• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Resg pres apr10
 

Resg pres apr10

on

  • 590 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
590
Views on SlideShare
589
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Resg pres apr10 Resg pres apr10 Presentation Transcript

    • Harnessing Stakeholders in Requirements Elicitation Alastair Milne, City University Supervisor: Prof Neil Maiden
    • About me…
      • Started in academia as researcher in economic history
      • MSc in Information Systems, Diploma in Change Management
      • For last 15 years have worked in wide range of sectors/organisations in a variety of IT roles
      • Most recently project managed large website projects, such as the Times Educational Supplement, www.tes.co.uk
      • Currently working as consultant ( www.sukotto.co.uk ) putting together requirements for online projects and providing digital strategy consultancy. Focus on publishing and arts organisations
    • Why a PhD in this area?
      • Longstanding interest in academia
      • Want to deliver better projects
      • Interest in how organisations work
      • Synergy with my commercial work
      • Practitioners don’t really benefit from a lot of rigorous academic research
      • Academic work on requirements tends to have little practical to offer to practitioners - an emphasis on formal techniques that often doesn’t address the complex realities of modern organisations
    • Core problems to address
      • IT projects nowadays tend to be less discrete and more ‘systemic’ within organisations
      • Projects require a much deeper understanding of stakeholder goals and motivations
      • The organisational context is more complex, boundaries are more blurred, external factors are more important
      • Requirements elicitation today is much more of a creative and exploratory process than a question of finding a ‘correct’ solution to a problem
    • Assertions - 1
      • Requirements engineering can be viewed as an essentially political and organisational problem
      • Tools and techniques need to be developed to address this
      • Understanding stakeholders and organisational context is critical
      • The idea of a requirements engineer as the central actor in the requirements process can be questioned
      • Requirements gathering should be approached as an emergent, collaborative process, and the requirements engineer’s role should be one of facilitation
    • Assertions - 2
      • Stakeholder goals and motivations towards a problem are often not ‘rational’, but can only be understood within a wider political and organisational context (example)
      • Understanding stakeholder motivations and organisational context can be usefully approached by exploring power relationships between actors
      • Power relationships are an important determinant of goals and motivations
    • My proposal
      • To go beyond simply identifying stakeholders and their attitude towards a particular problem
      • To develop techniques that explore the nature of relationships between stakeholders
      • To use emergent techniques to develop ‘rich’ networks of stakeholders and their relationships
      • To utilise social networking tools and online collaborative software to build up networks in an emergent rather than directive fashion
    • How does it differ from existing approaches?
      • Not just focused on identifying stakeholders and their relationship to a problem, but recognises the importance of stakeholders’ relationships to each other, particularly in terms of power
      • Focus is on the organisational context to identify issues that could influence the requirements process
    • What kind of information to collect?
      • Existence of network links
      • Strength of links between actors – e.g. do the actors work together on a daily basis?
      • Identification of power relationships – e.g. line management
      • Organisational boundaries, e.g. in same team, department, outside organisation
      • Identification of roles with respect to problem area – e.g. decision-maker, budget-holder, subject expert, creative input, resource-allocator
      • Identification of goals and motivations of actors – self-identification and assessing others
    • The proposed process
      • 1/ Identify the problem area
      • 2/ Identify initial set of key stakeholders as ‘seeds’ for the network
      • 3/ Stakeholders suggest other potential stakeholders – iterative process
      • 4/ Once network is ‘complete’, use online questionnaires to identify nature and strength of relationships between actors, and actors to identify their own, and other actors, roles, goals and motivations
      • 5/ Once process is complete, map the resulting network
      • 6/ Report on issues identified by the process, e.g. roles not filled, communication gaps, confusion over roles
    • Potential benefits of analysis
      • Identify all relevant stakeholders and their relationships, and establish key roles
      • Identify issues with the network – e.g. communication problems, over-dependence on key individuals, gatekeepers
      • Identify role conflicts or uncertainty – e.g. confusion over who the key decision-makers are
      • Identify ‘missing’ roles – e.g. lack of creative input
      • Identify conflicts in assessments of goals and motivations – highlighting lack of communication/understanding
    • Theoretical basis
      • Stakeholder theories
        • Freeman (84) – strategic management
        • Mitchell, Agle, Wood (97) – stakeholder salience
        • Frooman (99) – emphasis on power
      • Social and political aspects of requirements engineering
        • Macaulay (96) – going beyond technology
        • Checkland (90) – Soft Systems – importance of organisational context
        • Ramos, Berry (05) – Emotion in RE
        • Thew, Sutcliffe (08) – ‘Soft’ issues in the RE process
        • Sutcliffe (10) – Extending i* for sociotechnical systems
      • Social network analysis
        • Knoke, Yang (82/08)
        • Watts (04) – Six degrees
      • Theories of power
        • Foucault – Power/Knowledge
        • Lukes – power shaping preferences through values, norms, ideologies
        • French, Raven (59) – 5 forms of power
      • ‘ Combined’ approaches
        • Rowley (97) – Mapping stakeholder networks – density of networks
        • Lim, Quercia, Finkelstein (09) – StakeNet – identifying and prioritising stakeholders using social networks
    • Potential Case Studies
      • Arts organisation looking at new box office/fundraising system
      • Digital agency developing new CMS functionality
      • National theatre organisation replacing existing website
    • Some issues
      • Stakeholders can be individuals, roles, and groups. How will network models deal with this? E.g ‘customers’.
      • Political relationships are by nature contentious and motivations are often hidden, or even unconscious. Could proposed techniques highlight issues that are best not raised?
      • Are socio-political issues quantifiable?
      • Proposal would highlight issues but proposes no means to resolve them
      • Is it possible to create tools/questionnaires that can be applied universally to projects? Or would they need to be tailored?
    • Contact details
      • [email_address]