site and my PUE is 0.8!”     • While re-using e...
Energy Reuse Effectiveness     A new energy efficiency metric     Similar to PUE but accounts for     reuse energy     PUE...
ERE – adds energy reuse to the PUE concept                                             Rejected                           ...
ERE Definition           Total Energy     PUE =            IT Energy           Cooling + Power + Lighting + IT     PUE =  ...
ERE Alternate Development       Define energy reuse factor                                          Then:       (ERF) as: ...
Comparison with PUE     One view of PUE is that is the “tax” or burden in energy costs you must pay     above the IT load ...
Towards the Net-Zero Data     Center: Development and     Application of an Energy     Reuse Metric     Technical Paper pr...
PUE & ERE resorted….                                                    PUE     Energy Reuse     EPA Energy Star Average  ...
Water and Carbon     – increasing focus on sustainability     Two new metrics for Data     Center sustainability     Publi...
‫‪New Metrics… all in the PUE family‬‬                                    ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ	ݕݐ݈݅݅ܿܽܨ	݈ܽݐ݋ܶ‬                         ...
‫?‪Why two WUE’s‬‬                                ‫݁݃ܽݏܷ	ݎ݁ݐܹܽ	݁ݐ݅ܵ	݈ܽݑ݊݊ܣ‬                          ‫= ܧܷܹ‬              ...
The Sustainability Triangle – an example                            Water          Technology choices are typically a trad...
Exascale by 2019-2020     Business-as-usual (2X perf/watt       every 16 months) 140 MW           Target 20 MW22
Exascale Challenges      140 MW just won’t work (~$140M / year to operate)      Target is 20 MW!      Even with Moore’s La...
TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT      Drive Computing to      Be More                            ~2%      Energy Efficient  ...
Carbon Accounting     We will talk about a lot of metrics but here is one that we     might want to develop…              ...
஼௔௥௕௢௡26
஼௔௥௕௢௡     ORNL ReView “Supercomputers Help Model Cars in Collisions”27
Opportunities for the Sustainable HPC Center      HPC is NOT like your typical data center        Harvest the differences ...
Thank You!   Questions?29
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Ga techsusthpc patterson

  1. 1. Taking HPC beyond energy efficiency; sustainability, the new measure of success Michael K Patterson, PhD, PE, DCEP Eco-Technology Program Office1
  2. 2. Why HPC is different • Procurement and refresh timing • Workload and Utilization • HPC and infrastructure link • Best opportunity for Energy Reuse • Minimal UPS • Availability needs lower than Enterprise / Financial / IPDC • Performance measurements higher than Enterprise / Financial / IPDC2
  3. 3. PUE – simple and effective PUE is defined in terms of total annual energy and total annual IT energy, allowing a more valid site-to-site3 comparison
  4. 4. PUEs: Reported and Calculated PUE EPA Energy Star Average 1.91 Intel Jones Farm, Hillsboro 1.41 T-Systems & Intel DC2020 Test Lab, Munich 1.24 Google 1.16 Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) 1.15 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) 1.10 Yahoo, Lockport 1.08 Facebook, Prineville 1.07 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1.064
  5. 5. PUEs: Reported and Calculated PUE It’s all about the “1”! EPA Energy Star Average 1.91 Intel Jones Farm, Hillsboro 1.06 1.41 Focus on driving the 0.06 down? T-Systems & Intel DC2020 Test Lab, Munich 1.24 Or work with the 1.0? How? Google 1.16 Energy reuse Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) Continued improvement in compute 1.15 performance National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) 1.10 Yahoo, Lockport 1.08 Facebook, Prineville 1.07 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1.065
  6. 6. Tick Tock of Energy Efficiency Moore’s Law and IA Innovation 2 Socket Volume-Server Power vs. Performance 450 2004 400 Intel® Power: Lower is better Xeon® 2006 350 3.8GHz Intel® 2009 2010 2008 Intel® Xeon® Intel® Xeon® Xeon® Power (W) 300 5160 Intel® Xeon® X5570 X5670 E5450 250 200 150 100 Higher Efficiency 50 TICK TOCK TICK TOCK TICK Core 65 45nm Nehalem 45 32nm Sandy Bridge 0 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 SSJ Ops Source: SPECpower_ssj2008* 2 socket results from SPEC.org as of August 2010 Performance: Higher is better Double Efficiency every 16 months (67% CAGR) Source: SPECpower_ssj2008* 2 socket results from SPEC.org as of August 2010 Performance and power consumption results are based on certain tests measured on specific computer systems. Any difference in system hardware, software or configuration will affect actual performance. Configurations: Two-socket Systems, Test Results for SPECpower_ssj2008,6 Testing by Hewlett-Packard. For more information go to http://www.intel.com/performance
  7. 7. LRZ-Munich IBM/Intel supplying the new LRZ-Munich system. 40C water to the servers. Free cooling 100% of the year. PUE ~ 1.15 Supplier must pay the power bill for the first several years of the system operations. Power Bill K- Euros/TF €2308 €113 €7 Energy cost / Tflop plummeting, but Power bill hitting “political” ceilings7
  8. 8. Free cooling in Atlanta? Recall that LRZ is using 40 °C cooling water8
  9. 9. Ever hear someone say something like: “I am re-using waste heat from my data center on another part of my site and my PUE is 0.8!”9
  10. 10. “I am reusing waste heat from my data center on another part of my site and my PUE is 0.8!” • While re-using excess energy from the data center can be a good thing to do, it should not be rolled into PUE. The definition of PUE does not allow this. PUE is ALWAYS greater than or equal to 1.0 •But there is a new metric to do this; ERE10
  11. 11. Energy Reuse Effectiveness A new energy efficiency metric Similar to PUE but accounts for reuse energy PUE and ERE can both provide insight • Different perspectives on efficiency vs reuse11
  12. 12. ERE – adds energy reuse to the PUE concept Rejected Energy Reused (a) Cooling (f) Energy (e) IT (g) Utility (b) UPS (c) PDU (d)12
  13. 13. ERE Definition Total Energy PUE = IT Energy Cooling + Power + Lighting + IT PUE = IT Total Energy - Reused Energy ERE = IT Energy Cooling + Power + Lighting + IT - Reused ERE = IT13
  14. 14. ERE Alternate Development Define energy reuse factor Then: (ERF) as: Reuse Energy ERE = (1 - ERF) × PUE ERF = Total Energy And finally: Cool + Pwr + Light + IT - Reused ERE = = (1 − ERF) × PUE IT ERF and PUE are mathematically related, but differ and need to defined and reported clearly.14
  15. 15. Comparison with PUE One view of PUE is that is the “tax” or burden in energy costs you must pay above the IT load to run the Data Center; ERE allows the same vision PUE = 1.0 means 100% of the energy you bring in to the data center goes to the IT ERE = 1.0 means you only need to bring into the site an amount equal to 100% of the IT energy to support the Data Center We need both! Case 1 Case 2 PUE = 2.0 PUE = 1.2 ERF= 0.55 ERF=0.25 ERE = 0.9 ERE=0.9 Case 1 focus on PUE, Case 2 focus on ERF15
  16. 16. Towards the Net-Zero Data Center: Development and Application of an Energy Reuse Metric Technical Paper presented last June: ASHRAE Summer Meeting, Montreal16
  17. 17. PUE & ERE resorted…. PUE Energy Reuse EPA Energy Star Average 1.91 Intel Jones Farm, Hillsboro 1.41 T-Systems & Intel DC2020 Test Lab, Munich 1.24 Google 1.16 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) 1.10 Yahoo, Lockport 1.08 Facebook, Prineville 1.07 Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) 1.15 ERE <1.0 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1.06 ERE <1.017
  18. 18. Water and Carbon – increasing focus on sustainability Two new metrics for Data Center sustainability Published by The Green Grid Development of the Metrics will give better focus on Data Center sustainability18
  19. 19. ‫‪New Metrics… all in the PUE family‬‬ ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ݕݐ݈݅݅ܿܽܨ ݈ܽݐ݋ܶ‬ ‫= ܧܷܲ‬ ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ܶܫ‬ ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ݎ݁ݐ݊݁ܥ ܽݐܽܦ ݈ܽݐ݋ܶ ݄݁ݐ ݕܾ ݀݁ݏݑܽܿ ݏ݊݋݅ݏݏ݅݉݁ ܱܥ ݈ܽݐ݋ܶ‬ ‫= ܧܷܥ‬ ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ܶܫ‬ ‫݁݃ܽݏܷ ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݁ݐ݅ܵ ݈ܽݑ݊݊ܣ‬ ‫= ܧܷܹ‬ ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ܶܫ‬ ‫݁݃ܽݏܷ ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݁ݐ݅ܵ ݈ܽݑ݊݊ܣ + ݁݃ܽݏܷ ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ݁ܿݎݑ݋ܵ ݈ܽݑ݊݊ܣ‬ ‫= ‪௦௢௨௥௖௘‬ܧܷܹ‬ ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ܶܫ‬ ‫‪WUE ~ Liters/kWh‬‬ ‫‪CUE ~ kgCO2eq/kWh‬‬‫91‬
  20. 20. ‫?‪Why two WUE’s‬‬ ‫݁݃ܽݏܷ ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݁ݐ݅ܵ ݈ܽݑ݊݊ܣ‬ ‫= ܧܷܹ‬ ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ܶܫ‬ ‫݁݃ܽݏܷ ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݁ݐ݅ܵ ݈ܽݑ݊݊ܣ + ݁݃ܽݏܷ ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ݁ܿݎݑ݋ܵ ݈ܽݑ݊݊ܣ‬ ‫= ‪௦௢௨௥௖௘‬ܧܷܹ‬ ‫ݕ݃ݎ݁݊ܧ ܶܫ‬‫02‬
  21. 21. The Sustainability Triangle – an example Water Technology choices are typically a trade-off21
  22. 22. Exascale by 2019-2020 Business-as-usual (2X perf/watt every 16 months) 140 MW Target 20 MW22
  23. 23. Exascale Challenges 140 MW just won’t work (~$140M / year to operate) Target is 20 MW! Even with Moore’s Law like improvements we can’t get there (20 MW) by 2019-2020 Government / Industry / Academia partnerships must happen to get us there If we don’t, HPC growth will stall! If we do, amazing things can happen…..23
  24. 24. TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Drive Computing to Be More ~2% Energy Efficient ~2% Opportunity Use Computing to Improve Energy Savings Outside Information and Communications Technology 98% Does HPC have a Carbon ROI? The Big Opportunity Should we explore it?24
  25. 25. Carbon Accounting We will talk about a lot of metrics but here is one that we might want to develop… ܶ‫ ݁ݏݑ ܶܫ ݕܾ ݀݁ܿݑܴ݀݁ ݊݋ܾݎܽܥ ݈ܽݐ݋‬ ‫ܱܲܥ‬஼௔௥௕௢௡ = ܶ‫ܶܫ ݕܾ ݀݁ݏܷ ݊݋ܾݎܽܥ ݈ܽݐ݋‬25
  26. 26. ஼௔௥௕௢௡26
  27. 27. ஼௔௥௕௢௡ ORNL ReView “Supercomputers Help Model Cars in Collisions”27
  28. 28. Opportunities for the Sustainable HPC Center HPC is NOT like your typical data center Harvest the differences Focus on the 1.0! Workload Architecture Carbon ROI Exascale R&D Beyond Energy Efficiency to Sustainability Sustainability Triangles Metrics – ERE, CUE, & WUE28
  29. 29. Thank You! Questions?29
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