World Geography Lesson South Asia
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World Geography Lesson South Asia

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World Geography Lesson South Asia

World Geography Lesson South Asia

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World Geography Lesson South Asia World Geography Lesson South Asia Document Transcript

  • World Regional SOUTH ASIA Geography David Sallee Lesson 9 River Taxi Snake Charmer Hindu Holy Man THE MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC REALM QUALITIES OF SOUTH ASIA India WELL DEFINED PHYSIOGRAPHICALLY New Delhi Pakistan THE WORLD’S SECOND LARGEST WORLD’ Islamabad POPULATION CLUSTER Bangladesh Dhaka SIGNIFICANT DEMOGRAPHIC Nepal PROBLEMS Kathmandu Bhutan LOW INCOME ECONOMIES Thimphu Sri Lanka POPULATION CONCENTRATED IN Colombo VILLAGES - SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE STRONG CULTURAL REGIONALISM INDIA CHILD INDIA Population: 1 billion (531 million male and 496 million LABOR female) Life 62.4 (male), 63.3 (female) expectancy: years Access to safe 62% water: www.plan-uk.org www.plan- Under 5 mortality 98/1,000 live births (male) 105/1,000 live births rate: (female) Six in every ten girls do not go to secondary school Only one in three children have access to adequate sanitation facilities Nearly one in every ten children die before reaching the age of five One in two children under five years old are moderately or severely underweight 1
  • MONSOONS Child Prostitution in Nepal/India “To know India and her Every year, thousands of people, one has to know Nepalese girls, some as young as 11 are the monsoon.” monsoon.” sent to or procured for brothels in the big Indian cities, like Bombay or Calcutta. To the people of India the They are often the daughters of monsoons are a source of poor farming families, where everyone must help with the family income. Girls life. have little or no earning potential, and if Seasonal reversal of winds they are to marry need substantial dowries. So, when the middleman arrives General onshore in the village, and promises parents cash movement in summer in return for taking the girls to work in India, or perhaps in quot;the circusquot;, and that General offshore flow in they will be fed, housed and cared for, winter the offer is hard to resist. In reality, many of these girls are Very distinctive seasonal taken to work in Indian brothels, where new, young girls are much sought after, precipitation regime and their families may never hear from www.plan-uk.org www.plan- them again. POTENTIALLY NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MONSOONS (RESULTS OF CATASTROPHIC RAINFALL) Widespread flooding Property damage Destruction to agricultural lands Monsoons Damage to transportation infrastructure Homelessness Disease Malnutrition Serious injury Death CULTURE HEARTH: CULTURE The Indus River Where an early culture emerged and A culturally fragmented realm developed Religious and linguistic diversity – Arts and trade routes emerged from isolated tribes and villages to towns and Religious Patterns beyond. – Islam is predominant in Pakistan and Hinduism emerged from the beliefs and – Bangladesh. practices brought to India by the Indo- Indo- Europeans (Aryans). (6th century BC) – Hinduism is predominant in India. Buddhism born of discontent; made the – – Sikhism thrives in northern India. state religion of India in 3rd century BC – Buddhism is predominant in Sri Islam sweeps through central India from – Lanka. the 8th -10th centuries AD 2
  • RELIGION HINDUISM The world’s world’ oldest religion Culture hearth of the Indus River Diffused south and east down the Ganges Absorbed and eventually supplanted earlier native religions and customs MAJOR TENETS OF HINDUISM HINDUISM Three main ideas are important in Not just a religion understanding An intricate web of religious, the Hindu philosophical, social, economic, religion and and artistic elements the caste No common creed system No single doctrine – Reincarnation No direct divine revelation – Karma – Dharma No rigid narrow moral code To be born a Hindu in India is to enter the caste system, A fifth group describes the people who are achuta, or achuta, one of the world's longest surviving forms of social untouchable. The primordial being does not claim stratification. Embedded in Indian culture for the past them. Untouchables are outcasts—people considered outcasts— 1,500 years, the caste system follows a basic precept: All too impure, too polluted, to rank as worthy beings. men are created unequal. The ranks in Hindu society Prejudice defines their lives, particularly in the rural come from a legend in which the main groupings, or areas, where nearly three-quarters of India's people three- varnas, emerge from a primordial being. From the mouth varnas, live. Untouchables are shunned, insulted, banned come the Brahmans—the priests and teachers. From the Brahmans— from temples and higher caste homes, made to eat arms come The Kshatriyas— Kshatriyas— and drink from separate utensils in public places, and, the rulers and soldiers. in extreme but not uncommon cases, are raped, From the thighs come the burned, lynched, and gunned down. Vaisyas—merchants and Vaisyas— traders. From the feet come “Discrimination by caste is outlawed in India but it is a part the Sudras—laborers. Each Sudras— of daily life.” life.” varna in turn contains hundreds of hereditary castes and subcastes with their own http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0306/feature1/ pecking orders. 3
  • REINCARNATION KARMA Every living thing has a soul. Every action brings about When a living certain results. thing dies, its soul There is no escaping the moves into consequences of one’s one’ another living actions. creature. Good behavior is rewarded Souls are reborn in when the soul is reborn into a a newly created higher ranking living creature. life. Ganges River DHARMA A set of rules that must be followed by all living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation. Each person’s person’ dharma is different. FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS BUDDHISM Sorrow and suffering are part of all life. People suffer because Adherents objected to they desire things they cannot have. harsher features of The way to escape Hinduism suffering is to end desire, to stop wanting, and to Focuses on knowledge, reach a stage of not especially self-knowledge self- wanting. To end desire, follow the Elimination of worldly “middle path,” i.e., the path,” desires, determination path that avoids the extremes of too much not to hurt or kill people pleasure and desire. or animals 4
  • 1931 MUSLIMS IN INDIA 1991 EIGHTFOLD PATH TO THE MIDDLE WAY Right understanding 1951 Right purpose Right speech Right conduct Right means of earning a living Right effort Right awareness Right meditation KASHMIR RELIGIOUS CONTRASTS INDEPENDENCE & PARTITION – JAMMU & KASHMIR FACED WITH THE CHOICE OF JOINING EITHER HINDU INDIA OR MUSLIM ISLAM HINDUISM PAKISTAN – KASHMIR – HINDU MAHARAJA BUT MUSLIM – Monotheistic – Polytheistic POPULATION – No idols – Many idols 1947 – PAKISTANI TRIBESMEN INVADE – One sacred book – Various sacred writings MAHARAJA FLEES TO DELHI AND ACCEDES TO – Uniform dogma - 5 pillars – Varying beliefs INDIA – Intolerant (of other – Absorbed other religions religions) INDIAN TROOPS MOVE IN – PAKISTANI – Venerate cows Eat beef/Sacrifice cows REFULARS JOIN IN – – Burn dead (& alive) Bury Dead – – Caste separation JANUARY 1949 – U.N. CEASE FIRE Social Equality (in theory) – – “State” of secondary State” 1980-88 MUSLIM EXTREMISTS CONTINUE 1980- Theocratic society importance – INSURGENCY PAKISTAN (AT PARTITION) POPULATION GEOGRAPHY THE SPATIAL VIEW OF DEMOGRAPHY – STUDY OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, COMPOSITION, RATES OF GROWTH, AND PATTERNS OF FLOW India POPULATION DENSITY (INDIA) – ARITHMETIC- 904/sq mi ARITHMETIC- – PHYSIOLOGIC- 1,615/sq mi (US=415/sq PHYSIOLOGIC- West Pakistan mi) KEY MEASURES East Pakistan – RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE – DOUBLING TIME 5
  • POPULATION DENSITY POPULATION PROFILES World Average = 117/mi2 36 Pacific 315 Southeast Asia INDIA JAPAN East Asia 341 865 South Asia MALE FEMALE AGE Subsaharan Africa MALE FEMALE 82 N. Africa/S.W. Asia 52 70+ 53 South America 60-69 176 50-59 Middle America 40-49 7.6 Austral 30-39 874 Japan 20-29 10-19 42 North America 0-9 Russia 22 265 30 15 0 15 30 20 10 0 Europe 10 20 0 400 600 800 1000 200 Percent of Population Percent of Population Realm People per square mile POPULATION DENSITY What if the world were a village? What is The World Village Project? Imagine that this web page is a village. However, this village represents the planet Earth. If we were to reduce the world population to a village of 1000 inhabitants with all existing human ratios remaining the same then, this would be our reality... Men and Woman 520 Woman 480 Men [Graph] Places of Origin 584 124 84 95 Asians Africans Latin Americans Eastern/Western Europeans 55 52 4 2 Russians North Americans Australians New Zealanders [Graph] Language POPULATION DENSITY COMPARISON DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL United States - Bangladesh BANGLADESH UNITED STATES 77 people/ 133,000,000 2,644 people/ sq mile 50,300 sq mile 6
  • ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (BANGLADESH) (INDIA) LEVELS OF LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT (TECHNOLOGY) (TECHNOLOGY) A MIXTURE OF ONE OF THE WORLD’S POOREST WORLD’ TRADITIONAL VILLAGE AND LEAST FARMING AND MODERN DEVELOPED STATES AGRICULTURE ECONOMY IS HANDICRAFTS, OLD AND OVERWHELMINGLY AGRICULTURAL NEW BRANCHES OF CULTIVATION OF INDUSTRY RICE IS THE SINGLE A MULTITUDE OF SUPPORT MOST IMPORTANT SERVICES AND NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IN THE ECONOMY. POWER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BANGLADESH (PAKISTAN) LEVELS OF INDEPENDENT SINCE 1971 DEVELOPMENT (TECHNOLOGY) FORMERLY EAST PAKISTAN A POOR COUNTRY 85% MUSLIM, 12% HINDU THAT SUPPORTS A 133 MILLION PEOPLE LARGE MILITARY PHYSIOLOGIC DENSITY = 3,622/sq mi ESTABLISHMENT ECONOMIC 1.9% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE LIBERALIZATION PER CAPITA GNP = 350 US DOLLARS BEGAN IN 1990 TO NATURAL HAZARDS - CYCLONES BOOST FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC PRIVATE INVESTMENT. SRI SRI LANKA LANKA INDEPENDENT SINCE 1948 19.7 MILLION PEOPLE (70% BUDDHISTS) PLANTATION AGRICULTURE: – TEA, RUBBER, COCONUTS SOUTH (MAJORITY OF POPULATION) ARYAN BUDDHISTS SPEAK SINHALA (INDO-EUROPEAN) (INDO- NORTH (18% OF THE POPULATION) DRAVIDIAN HINDU TAMIL LANGUAGE 7
  • CULTURAL ASSESSMENT India – the Sikh religion forbids cutting or shaving any body hair. Toddlers Toddlers usually sleep with their parents until the age of 4 or 5. The head motion for “yes” head yes” and “no” are opposite of those in the United States. Men shake hands with other no” with men but not women. Nepal – only a mother, sister, daughter, or wife can be touched by a male family male member. During his wife’s pregnancy, a husband is not allowed to slaughter an wife’ animal. Adult literacy rates for males and females are 41% and 14%, 14%, respectively. Bhutan – young women may self-inflict burns in response to family quarrels. self- Except for noble families, Bhutanese do not have surnames. Bangladesh – about 60,000 women of reproductive age die each year, 25% of whom die of pregnance complications. Rural, traditional custom requires the mother to reach a water source unaided to wash herself and her clothing clothing immediately after birth. Boys receive preferential treatment in terms of family food allocation and health care practices. Pakistan - women are governed by different laws than men. Women are expected to be obedient to men and are discouraged from making decisions. The decisions. most traditional Pakistanis may wrap their infants in cow dung to give them the to strength and warmth needed for growth. 8