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Biotechnological approaches for crop improvement
 

Biotechnological approaches for crop improvement

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What is crop breeding? ...

What is crop breeding?
Modifying, tailoring, and/or engineering plants
making them more suitable for humans

Modification means converting (e.g.):
a. Tall height to short height,
b. Late maturing to early maturing,
c. Disease susceptible to disease resistant,
d. Low yielding to high yielding,
e. Stress susceptible to stress tolerant
f. Low food quality to high food quality

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  • This slide shows the actual biochemical pathway that we discussed in the previous slide. EPSP synthase synthesizes 3-enolpyruvly shikimic acid-5-phosphate. This is the essential precursor to aromatic amino acids. When plants are sprayed with a glyphosate-containing herbicide, such as Roundup, this important precursor is not synthesized, and consequently the plant is starved of aromatic amino acids. The result is plant death.
  • Roundup Resistant plants have a very simple solution. An engineered version of EPSP synthase, one that was discovered in a bacteria, is introduced into the plant. This enzyme can not be bound by glphosate. Therefore, if a field is sprayed with the herbicide, the introduced version of the gene produces a functional enzyme. The 3-enolpyruvl shikimic acid-5-phosphate precursor is synthesized normally, and the plant produces enough aromatic amino acids to survive.
  • What is needed is for the public to accept these crops. Examples such as these, were a corn crop is freed of weed pressure make a compelling case for acceptance of these new agricultural products. But, it should be noted that these traits are all producer orientated.

Biotechnological approaches for crop improvement Biotechnological approaches for crop improvement Presentation Transcript