Technology Motivators and Usage in Non-Profit Arts Organizations


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This presentation was given at the 2007 Americans for the Arts Convention by Carnegie Mellon\'s Center for Arts Management and Technology. The goal of this project was to identify and understand the motivations behind information technology decisions in arts organizations. These motivations and decision-making processes were applied to help explain why some arts organizations may lag behind other not-for-profit organizations in technology adoption. While the unequal distribution of technology is partially due to an organization’s financial standing and the availability of “risk capital,” these two factors alone cannot fully account for the present divide.

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  • Technology Motivators and Usage in Non-Profit Arts Organizations

    1. 1. Technology Motivators and Usage in Nonprofit Arts Organizations Americans for the Arts Annual Convention Sunday, June 3, 2007 Las Vegas, NV
    2. 2. Presentation Overview <ul><ul><ul><li>Project description and goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insights and recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Presentation Overview <ul><ul><ul><li>Project description and goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insights and recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Project Description <ul><li>To investigate the motivations behind the information technology decisions within arts organizations. -- Why do some arts organizations excel at using information technologies to support institutional objectives? -- </li></ul>
    5. 5. Project Goals <ul><li>To provide a baseline understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>environmental and institutional factors affecting motivation to adopt (or not to adopt) new technology </li></ul><ul><li>technology decision-making processes in the nonprofit arts sector </li></ul>
    6. 6. Definition of “Technology” <ul><li>Information & Communication Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Computer software </li></ul><ul><li>Computer hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Database systems </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Internet-based tools </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone systems </li></ul>
    7. 7. Project Structure <ul><li>Systems Synthesis project at Carnegie Mellon’s Heinz School of Public Policy and Management </li></ul><ul><li>13 Masters of Arts Management graduate students working together on a 16 week project </li></ul><ul><li>“ Real world” research environment with a client, a faculty advisor and an advisory committee </li></ul>
    8. 8. Project Timeline 2006 Jul Sep Aug Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 2007 Final paper Conversations with GPAC begin First presentation Interim presentation AFTA presentation Final presentation Data Collection Data Analysis Project structure Advisory Board
    9. 9. Research Partner Organizations Organization Type Budget Size <$1 million $1-10 million >$10 million Visual Arts Performing Arts Visual & Performing Arts
    10. 10. Technologies in Use   Artist Image Resource August Wilson Center City Theatre Children’s Museum Silver Eye Center for Photography Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra Formalized Technology Plan                Dedicated IT Staff       Percentage of Technology Expenses in Total Spending 7.0% 1.9% 0.04% 0.31% 2.7% 0.01% Software programs in use 9 10 10 20 10 13 Communications tools in use 4 4 7 4 4 5 eNewsletter                  Online Tool Subscriptions                Podcast    Online Communities / Social Networking     Blog              
    11. 11. Presentation Overview <ul><ul><ul><li>Project description and goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insights and recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Project Methodology <ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Initial Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Site Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Staff Survey </li></ul>Methodologies included two types of data sets consisting of several research techniques Primary Secondary
    13. 13. Methodology: Initial Questionnaire <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff understanding of organization’s usage of information technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide context for interviews with specific organizational information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Themes Covered: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information and Communication Technology Inventory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Planning protocol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet usage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Methodology: Interviews <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather narratives to deepen understanding of technology decision-making process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop comparable & contrasting information across organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interview Structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introductory Questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major Technology Purchase(s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Support and Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Planning </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Methodology: Observation <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal communication behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived value of technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria Observed: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Office Organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Office Communication Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness of the interviewee’s answer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-verbal cues </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Methodology: Staff Survey <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify behaviors and attitudes of staff members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify disconnects between interviewees’ perceptions and those of other staff members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Themes Covered: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes Toward Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, Policies, and Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Support and Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Technology usage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational culture and values </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Methodology: Document Review <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze internal documents to determine if and how technology decisions are planned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide initial understanding of organizational culture and values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Documents Reviewed (if available) : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IRS Form 990 and full budgets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Methodology: Literature Review <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop comprehensive understanding of technology usage and adoption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline understanding of decision-making theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Topics Reviewed: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology adoption, implementation, and adaptation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usage of internet technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition trends in the nonprofit sector </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Framework: Decision-Making Model <ul><li>Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul>2 Issue <ul><li>Pre-Process </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-Process </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Process </li></ul>1 Identification 3 Process
    20. 20. Framework: Decision-Making Model 3.2 mid-process <ul><li>implementation </li></ul><ul><li>actions taken </li></ul>3.1 pre-process <ul><li>research and planning </li></ul><ul><li>personnel involvement </li></ul><ul><li>training and education </li></ul>3.3 post-process <ul><li>evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>feedback </li></ul>1 Identification 2 Issue 3 Process
    21. 21. Framework: Decision-Making Model External Motivators Internal Motivators Financial Mandates Social Mandates Facility Mandates Resource & Time Constraints Awareness & Knowledge Sentiments and Satisfaction Attitudes About Technology Balancing Art and Administration Institutional Culture, Priorities & Values
    22. 22. Decision-Making Model: External Motivators <ul><li>Financial Mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Social Mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Mandates </li></ul>
    23. 23. External Motivators: Financial Mandates <ul><li>Funding climate </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted donations </li></ul><ul><li>Economic environment </li></ul>
    24. 24. External Motivators: Social Mandates <ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprofit Technology Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of peer organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived audience needs </li></ul>
    25. 25. External Motivators: Facility Mandates <ul><li>Administrative space limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware/network infrastructure capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This building for the most part is a Microsoft Exchange environment. It’s been a challenge, frankly… because what’s happening is that Entourage is not designed to work [with] Exchange. So [the vice president] and his assistant can’t share calendars, they can’t share contacts. It’s been quite a challenge- that was one of those little learning experiences- it was a good experience, it was a good thing to know, but it has caused some difficulties.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- August Wilson Center </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Decision-Making Model: Internal Motivators <ul><li>Awareness and Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Resource and Time Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Culture, Priorities and Values </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Art and Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes about Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Sentiments and Satisfaction </li></ul>
    27. 27. Internal Motivators: Awareness and Knowledge <ul><li>Awareness: </li></ul><ul><li>a set of known options </li></ul>Knowledge: in-depth familiarity with specific options
    28. 28. <ul><li>Shoestring budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing limitations </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I am not even clear… whether the volume of use that the [printer] gets is… financially beneficial for us or whether it is costing us money. What I do know is that the opportunities… that it has opened up [are] significant. I don't know that we can afford to subsidize those opportunities for everybody… How are we going to support this place? …How do we get paid?” </li></ul><ul><li>-Artists Image Resource </li></ul>Internal Motivators: Resource and Time Constraints
    29. 29. Internal Motivators: Institutional Culture, Priorities, and Values <ul><li>Spending </li></ul><ul><li>Staff hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Planning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Self-defined identity </li></ul>
    30. 30. Internal Motivators: Balancing Art and Administration <ul><li>Investment in artistic product and administrative technologies </li></ul><ul><li>“ We produce new plays and we want to extract as much quality out of the resources that are available to us and there is an inherent tension in that. We are really pushing to maximize the resources that we have.” </li></ul><ul><li>- City Theatre </li></ul>
    31. 31. Internal Motivators: Attitudes about Technology <ul><li>Difficult to alter </li></ul><ul><li>Previous experience or understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Highly dependent on education and self-efficacy </li></ul>3.1 pre-process 3.2 mid-process 3.3 post-process
    32. 32. Internal Motivators: Sentiments and Satisfaction <ul><li>Informal reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Formal evaluations </li></ul>3.1 pre-process 3.2 mid-process 3.3 post-process
    33. 33. Presentation Overview <ul><ul><ul><li>Project description and goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insights and recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Key insights and recommendations Communication Structure Information
    35. 35. <ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitative Decision Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by choices of peer organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data-driven Decision Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by research, planning, and data analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection and analysis on the success (or failure) of each part of the decision-making process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results will influence subsequent decisions </li></ul></ul>Information: Awareness and Evaluation Recommendation: Gather information to expand available options and increase success
    36. 36. Communication: Leadership and Satisfaction <ul><li>When leadership communicates technology objectives, staff feel more capable to take on new technology challenges </li></ul><ul><li>When staff are satisfied with technical support, they are less likely to see knowledge as a barrier to technology adoption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase two-way communication between management and employees to increase satisfaction and empower staff. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Structure: Empowerment and Formalized Roles <ul><ul><li>Recommendation: Formalizing technology roles can help to empower staff and positively influence attitudes about technology </li></ul></ul>DiMaggio, Paul, Eszter Hargittai. “From the ‘Digital Divide’ to ‘Digital Inequality:’ Studying Internet Use as Penetration Increases.” Resources Skill Support Efficacy Purposes of Use Human Capital Social Capital
    38. 38. Key insights and recommendations Facilitate Communication Formalize Structure Increase Information
    39. 39. Avenues for Future Research <ul><li>Test findings with larger sample </li></ul><ul><li>Compare technology adoption trends in the arts to other nonprofit sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Quantify efficacy of technology usage and training </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the role demographics play in technology adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate the relationship between arts nonprofits and consultants </li></ul>
    40. 40. Q & A
    41. 41. Additional Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Notes: </li></ul><ul><li>No WWW </li></ul><ul><li>All lower case </li></ul><ul><li>Include “.aspx” in URL </li></ul>