THE 6 TRIALS OF JESUS How a sinless man was sentenced to death by crucifixion. March 24, 2013 First Baptist Church Jackson, Mississippi, USA Reference: THE DARKNESS AND THE DAWN By Charles Swindoll KANGAROO COURT A mock court in which the principles of law and justice are disregarded or perverted. Term originated in the 1849 Gold Rush in which there were many “claim jumping miners”. Justice was proceeding “by leaps” as a kangaroo would jump. American term only. The trials of Jesus would fit the definition of a Kangaroo Court. PASSION or HOLY WEEK Palm Sunday through Easter Sunday Passion – Greek “pascho” meaning ‘to suffer’ Named because of the passion with which Jesus willingly went to the cross in order to pay for the sins of His people. God put every detail and order of events in place. PASSION WEEK TIME-LINE FRIDAY EVENING – 6 days before Passover, Mary (sister of Lazarus) anoints Jesus’ feet with costly perfume in Bethany (little village just east of Jerusalem) John 12:2-11 SATURDAY – Jesus keeps the Sabbath in the traditional fashion with this friends in Bethany.
PALM SUNDAY – “The Triumphal Entry” John 12:12-15 12 The next day the great crowd that had come for the festival heard that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem. 13 They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, “Hosanna! ” “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!” “Blessed is the king of Israel!” 14 Jesus found a young donkey and sat on it, as it is written: 15 “Do not be afraid, Daughter Zion; see, your king is coming, seated on a donkey’s colt.” John 12:12-15 THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY – PALM SUNDAY Palm waving – symbol of messianic liberator. Two prophecies are fulfilled: Riding on a donkey in in Jerusalem in Zechariah 9:9 and with “Hosanna” (Give salvation now) and the words of Psalm 118:25-26 (Save now, I pray). Jesus, at this moment is officially presenting Himself to the nation as the Messiah. This date according to the Jewish calendar, was Nisan 10, the day pilgrims presented their paschal(passover) lambs for examination. Triumphal Entry PASSION WEEK TIME-LINE MONDAY – Curses the fig tree; Cleansing of the Temple; Returns to Bethany for the night. TUESDAY – Official challenge of Christ’s authority; Olivet Discourse WEDNESDAY – The silent day for Jesus; Judas agrees to betray Jesus for 30 pieces of silver (price of a common slave) THURSDAY – According to Gregorian calendar, this day would be April 6, 32 AD. THURSDAY MORNING– Preparation for Passover in Upper Room. (Tradition has it that it was owned by Mark’s parents) THURSDAY EVENING – Passover meal; Jesus institutes the Last Supper observance and washes disciples’ feet; Upper Room Discourse; Judas identified as betrayer and leaves
THURSDAY MIDNIGHT – Jesus and disciples go to Gethsemane to pray. Matthew 26:36-39 36 Then Jesus went with his disciples to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to them, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.” 37 He took Peter and the two sons of Zebedee along with him, and he began to be sorrowful and troubled. 38 Then he said to them, “My soul is overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death. Stay here and keep watch with me.” 39 Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, “My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.” Matthew 26:36-39 “THIS CUP” A cup is often the symbol of divine wrath against sin in the Old Testament. The fullness of divine wrath would fall on him as He paid the price for our sins; the price of death. Jesus prayed this prayer 3 times that night. The Agony in the Garden TIME MEASUREMENT IN 1ST CENTURY Roman & Gentile world - new day begins 1 second after midnight. Jewish World – “watches” of 3 hour segments ◦ 1st watch begins at 6 PM (6 PM – 9 PM) ◦ 2nd watch (9 PM – 12 Midnight) ◦ 3rd watch (12 AM – 3 AM) ◦ 4th watch (3 AM – 6 AM) ◦ 6 AM – 7 AM is 1st Hour ◦ 7 AM – 8 AM is 2nd Hour, etc ◦ 12 Noon is 6th Hour
JESUS’ ARREST AND TRIAL #1 John 18:12-14 12 Then the detachment of soldiers with its commander and the Jewish officials arrested Jesus. They bound him 13 and brought him first to Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year. 14 Caiaphas was the one who had advised the Jewish leaders that it would be good if one man died for the people. John 18:12-14 JESUS’ TRIAL #1 John 18:19-23 19 Meanwhile, the high priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. 20 “I have spoken openly to the world,” Jesus replied. “I always taught in synagogues or at the temple, where all the Jews come together. I said nothing in secret. 21 Why question me? Ask those who heard me. Surely they know what I said.” 22 When Jesus said this, one of the officials nearby slapped him in the face. “Is this the way you answer the high priest?” he demanded. 23 “If I said something wrong,” Jesus replied, “testify as to what is wrong. But if I spoke the truth, why did you strike me?” 24 Then Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest. John 18:19-23 TRIAL #1- Annas 1st Jewish Trial was probably 2 AM (3rd watch of night). Annas had been High Priest for 17 prior years. Was High Priest when Jesus drove money changers from temple with a whip (Matthew 21:12). Jesus charged with “irreverence to High Priest”. No witnesses to testify to charges as required. TRIAL #2 BEFORE CAIAPHAS Matthew 26:57-62 57 Those who had arrested Jesus took him to Caiaphas the high priest, where the teachers of the law and the elders had assembled. 58 But Peter followed him at a distance, right up to the courtyard of the high priest. He entered and sat down with the guards to see the outcome. 59 The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for false evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death. 60 But they did not find any, though many false witnesses came forward.
Finally two came forward 61 and declared, “This fellow said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and rebuild it in three days.’ ” 62 Then the high priest stood up and said to Jesus, “Are you not going to answer? What is this testimony that these men are bringing against you?” Matthew 26:57-62 JESUS BEFORE CAIAPHAS –TRIAL #2 Matthew 26:63-68 (NIV2011) 63 But Jesus remained silent. The high priest said to him, “I charge you under oath by the living God: Tell us if you are the Messiah, the Son of God.” 64 “You have said so,” Jesus replied. “But I say to all of you: From now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.” 65 Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, “He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Look, now you have heard the blasphemy. 66 What do you think?” “He is worthy of death,” they answered. 67 Then they spit in his face and struck him with their fists. Others slapped him 68 and said, “Prophesy to us, Messiah. Who hit you?” Matthew 26:63-68 (NIV2011) JESUS BEFORE CAIAPHAS – TRIAL #2 Jewish Trial before the High Priest at 3 AM. Jesus obligated to answer since “under oath”. Charged with BLASPHEMY. ◦ “An attitude of disrespect that finds expression in an act directed toward the character of God. ◦ 3rd Commandment – Misuse of God’s name. ◦ Punishable by stoning to death. ◦ Jews under Roman rule could not carry out the death penalty. TRIAL #3 – THE SANHEDRIN 71 Members – Highest Jewish Council Vote individually – youngest to oldest No night verdicts – Trail began at 6:00 AM No immediate verdicts – Charge of Blasphemy
TRIAL #3 - SANHEDRIN Luke 22:66-71 66 At daybreak the council of the elders of the people, both the chief priests and the teachers of the law, met together, and Jesus was led before them. 67 “If you are the Messiah,” they said, “tell us.” Jesus answered, “If I tell you, you will not believe me, 68 and if I asked you, you would not answer. 69 But from now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the mighty God.” 70 They all asked, “Are you then the Son of God?” He replied, “You say that I am.” 71 Then they said, “Why do we need any more testimony? We have heard it from his own lips.” Luke 22:66-71 THE SANHEDRIN DILEMMA Unable to carry out the Jewish Court penalty of death by stoning because of Roman Rule. Needed to carry Jesus before Roman authorities in Roman Courts for death penalty. Charges against Jesus switched from BLASPHEMY to TREASON. Romans could execute for TREASON, but not for BLASPHEMY. TRIAL #4 - PILATE Roman Governor of Jerusalem area. Pilate was very anti-Semitic; “the wolf for Jewish blood”. In Jerusalem to keep peace during Passover. Was currently under investigation for mistreatment of Jews. Was accommodating to Jews because of the accusations. Was a rival of Herod – tried to undermine each other. TRIAL #4 – JESUS BEFORE PILATE Luke 23:1-7 1 Then the whole assembly rose and led him off to Pilate. 2 And they began to accuse him, saying, “We have found this man subverting our nation. He opposes payment of taxes to Caesar and claims to be Messiah, a king.” 3 So Pilate asked Jesus, “Are you the king of the Jews?”
“You have said so,” Jesus replied. 4 Then Pilate announced to the chief priests and the crowd, “I find no basis for a charge against this man.” 5 But they insisted, “He stirs up the people all over Judea by his teaching. He started in Galilee and has come all the way here.” 6 On hearing this, Pilate asked if the man was a Galilean. 7 When he learned that Jesus was under Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time. Luke 23:1-7 HEROD ANTIPAS Son of Herod the Great who killed babies in Bethlehem when Jesus was born. Ruled over Galilee – Area north of Jerusalem. Had John the Baptist beheaded. Jesus had called him a fox when Pharisees tried to scare him out of Galilee. TRIAL #5 - HEROD 7 AM. Pilate did NOT rule Jesus guilty of TREASON. Herod was in Jerusalem to assist with crowd control. Looked upon Jesus as a magician. Luke 23:8-11 8 When Herod saw Jesus, he was greatly pleased, because for a long time he had been wanting to see him. From what he had heard about him, he hoped to see him perform a sign of some sort. 9 He plied him with many questions, but Jesus gave him no answer. 10 The chief priests and the teachers of the law were standing there, vehemently accusing him. 11 Then Herod and his soldiers ridiculed and mocked him. Dressing him in an elegant robe, they sent him back to Pilate. 12 That day Herod and Pilate became friends — before this they had been enemies. Luke 23:8-11 TRIAL #6 – BACK TO PILATE Herod had no accusations, just mockery. Jesus now wearing one of Herod’s old robes. Now 7:30 AM. God’s plan continues to unfold.
PROPHECY UNFOLDINGIsaiah 53:7-8a7 He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth.8 By oppression and judgment he was taken away. Isaiah 53:7-8a TRIAL #6 – BACK TO PILATEMatthew 27:1-51 Early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people madetheir plans how to have Jesus executed. 2 So they bound him, led him awayand handed him over to Pilate the governor.3 When Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he wasseized with remorse and returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priestsand the elders. 4 “I have sinned,” he said, “for I have betrayed innocentblood.”“What is that to us?” they replied. “That’s your responsibility.”5 So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away andhanged himself. Matthew 27:1-5 TRIAL #6 - PILATEMatthew 27:11-2611 Meanwhile Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor asked him,“Are you the king of the Jews?”“You have said so,” Jesus replied.12 When he was accused by the chief priests and the elders, he gave noanswer. 13 Then Pilate asked him, “Don’t you hear the testimony they arebringing against you?” 14 But Jesus made no reply, not even to a single charge—to the great amazement of the governor.15 Now it was the governor’s custom at the festival to release a prisoner chosenby the crowd. 16 At that time they had a well-known prisoner whose name wasJesus Barabbas. 17 So when the crowd had gathered, Pilate asked them,
“Which one do you want me to release to you: Jesus Barabbas, or Jesus who iscalled the Messiah?” 18 For he knew it was out of self-interest that they hadhanded Jesus over to him.19 While Pilate was sitting on the judge’s seat, his wife sent him this message:“Don’t have anything to do with that innocent man, for I have suffered a greatdeal today in a dream because of him.”20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowd to ask for Barabbasand to have Jesus executed.21 “Which of the two do you want me to release to you?” asked the governor.“Barabbas,” they answered.22 “What shall I do, then, with Jesus who is called the Messiah?” Pilate asked.They all answered, “Crucify him!”23 “Why? What crime has he committed?” asked Pilate.But they shouted all the louder, “Crucify him!”24 When Pilate saw that he was getting nowhere, but that instead an uproarwas starting, he took water and washed his hands in front of the crowd. “I aminnocent of this man’s blood,” he said. “It is your responsibility!”25 All the people answered, “His blood is on us and on our children!”26 Then he released Barabbas to them. But he had Jesus flogged, and handedhim over to be crucified. Matthew 27:11-26 WHY???Isaiah 53:5-65 But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was on him, and by his wounds we are healed.6 We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to our own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all. Isaiah 53:5-6
JESUS’ PRAYER FOR HIMSELFJohn 17:1-51 After Jesus said this, he looked toward heaven and prayed:“Father, the hour has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may glorify you. 2 For yougranted him authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those youhave given him. 3 Now this is eternal life: that they know you, the only true God, andJesus Christ, whom you have sent. 4 I have brought you glory on earth by finishing thework you gave me to do. 5 And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with theglory I had with you before the world began. John 17:1-5