Survey of Streamside
Landowners in the Hudson
Valley
Results
Presentation Outline
 Survey Purpose
 Methods
 Response
 Non-bias telephone survey
 Results
Purpose
1. Understand how and why streamside
landowners in the Hudson Valley manage their
streams and streamside land, esp...
Methods
Target watersheds
within the Hudson
Valley, NY
Methods
 2,000 private property addresses with at least 1 acre of
streamside land (within 100 feet of a stream)
 Survey ...
Non-respondent phone
survey
Phone survey included a subset of items from the mail
questionnaire to compare respondents and...
Survey Response
 2000 surveys sent
 Adjusted response rate: 29.1%
 534 completed the survey
 126 undeliverable
 36 in...
Results
Phone Survey of Non-respondents
Results
1. Primary uses for streamside land
Significantly fewer respondents of the mail su...
Mail Survey Results
Q21. In which county is your primary residence? n=537
RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
County N Percent
Ulster 122 23%
Columbia ...
Q22. What is your race? (Check all that apply.)
85%
1%
3%
White
Black/African American
Native-American
Asian
Other
RESPOND...
Q20. What is your age? n=490
0.4% 0.4%
4%
17%
34%
45%
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 54-65 65+
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Age
Percent...
Q23. What is your political ideology? n=461
Political Ideology was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = very ...
Q19. Are you a member of a conservation organization? n=480
24%
76%
Yes
No
RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
Q19. Are you a member of a conservation organization?
Responses with frequency > 3
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Adirondack Cou...
Q1. How many feet of streamside land do you own? n=527
5%
25%
69%
< 100 feet
101 to 500 feet
> 500 feet
RESPONDENT CHARACT...
Q2. How long have you owned your streamside land? n=531
0.2%
15%
85%
< 1 year
1 to 10 years
> 10 years
RESPONDENT CHARACTE...
Q3. Please indicate the primary uses for your streamside land. (Check all that
apply) Note: Percentages are of responses, ...
Q3. Primary uses for your streamside land: “Other” responses. n=40 Note: Not all
respondents chose this response and some ...
Q17. Is all or part of your property in a Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA)-designated 100-year floodplain? n=487...
Q18. Do you have flood insurance? n=491
5%
80%
7%
Yes
No
I don't know
EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING
Q4. How often have you experienced flooding on your land? n=523
28%
46%
15%
11%
Never
Once every few years
Yearly
More tha...
Q5. What kind of flood-related damage have you experienced? (Check all that
apply.) Note: Percentages are of responses, no...
Q5. What kind of flood-related damage have you experienced: Other responses
n=176 Note: Some respondents listed more than ...
Q6. How much money have you spent in the last 5 years for repairs of flood
damage? n=356
51%
30%
20%
None
< $5000
> $5000
...
Q7. To what extent do you agree or disagree that each of the following was a
cause of the most recent flood event on your ...
Q7. Flood causes: “Other” described responses n=93 Note: Some respondents listed
more than one “other” cause of flooding.
...
Q8. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the
following statements. Agreement was measured on ...
Q8. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the
following statements. Agreement was measured on ...
Q9. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the
following statements. Agreement was measured on ...
STREAM MANAGEMENT BEHAVIORS
Qs 10&11
Stream Management Behavior Mean attitude* Done in past %(n)
Likelihood in
future**
Re...
ATTITUDE
Q10. The following are activities some people do with their streamside land.
Please indicate how positive or nega...
78%
18%
3% 1%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
None 1 2 3
Percentofrespondents
Number of beneficial behaviors* performed
*Beneficia...
59%
18%
12%
7%
2% 2% 1% 0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
None 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Percentofrespondents
Number of detrimental be...
FUTURE BEHAVIORAL INTENT
Q11. The following are activities some people do with their streamside land.
Please indicate how ...
SUMMATED SCALE – FUTURE BEHAVIORS
Likelihood was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not at all likely and 7...
Q12. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the
following statements. Agreement was measured on...
Q12. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the
following statements. Agreement was measured on...
Q13. To what extent does each of the following reasons limit the activities you
do on your streamside land to control or p...
FACTOR ANALYSIS
Limitation was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not limiting at all and 7 = very limiting...
Q13. Responses in “Other” category
Limitation Frequency of mention
Government 14
No need 8
Access 5
Age/ Health 4
Cost 3
C...
Q14. How effective would each of the following be in communicating information
to you regarding stream management and floo...
Q15. How likely would you be to participate in a program such as Trees for Tribs
in the future? Likelihood was measured on...
Q16. What kind of educational programs might you be interested in about flood
management on your land? (Check all that app...
Q16. What kind of educational programs might you be interested in about
flood management on your land? n = 25 Other respon...
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Survey of Streamside Landowners in the Hudson Valley

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This is a May 6, 2014 presentation summarizing results from a 2013 survey of riparian landowners in the Hudson Valley region of NYS. The study was conducted by the Human Dimensions Research Unit at Cornell University. Authors are Shorna Allred and Gretchen Gary.

Published in: Environment, Technology, Travel
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  • Are these behaviors the “beneficial” ones? Is this scale useful?
  • Survey of Streamside Landowners in the Hudson Valley

    1. 1. Survey of Streamside Landowners in the Hudson Valley Results
    2. 2. Presentation Outline  Survey Purpose  Methods  Response  Non-bias telephone survey  Results
    3. 3. Purpose 1. Understand how and why streamside landowners in the Hudson Valley manage their streams and streamside land, especially in relation to flooding 2. Investigate flood risk perception of Hudson Valley streamside landowners 3. Determine the flood and stream management education needs communication preferences of streamside landowners in the Hudson Valley
    4. 4. Methods Target watersheds within the Hudson Valley, NY
    5. 5. Methods  2,000 private property addresses with at least 1 acre of streamside land (within 100 feet of a stream)  Survey and reminders sent via 4 mailings in October & November, 2013  Phone survey non-response bias data collection conducted by SRI in December 2013
    6. 6. Non-respondent phone survey Phone survey included a subset of items from the mail questionnaire to compare respondents and non-respondents:  Feet of streamside land owned  Primary use of streamside land  Amount of flooding experience  Perceived causes of flooding  Communication preferences  Membership in a wildlife conservation organization  County of primary residence
    7. 7. Survey Response  2000 surveys sent  Adjusted response rate: 29.1%  534 completed the survey  126 undeliverable  36 ineligible  19 refused  No significant difference in response rate between incentive & non incentives  50 non-respondents surveyed via phone
    8. 8. Results
    9. 9. Phone Survey of Non-respondents Results 1. Primary uses for streamside land Significantly fewer respondents of the mail survey than the phone survey use their property for woodland or monetary investment. 2. Causes of flooding Respondents of the mail survey agree significantly more than respondents of the phone survey that structures near my land and hard surfaces caused the most recent flood event 3. Communication preferences The following are significantly more effective for communicating information to respondents of the mail survey than the phone survey:  Email newsletter  Information in the mail  A website  A site visit 4. Significantly more respondents of the phone survey than the mail survey live in counties other than what we listed on the survey
    10. 10. Mail Survey Results
    11. 11. Q21. In which county is your primary residence? n=537 RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS County N Percent Ulster 122 23% Columbia 86 16% Other 58 11% Greene 56 10% Rensselaer 52 10% Dutchess 52 10% NYC 34 6% Orange 29 5% Albany 27 5% Putnam 13 2% Schoharie 8 2%
    12. 12. Q22. What is your race? (Check all that apply.) 85% 1% 3% White Black/African American Native-American Asian Other RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    13. 13. Q20. What is your age? n=490 0.4% 0.4% 4% 17% 34% 45% 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 54-65 65+ 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Age PercentofRespondents RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    14. 14. Q23. What is your political ideology? n=461 Political Ideology was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = very liberal and 7 = very conservative 13% 14% 13% 25% 12% 13% 10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% PercentofRespondents Political Ideology RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    15. 15. Q19. Are you a member of a conservation organization? n=480 24% 76% Yes No RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    16. 16. Q19. Are you a member of a conservation organization? Responses with frequency > 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Adirondack Council Appalachian Mountain Club Greenpeace Open Space Institute Renssselaer Plateau Alliance Trout unlimited Wallkill Valley Land Trust Arbor Day Foundation Hudson Highland Land Trust Rondout Esopus Land Conservancy Audubon Mohonk Preserve National Wildlife Federation Scenic Hudson Columbia Land Conservancy NY Forest Owners Association Sierra Club The Nature Conservancy Frequency of response Organization RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    17. 17. Q1. How many feet of streamside land do you own? n=527 5% 25% 69% < 100 feet 101 to 500 feet > 500 feet RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    18. 18. Q2. How long have you owned your streamside land? n=531 0.2% 15% 85% < 1 year 1 to 10 years > 10 years RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    19. 19. Q3. Please indicate the primary uses for your streamside land. (Check all that apply) Note: Percentages are of responses, not respondents, because respondents could choose more than one response. 50% 41% 20% 19% 12% 7% 6% 5% 2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% PercentofRespondents Primary uses RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    20. 20. Q3. Primary uses for your streamside land: “Other” responses. n=40 Note: Not all respondents chose this response and some respondents listed more than one “other” use. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A place to "escape" Art studio Birding Building lot Lumber Nursery Outlet for lake Pressure Mowed fields Non-water recreation Camping No present use Business Conservation Home for wildlife Hunting/fishing Frequency of response Primaryuses RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS
    21. 21. Q17. Is all or part of your property in a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-designated 100-year floodplain? n=487 16% 32% 52% Yes No I don't know EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING
    22. 22. Q18. Do you have flood insurance? n=491 5% 80% 7% Yes No I don't know EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING
    23. 23. Q4. How often have you experienced flooding on your land? n=523 28% 46% 15% 11% Never Once every few years Yearly More than once per year EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING
    24. 24. Q5. What kind of flood-related damage have you experienced? (Check all that apply.) Note: Percentages are of responses, not respondents, because respondents could choose more than one response. 28% 25%11% 8% 7% 7% 7% 5% Yard flooding None Flooding of structure other than primary residence Flooding in the primary residence Field/ pasutre flooded Erosion Access* Other EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING *Access includes: driveway, road, and bridge damage
    25. 25. Q5. What kind of flood-related damage have you experienced: Other responses n=176 Note: Some respondents listed more than one “other” type of damage. 0 5 10 15 Beach flooding Business damage Damage to spillway Loss of residence Saturated land Pond damage Flood plain Culvert damage Loss of land Stream blocked/ water backup Flooded woodland Stream course change Below ground/basement Debris/Flotsam Crop/ agriculture damage Damage to trees or shrubs Structure or equipment damage Frequency of response Typeofdamage EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING
    26. 26. Q6. How much money have you spent in the last 5 years for repairs of flood damage? n=356 51% 30% 20% None < $5000 > $5000 EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING
    27. 27. Q7. To what extent do you agree or disagree that each of the following was a cause of the most recent flood event on your property? Agreement was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = disagree and 7 = agree 1.9 2.1 2.5 2.6 3.4 4.1 6.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hard surfaces Uncertain of the cause Upstream activities Structures near my land Debris in the water Ice/snow spring runoff Heavy rains Mean agreement Causeofflooding EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING
    28. 28. Q7. Flood causes: “Other” described responses n=93 Note: Some respondents listed more than one “other” cause of flooding. Cause of flood N Hurricane/ Storms 19 Beaver activity 15 Sediment in stream 5 No flood 4 Stream back up 4 Activity on neighboring land 3 Bridges 3 Roads 3 Climate change 2 Creek bank erosion 2 Ice 2 Logging 2 Natural causes 2 Releases 2 Runoff 2 Lakes not lowered during storms 2 DEC Activities 1 Discharge from reservoir 1 Downstream 1 Eroded stream bank 1 Ground saturation 1 High water table 1 Highway Superintendent 1 Lowland 1 Natural ponds 1 Off-road vehicles cause erosion 1 Storm surge 1 Unauthorized dumping 1 EXPERIENCE WITH FLOODING
    29. 29. Q8. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Agreement was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = disagree and 7 = agree 3.9 3.6 3.4 1.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 My property is at risk for flooding Flooding impacts my property value My property will be damaged if it floods I am in physical danger if my property floods Meanagreement Risk perception FLOOD RISK PERCEPTION
    30. 30. Q8. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Agreement was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = disagree and 7 = agree 4.4 4.2 3.2 3.0 2.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I consider how actions on my land may affect flooding on my land I consider how actions on my land may affect flooding on my neighbors' land Culverts near my property increase my risk for flooding I do activities on my land that decrease impacts of flooding on my land A dam near my property increases my risk for flooding Mean agreement Riskperception FLOOD RISK PERCEPTION
    31. 31. Q9. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Agreement was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = disagree and 7 = agree 3.1 3.6 3.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Flooding is a problem on my land Flooding will be a problem in the future on my land I have flooding, but it's not currently a problem on my land Meanagreement Risk perception FLOOD RISK PERCEPTION
    32. 32. STREAM MANAGEMENT BEHAVIORS Qs 10&11 Stream Management Behavior Mean attitude* Done in past %(n) Likelihood in future** Remove debris from stream 5.3 30% (161) 3.9 Plant/maintain streambank vegetation 5.2 20% (107) 3.0 Participate in a watershed organization 4.1 4% (21) 2.6 Remove sediment from stream 3.4 7% (36) 1.7 Remove vegetation from streambank 3.3 18% (96) 2.3 Straighten streambank 3.1 6% (34) 1.5 Mow to edge of stream 3.0 13% (67) 2.3 Collect runoff 3.0 3% (17) 1.4 Extract water from stream 2.9 7% (36) 1.8 Dam stream 1.9 3% (15) 1.2 *Attitude was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = negative and 7 = positive **Likelihood was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not at all likely and 7 = very likely
    33. 33. ATTITUDE Q10. The following are activities some people do with their streamside land. Please indicate how positive or negative you feel about each of the activities, whether you have done them or not. Attitude was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = negative and 7 = positive 1.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 4.1 5.2 5.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dam stream Extract water from stream Mow to edge of stream Collect runoff Straighten streambank Remove vegetation from streambank Remove sediment from stream Participate in a watershed organization Plant/maintain vegetation along streambank Remove debris from stream Mean attitude Activity STREAM MANAGEMENT
    34. 34. 78% 18% 3% 1% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% None 1 2 3 Percentofrespondents Number of beneficial behaviors* performed *Beneficial behaviors: Plant/maintain vegetation along streambank; Collect runoff; Participate in a watershed organization STREAM MANAGEMENT Q10. The following are activities some people do with their streamside land. Please indicate if you have done (or have had someone do) the following on your streamside land or in the water in the past two years. SUMMATED SCALE: BENEFICIAL PAST BEHAVIORS MEAN = 0.27
    35. 35. 59% 18% 12% 7% 2% 2% 1% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% None 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Percentofrespondents Number of detrimental behaviors* performed *Detrimental behaviors: Remove debris from stream; remove vegetation from streambank; mow to edge of stream; extract water from stream; straighten streambank; dam stream; remove sediment from stream STREAM MANAGEMENT Q10. The following are activities some people do with their streamside land. Please indicate if you have done (or have had someone do) the following on your streamside land or in the water in the past two years. SUMMATED SCALE: DETRIMENTAL PAST BEHAVIORS MEAN = 0.83
    36. 36. FUTURE BEHAVIORAL INTENT Q11. The following are activities some people do with their streamside land. Please indicate how likely you are to do (or have someone do) each of the following on your land or in the water within the next year. Likelihood was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not at all likely and 7 = very likely 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.8 2.3 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dam stream Collect runoff Straighten streambank Remove sediment from stream Extract water from stream Remove vegetation from streambank Mow to edge of stream Participate in a watershed organization Plant/maintain vegetation along… Remove debris from stream Mean likelihood MgmtActivity STREAM MANAGEMENT
    37. 37. SUMMATED SCALE – FUTURE BEHAVIORS Likelihood was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not at all likely and 7 = very likely 2.3 2.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Beneficial behaviors* Detrimental behaviors** MeanLikelihood Future behavioral intent *Beneficial behaviors: Plant/maintain vegetation along streambank; Collect runoff; Participate in a watershed organization **Detrimental behaviors: Remove debris from stream; remove vegetation from streambank; mow to edge of stream; remove water from stream; straighten streambank; dam stream; remove sediment from stream STREAM MANAGEMENT
    38. 38. Q12. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Agreement was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = disagree and 7 = agree GROUP MEAN = 4.3 4.8 4.6 3.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 People in my household believe that stream management to reduce flooding is important People I know believe that using stream management to reduce flooding is important The stream management activities my neighbors conduct on their land influences what I do on mine Mean Agreement NormativeStatement SOCIETAL NORMS
    39. 39. Q12. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Agreement was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = disagree and 7 = agree GROUP MEAN = 4.0 4.9 3.9 3.9 3.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Doing flood management activities on my property is completely up to me. I am able to get information and I need to help manage flooding on my land I am aware of the rules, laws, and regulations pertaining to how I may use my streamside land. I am aware of where to get information I need to help manage flooding on my land Mean Agreement BehavioralControlStatement BEHAVIORAL CONTROL
    40. 40. Q13. To what extent does each of the following reasons limit the activities you do on your streamside land to control or prevent flooding? Limitation was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not limiting at all and 7 = very limiting 1.9 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I don’t have enough land I don’t have enough interest I don’t know why I should Lack support from fam/friends It wouldn't make a difference I don’t feel there is a need to I don’t know how The government prevents me I don’t have enough time I don’t have technical support I don’t have enough money Mean limitation Barrier BARRIERS
    41. 41. FACTOR ANALYSIS Limitation was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not limiting at all and 7 = very limiting 3.6 2.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Lack of resources* Lack of interest** Meanlimitation Barrier *Scale includes: I don't have enough money; I don't have technical support; I don't have enough time; I don't know how; the government prevents me; I don't have enough support from fam/friends; Cronbach’s Alpha = .783 **Scale includes: I don't know why I should; I don't think it makes a difference; I don't have enough interest; I don't feel there is a need; I don't have enough land; Cronbach’s Alpha = .783 BARRIERS
    42. 42. Q13. Responses in “Other” category Limitation Frequency of mention Government 14 No need 8 Access 5 Age/ Health 4 Cost 3 Culvert 1 Damaged property 1 DEP is Responsible 1 Done everything I need to 1 Don't know 1 Don't know if I should 1 Don't know what is allowed 1 Don't know what to do 1 ENCON 1 Erosion undermining trees 1 Flooding is beyond my control 1 Howard Commander and LV racetrack 1 I've had it. Done. Spent thousands. Made it worse. 1 Letting our land flood helps keep Wappinger Creek from flooding worse. 1 No desire to control nature 1 No help from neighbors 1 No local support 1 No potential 1 Poison ivy 1 Risk versus cost trade-off once every 50 years--is it worth it? 1 Stream feeds reservoir 1 Too much work 1 Water is v far from res. 1 BARRIERS
    43. 43. Q14. How effective would each of the following be in communicating information to you regarding stream management and flooding? Effectiveness was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not at all effective and 7 = very effective 5.2 4.6 4.5 4.2 3.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Information in the mail Website Site visit Email newsletter Telephone Meaneffectiveness Communication type COMMUNICATION PREFERENCES
    44. 44. Q15. How likely would you be to participate in a program such as Trees for Tribs in the future? Likelihood was measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not at all likely and 7 = very likely 28% 8% 4% 12% 12% 10% 25% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Not at all likely 2 3 4 5 6 Very likely Percentofrespondents Likelihood of participation EDUCATION PREFERENCES
    45. 45. Q16. What kind of educational programs might you be interested in about flood management on your land? (Check all that apply.) Note: Percentages are of responses, not respondents, because respondents could choose more than one response. 31% 29%29% 32% Not interested in educational events In-person workshop Hands-on technical training in the field Online learning EDUCATION PREFERENCES
    46. 46. Q16. What kind of educational programs might you be interested in about flood management on your land? n = 25 Other responses 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Educate local land trust Education won't help Educational events Films Info affecting community Landscaping Money Neighbors by creek Specific to my stream profile Stewardship Mailings Phone call Technical assistance Site visit Literature Frequency of response EducationInterest EDUCATION PREFERENCES

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