Chapter 14: ProtectionChapter 14: Protection
14.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Chapter 14: ProtectionChapter 14: Protection
Goals of Protect...
14.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
ObjectivesObjectives
Discuss the goals and principles of prot...
14.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Goals of ProtectionGoals of Protection
Operating system consi...
14.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Principles of ProtectionPrinciples of Protection
Guiding prin...
14.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Domain StructureDomain Structure
Access-right = <object-name,...
14.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Domain Implementation (UNIX)Domain Implementation (UNIX)
Syst...
14.8 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Domain Implementation (Multics)Domain Implementation (Multics...
14.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Access MatrixAccess Matrix
View protection as a matrix (acces...
14.10 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Access MatrixAccess Matrix
Figure A
14.11 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Use of Access MatrixUse of Access Matrix
If a process in Dom...
14.12 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Use of Access Matrix (Cont.)Use of Access Matrix (Cont.)
Acc...
14.13 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Implementation of Access MatrixImplementation of Access Matr...
14.14 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Access Matrix of Figure A With Domains as ObjectAccess Matri...
14.15 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Access Matrix withAccess Matrix with CopyCopy RightsRights
14.16 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Access Matrix WithAccess Matrix With OwnerOwner RightsRights
14.17 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Modified Access Matrix of Figure BModified Access Matrix of ...
14.18 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Access ControlAccess Control
Protection can be applied to no...
14.19 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Role-based Access Control inRole-based Access Control in
Sol...
14.20 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Revocation of Access RightsRevocation of Access Rights
Acces...
14.21 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Capability-Based SystemsCapability-Based Systems
Hydra
Fixed...
14.22 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Language-Based ProtectionLanguage-Based Protection
Specifica...
14.23 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Protection in Java 2Protection in Java 2
Protection is handl...
14.24 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts
Stack InspectionStack Inspection
End of Chapter 14End of Chapter 14
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14.Protection

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Senthilkanth,MCA..
The following ppt's full topic covers Operating System for BSc CS, BCA, MSc CS, MCA students..
1.Introduction
2.OS Structures
3.Process
4.Threads
5.CPU Scheduling
6.Process Synchronization
7.Dead Locks
8.Memory Management
9.Virtual Memory
10.File system Interface
11.File system implementation
12.Mass Storage System
13.IO Systems
14.Protection
15.Security
16.Distributed System Structure
17.Distributed File System
18.Distributed Co Ordination
19.Real Time System
20.Multimedia Systems
21.Linux
22.Windows

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14.Protection

  1. 1. Chapter 14: ProtectionChapter 14: Protection
  2. 2. 14.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Chapter 14: ProtectionChapter 14: Protection Goals of Protection Principles of Protection Domain of Protection Access Matrix Implementation of Access Matrix Access Control Revocation of Access Rights Capability-Based Systems Language-Based Protection
  3. 3. 14.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts ObjectivesObjectives Discuss the goals and principles of protection in a modern computer system Explain how protection domains combined with an access matrix are used to specify the resources a process may access Examine capability and language-based protection systems
  4. 4. 14.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Goals of ProtectionGoals of Protection Operating system consists of a collection of objects, hardware or software Each object has a unique name and can be accessed through a well-defined set of operations. Protection problem - ensure that each object is accessed correctly and only by those processes that are allowed to do so.
  5. 5. 14.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Principles of ProtectionPrinciples of Protection Guiding principle – principle of least privilege Programs, users and systems should be given just enough privileges to perform their tasks
  6. 6. 14.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Domain StructureDomain Structure Access-right = <object-name, rights-set> where rights-set is a subset of all valid operations that can be performed on the object. Domain = set of access-rights
  7. 7. 14.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Domain Implementation (UNIX)Domain Implementation (UNIX) System consists of 2 domains: User Supervisor UNIX Domain = user-id Domain switch accomplished via file system.  Each file has associated with it a domain bit (setuid bit).  When file is executed and setuid = on, then user-id is set to owner of the file being executed. When execution completes user-id is reset.
  8. 8. 14.8 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Domain Implementation (Multics)Domain Implementation (Multics) Let Di and Dj be any two domain rings. If j < I ⇒ Di ⊆ Dj Multics Rings
  9. 9. 14.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Access MatrixAccess Matrix View protection as a matrix (access matrix) Rows represent domains Columns represent objects Access(i, j) is the set of operations that a process executing in Domaini can invoke on Objectj
  10. 10. 14.10 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Access MatrixAccess Matrix Figure A
  11. 11. 14.11 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Use of Access MatrixUse of Access Matrix If a process in Domain Di tries to do “op” on object Oj, then “op” must be in the access matrix. Can be expanded to dynamic protection. Operations to add, delete access rights. Special access rights:  owner of Oi  copy op from Oi to Oj  control – Di can modify Dj access rights  transfer – switch from domain Di to Dj
  12. 12. 14.12 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Use of Access Matrix (Cont.)Use of Access Matrix (Cont.) Access matrix design separates mechanism from policy. Mechanism  Operating system provides access-matrix + rules.  If ensures that the matrix is only manipulated by authorized agents and that rules are strictly enforced. Policy  User dictates policy.  Who can access what object and in what mode.
  13. 13. 14.13 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Implementation of Access MatrixImplementation of Access Matrix Each column = Access-control list for one object Defines who can perform what operation. Domain 1 = Read, Write Domain 2 = Read Domain 3 = Read  Each Row = Capability List (like a key) Fore each domain, what operations allowed on what objects. Object 1 – Read Object 4 – Read, Write, Execute Object 5 – Read, Write, Delete, Copy
  14. 14. 14.14 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Access Matrix of Figure A With Domains as ObjectAccess Matrix of Figure A With Domains as Object Figure B
  15. 15. 14.15 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Access Matrix withAccess Matrix with CopyCopy RightsRights
  16. 16. 14.16 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Access Matrix WithAccess Matrix With OwnerOwner RightsRights
  17. 17. 14.17 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Modified Access Matrix of Figure BModified Access Matrix of Figure B
  18. 18. 14.18 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Access ControlAccess Control Protection can be applied to non-file resources Solaris 10 provides role-based access control to implement least privilege Privilege is right to execute system call or use an option within a system call Can be assigned to processes Users assigned roles granting access to privileges and programs
  19. 19. 14.19 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Role-based Access Control inRole-based Access Control in Solaris 10Solaris 10
  20. 20. 14.20 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Revocation of Access RightsRevocation of Access Rights Access List – Delete access rights from access list. Simple Immediate Capability List – Scheme required to locate capability in the system before capability can be revoked. Reacquisition Back-pointers Indirection Keys
  21. 21. 14.21 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Capability-Based SystemsCapability-Based Systems Hydra Fixed set of access rights known to and interpreted by the system. Interpretation of user-defined rights performed solely by user's program; system provides access protection for use of these rights. Cambridge CAP System Data capability - provides standard read, write, execute of individual storage segments associated with object. Software capability -interpretation left to the subsystem, through its protected procedures.
  22. 22. 14.22 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Language-Based ProtectionLanguage-Based Protection Specification of protection in a programming language allows the high-level description of policies for the allocation and use of resources. Language implementation can provide software for protection enforcement when automatic hardware-supported checking is unavailable. Interpret protection specifications to generate calls on whatever protection system is provided by the hardware and the operating system.
  23. 23. 14.23 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Protection in Java 2Protection in Java 2 Protection is handled by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) A class is assigned a protection domain when it is loaded by the JVM. The protection domain indicates what operations the class can (and cannot) perform. If a library method is invoked that performs a privileged operation, the stack is inspected to ensure the operation can be performed by the library.
  24. 24. 14.24 Silberschatz, Galvin and GagneOperating System Concepts Stack InspectionStack Inspection
  25. 25. End of Chapter 14End of Chapter 14
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