India sits on a single plate - Fasted moving plate
A monsoon is not just any heavy rain that lasts for a long time. Rather, a monsoon is like a giant sea-breeze. A normal sea breeze changes daily, with the day-to-night change of land temperature as the sun rises and sets; monsoons change seasonally. Figure A compares seasonal shifts in the monsoon circulation. Most of the time during the summer, the land is warmer than the ocean. This causes air to rise over the land and air to blow in from the ocean to fill the void left by the air that rose. As you know, rising air leads to cloud formation and precipitation. These monsoon clouds that form are full of moisture from the ocean, so they can produce heavy rainfall for long periods of time. Because the land stays warmer than the ocean for most of the summer and the ocean is a constant source of moisture, these heavy rains last for months at a time. A monsoon climate is marked by dry winters and wet summers. About a quarter of the globe experiences a monsoon climate. Cherrapunji, India, affected by the Indian summer monsoon, is one of the rainiest places on earth with an annual rainfall average of 34 feet. Back in 1861, Cherrapunji got over 87 feet of rainfall during the year with 30 feet of it falling in July alone. The southeast United States is not affected by monsoon rainfall, and only averages about 4 feet of rain per year, distributed fairly evenly across all seasons.
Geography of South Asia
South Asia Map Activity• Political Map - Outline and label countries – Jammu and Kashmir• Label cities – Name Changes: Mumbai = Bombay, Chennai = Madras• Complete physical map
India’s geography…– Using a map of India examine its various geographic features.– Select 2 features that you predict have had/will have the greatest impact on India.– Explain how you think those features have affected India.
South Asia • 1/5 of world’s population• India – over 1 billion people
Basic Info.• Over 700 languages are spoken in India! (30% Hindi)• Dialect: Regional version of a language• Currency: Rupee• Religion: 82% Hindu, 12% Muslim
Why Should We Care??• When I was growing up, my Dad would say, “Finish your dinner, people in India and China are starving.”• My advice to you is, “Finish your homework – people in China and India are starving for your jobs” Shift Happens …
A Separate Land• Subcontinent - Large, distinct landmass connected to a continent• Natural barriers• 1/2 the size of the United States
Himalayas• Resulted from collision w/ Eurasian plate• 1500 miles• Separate India from China• barrier to the cold winds from central Asia; keeps most of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations in similar latitudes.
Hindu Kush• Completes Himalayas in the west• Kept India isolated and protected
Khyber Pass (Hindu Kush)• Allow difficult mountains to be crossed• Used by traders and invaders
Eastern/Western Ghats • High, rocky hills in southern India • Natural barrier from Europeans
Population Density• Which parts of India are most densely populated? (name of the geographic features)• The Indo-Gangetic Plain• Bramaputra delta
Indo-Gangetic (Northern) Plain• Pakistan, India, Bangladesh.• Holds 1/10th of human population• Fertile; World’s largest alluvial plain• Watered by Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra• Indus Valley – world’s oldest civilization
Ganges River• Summer monsoons cause massive flooding• Hindus consider its waters sacred – water purifies pilgrims• Most densely populated plain Videos: “The Ganges at Varanasi” “Worms and Rabies”
Brahamaputra River• Meets the Ganges in Bangladesh• Creates fertile delta – dense population• Hydroelectricity - 50% of Bangladesh’s power
Deccan Plateau• Sanskrit word dakshina, which means "the south".• High, flat land, semi- arid• Ghats block rain from reaching it
Climate• Tropical – South• Temperate – North• Polar - Himalayas• Monsoons – seasonal winds that bring tremendous rainfall and flooding – also allowed for trade between India, E. Africa and the middle East
Let’s revisit our questions…• How do you think India’s geography shaped it development?• Identify two geographic features that you think in some way impacted India’s development (either positively or negatively). Explain the impact that you think each has had.
Use your homework to complete the following:• Who were the Aryans?• How may the Aryans have influenced Indian culture? THINK ABOUT: religion, social organization.
Aryans• Warriors that conquered Indus Valley• Hindu Kush passes• Iron weapons• Chariots