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Chapter1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Science of Nutrition Chapter 1
  • 2. Introduction • Quality of life • Foods we choose to eat • Immediate health • Risk of disease • Science • Hope and controversy • Nutrition and human health • Deficiencies and abundance
  • 3. What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”? • Nutrition • Variety of scientific disciplines • Nutritional scientists • Dietitians • RD credential • Nutritional sciences
  • 4. What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”? • Nutrients • Evolving definition • Six categories • Macronutrients • Micronutrients • Essential nutrients • Nonessential nutrients • Conditionally essential nutrients
  • 5. Micronutrients vs. Macronutrients
  • 6. What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”? • Nutrients • Organic compounds • Inorganic compounds • “Certified Organic” foods • National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) • Reading labels
  • 7. What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”? • Phytochemicals • Health-promoting substances found in plants • Zoonutrients • Health-promoting substances found in animal foods • Functional foods • Enhanced amounts of traditional nutrients • Phytochemicals • Zoonutrients
  • 8. What Are the Major Nutrient Classes? • Carbohydrates • Elements • Types • Glucose • Primary source of energy • Roles
  • 9. What Are the Major Nutrient Classes? • Proteins • Sources • Elements • Roles • Lipids • Sources • Types • Elements • Roles
  • 10. What Are the Major Nutrient Classes? • Water • Roles • Vitamins • Elements • Roles • Types • Minerals • Roles
  • 11. How Do Foods Provide Energy? • Energy • Capacity of a physical system to do work • Energy-yielding nutrients • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) • Energy measurement • Calorie • Bomb calorimeter
  • 12. Bomb Calorimeter
  • 13. How Do Foods Provide Energy? • Estimating food calories • Carbohydrates and proteins – 4 kcal/gram • Lipids – 9 kcal/gram • Alcohol – 7 kcal/gram • Percentage of energy from energy-yielding nutrients • Recommendations
  • 14. How Is Nutrition Research Conducted? • Scientific method • Step 1: making an observation • Appropriate and accurate observation • Step 2: proposing a hypothesis • Two types of hypotheses • Simple vs. complex relationships – Interactions
  • 15. Simple Relationships vs. Complex Relationships
  • 16. How Is Nutrition Research Conducted? • Scientific method • Step 3: testing the hypothesis • Epidemiological studies – Correlational relationships only – Framingham Heart Study – NHANES – Advantages and limitations
  • 17. • Scientific method • Step 3: testing the hypothesis • Intervention studies – Test for causality – Control group – Types of biases – Controlling for biases – Advantages and limitations of human studies – Animal and cell culture studies
  • 18. The Ideal Nutrition Intervention Study
  • 19. Are All Nutrition Claims Believable? • Determine the source of the information • Primary sources • Reputable publications • Credibility of the researchers • Qualified and knowledgeable • Who paid for the research? • Evaluate the experimental design • Do public health organizations concur?
  • 20. Some Reliable Source of Nutrition Information
  • 21. Nutrition and Health: What Is the Connection? • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) • Use of rates • Mortality rate • Infant mortality rate • Morbidity rates • Incidence and prevalence • Life expectancy • Graying of America
  • 22. Changes in Life Expectancy and IMR Since 1900
  • 23. Nutrition and Health: What Is the Connection? • Disease • Infectious • Noninfectious • Autoimmune diseases • Chronic degenerative diseases • Disease etiology • Leading causes of death • Risk factors • Nutrition transition
  • 24. Five Leading Causes of Death in 1902, 1950, and 2007