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2.2 "Laboratory Measurements as the Ground Truth forShale Classification" - Greg Getz [EN]
 

2.2 "Laboratory Measurements as the Ground Truth forShale Classification" - Greg Getz [EN]

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  • Tight Rock Analysis (TRA) is a TerraTek workflow designed to address the Heterogeneic nature of unconventional resources. You could refer to Heterogeneity as “Elephant #1.”
  • From this diagram we can clearly see some of the resolution challenges that seismic faces when compared to other sampling techniques such as logging and core samplingIt becomes clear that seismic cannot go it alone when exploring the heterogeneous nature of this rock (next slide)
  • As you scan your eye across these shale gas logs taken from key shale plays you can seen how some have more calcite while others have more claysYou can also see how they change vertically Note the vertical Heterogeneity with in all these reservoirs
  • The Slide on the left shows the pore structure of a conventional sandstone and we can clearly see the pore structure and mineral frameworkHowever, in when we look at shales under the microscope we have to zoom in much closer to see any type of pore structure, the slide on the RHS has been overlaid onto the slide on the LHS at the same scale to demonstrate the difference in this rock fabricThe pore structure we are used to seeing in the sandstones are lost in the shales and replaced by fossil fragments, kerogen, minerals and clays We cannot simply apply sandstone technology to Shale they are very different and need to be managed differently.
  • Understanding how the rock fabric effects the completion quality is also an essential part of the puzzle Measuring the mechanical properties of the shales in the lab and the field is essential to building this understandingThe variation seen from play to play and even within a few hundred yard can have a dramatic impact on the completion qualityIf stress barriers are not located fractures can easily grow out of zone If we find high stress anisotropy this may produce a completely different result from rock with lower stress contrastIt is not enough to only look at the reservoir quality we cannot expect good results without also evaluating the rock mechanics and completion qualityAt the end of the day it is the rock that matters