Students a presentation for outreach purposes


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Students a presentation for outreach purposes

  1. 1. A Career in thePharmaceutical Sciences Unlimited Potential Sponsored by the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
  2. 2. What are the Pharmaceutical Sciences?The pharmaceutical sciences combine a broadrange of scientific disciplines that are critical tothe discovery and development of new drugsand therapies.
  3. 3. Drug Discovery and DesignTaxol Synthesis-Science Saving Lives 3D model of a Taxol molecule
  4. 4. Drug Delivery EIGHT HOURS OF INSULIN ACTIVITY FROM A SINGLE OCULAR INSERT Placebo Ocular Insert 140 Eydrop %of initial glucose level 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time (hours)Recent research findings from the University of Arizona
  5. 5. Drug DeliveryNicotine patch used tohelp people stop smoking Cross-sectional diagram of a nicotine patch
  6. 6. Drug ActionDrugs entering a cell via several different mechanisms
  7. 7. Pharmacokinetics and Drug MetabolismGRAPEFRUIT JUICE MAY HAVE POTENTIALLY DANGEROUSINTERACTIONS WITH MULTIPLE MEDICATIONS 80 with grapefruit juice Lovastatin (ng/ml) with water 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time (hr) (Kantola et al., 1997)
  8. 8. Pharmacokinetics and Drug MetabolismWHEN MEDICATIONS ARE USED TOGETHER, THE DRUG EFFECTS MAY CHANGE Plasma tamoxifen (ng/ml) with rifampin 160 without rifampin 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 336 0 100 200 Time (hr) (Kivisto et al, 1998)
  9. 9. Drug Analysis A research assistant readying ananalytical system for drug analysis
  10. 10. Cost Effectiveness of Medicines Annual Cost to U.S. for Medication Related Problems costs without Physicians Visits pharmacy care cost with pharmacy Additional care ProblemsMedication-related Prescriptions Emergency Room Visits Hospital Admissions Long-term-care Facility Admissions Total $0 $10 $20 $30 $40 $50 $60 $70 $80 Billions of dollars spent The economic impact of pharmacy care
  11. 11. Education/Training OptionsB.S./M.S. in Pharmaceutical Sciences,Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics,Biomedical Engineering, InformationTechnology, or related fieldPharm.D.Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences
  12. 12. Career ProspectsPharmaceutical Industry - for all degreelevelsResearch Laboratories - for all degree levelsTeaching/Research in Academics - Ph.D. orPharm.D.Regulatory Agencies - for all degree levels
  13. 13. Mean Base Annual Salaries Overall (x $1000) Industry Academia GovernmentPh.D. 97.6 95.1 81.4 (Based on 2001 AAPS Salary Survey)
  14. 14. Mean Base Annual Salaries by Experience (x $1000) 0–5 5 – 10 10 – 20 20 – 30 > 30 yrs. yrs. yrs. yrs. yrs.B.S. 48.5 56.0 72.0 80.0 85.0M.S. 55.0 58.0 76.0 100.0 106.0Ph.D. 72.0 87.0 108.0 120.0 120.5 (Based on 2001 AAPS Salary Survey)
  15. 15. Is a Career in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Right for Me?It certainly is if: You enjoy science classes and want to pursue a science-based career. You desire to contribute to the health and well-being of society through the development of medicines and therapies.
  16. 16. Contact InformationAmerican Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists(AAPS) 703-243-2800American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) 703-739-2330American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA) 202-628-4410Local Schools of Pharmacy
  17. 17. Presentation NotesSlide3 - Drug Discovery and Design deals with the design and synthesis of new drugmolecules. This category includes specialized fields of study such as medicinal chemistry,combinatorial chemistry and biotechnology. Taxol is a potent anti-cancer agent found in smallamounts in the bark of the slow growing Pacific yew tree. Unfortunately the process that extractthe drug from the bark also kills the tree. One adult tree produces only 1 gram of thismedication. Through the advances of medicinal chemistry, a way has been found to produce ataxol-like drug (Taxolene) from the needles of the European yew tree. This pharmaceuticalbreakthrough has greatly increasing the availability of this drug.Slide 4 -Drug Delivery is concerned with the design of dosage forms - such as tablets, injectionor patches - that will deliver the drug in the right amount at the right time within a patient. Thenormal model of delivery of insulin to the patients is through multiple daily intramuscular orsubcutaneous injections. To bridge the gap in the treatment of patients with diabetes, a varietyof approaches have been attempted. A pharmaceutical lab at the University of Arizona is tryingto develop a non-painful and an effective way of delivering insulin into the body. They havecompared the reduction of plasma glucose levels following the use of eye drops and a newlyformulated ocular insert. This graph illustrates that when the new ocular formulation was used,the reduction of glucose levels persisted for more than 8 hours. (Research conducted in Dr. SamYalkowsky’s laboratory, University of Arizona)Slide 5 - Another example of drug delivery research is the nicotine patch. Nicotine patches werdeveloped to delivery nicotine through the skin. This type of system has been used effectively tohelp people quit smoking. (left scan PDR 1999; right scan Chien ed. Transdermal ControlledSystemic Medications. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York 1987.)
  18. 18. Presentation NotesSlide 6 - Drug Action examines how the drug itself actually works in a living system. The actionof the drug can be studied at the molecular level, in a cell, an organ, and in animals. Specialtyfields include molecular biology, pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, toxicology andbiochemistry.Slide 7 - Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism. This discipline examines the behavior ofthe drug in the body. Researchers in this discipline perform studies to examine the absorption,distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs and the kinetics of drug responses. Anexample of such research showed that grapefruit juice could have dangerous interactions with anumber of medications. The study shown here has looked at the effect of grapefruit juice on thesystemic exposure of a cholesterol-lowering agent, lovastatin. Grapefruit juice greatly increasedthe systemic exposure of lovastatin. This may increase the risk of skeletal muscle toxicityassociated with lovastatin. The following warning label has been posted as a result of this type ofresearch: Avoid eating grapefruit and drinking grapefruit juice while being treated with thefollowing medications: CYCLOSPORINE, FELODIPINE, MIDAZOLAM, NIFEDIPINE,NISOLDIPINE, QUINIDINE, TERAZOSIN, TERFENADINE, TRIAZOLAM, LOVASTATIN,AND SIMVASTATIN. (Graph reproduced from Kantola et al. Clinical Pharmacology &Therapeutics 1998; 63:397-402)Slide 8 - Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism. Another example of this research area isexamination of the interactions of medication when used concomitantly. Drug-drug interactionscan cause unwanted adverse effects and/or reduce the effectiveness of the medications.Tamoxifen is a medication used to treat and prevent breast cancer. Rifampin is used in thetreatment of patients with tuberculosis. The systemic exposure of tamoxifen measured as the areaunder the plasma concentration versus time curve was decreased significantly whencoadministered with rifampin. This can reduce the efficacy of tamoxifen. (Graph reproducedfrom Kivisto et al., Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1998; 64:648-654)
  19. 19. Presentation NotesSlide 9 - Drug Analysis involves separating, identifying, and quantifying the components ofa sample. Analytical chemistry is an important component of all areas of the pharmaceuticalsciences.Slide 10 - Pharmacoeconomics examines the health and economic related outcomes ofdrug selection and patient management (e.g., quality of life, physician visits, potentialhospitalization). An example of research in this discipline found that each year, avoidablemedication-related problems cost the U.S. $76.5 billion in additional medical associateexpenses. $45.6 billion of this unnecessary cost can be avoided by implementing properpharmaceutical care, such as: proper drug choice, proper use of the drug, and improvingpatient compliance.(Bootman JL, Johnson JA. Drug-related mortality and the economicimpact of pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1997; 54:554-558)Slide 12 - There are wide range of employment opportunities in the pharmacy sciences. Thethree major areas of employment are industry (drug manufactures), academia (universities),and the government (the FDA). This is the average salary breakdown for a pharmacyscience Ph.D. ( 13 - This is a slide on the average salary in different employment groups.( 14 - This is a slide on the average salary in industry broken down by degree type andyears of experience. (
  20. 20. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists