The Bagno Solution
The road to sun power
Energy Of The Future
•Solar is local; that’s access and economic control over energy available to nearly everyone.
•Solar resources are thousands of times more than society consumes each year.
Solar is a highly popular form of energy in studies of public perception and expectation of future contribution
Policy-led demand for solar energy and global growth rates of 40 to 50 percent each year has led to recent
supply bottlenecks in PV manufacturing.
“In the end, however, scale of production matters to determine which technologies and companies will be best
placed to take advantage of the markets.” …. Prometheus Institute 2008
Competition and Predictions
Number of CSP companies targeting each market segment • Although PV is projected to have a
lower cost than CSThermal in the
medium to long term, CST will
play a role in utility scale
installations due to storage
capabilities and other benefits to
utilities and societies.
• CST Trough technologies will be
implemented first and will
experience incremental technical
improvements and cost
• Emerging non-tracking and low
concentration CPV technologies
may have an interesting impact at
the distributed residential and
“Regardless of which CSP technology is chosen, correctly assessing the cost of solar electricity and
further engineering to bring it down over time is the key challenge.” …. Prometheus Institute 2008
Concentrated Solar Power
The Commonly Used Technologies
A Well Proven Technology - More Cost Effective Than
“somewhere between $80 Billion and $200 Billion of aggregate investment in this sector over the next
12 years” …. Prometheus Institute 2008
• Solar Concentrators harness
all spectrums of light energy
in a large area, and then
reflect that energy back to a
smaller common area called
a focal point.
• Generally a glass silver
backed mirror adhered to a
metal substrate is use to
achieve the reflection of the
Concentrated solar power
• Concentrated solar
power (CSP) is more
cells at converting
sun light into
electricity, and can
supply process heat,
and power from
while tracking the
The Tower System
The Oldest and Largest Land Area
Hundreds of large flat plate glass mirrors reflect sun light onto a raised focal point
receiver which heats molten salt that is transferred to a boiler to make steam to run a
steam turbine to generate electricity. First used in United States in the 80’s, then in Spain
in the 90’s, and now the Australian Government is investing 100 million dollars to build
this type of system in their country in 2008.
The Most Commonly Used Worldwide
This technology uses stainless steel or metal backed glass mirror to reflect sun light
onto a pipe receiver with transfer fluid to a central steam turbine electric
generator. Note this technology is not point focusing in two axis's yet is still cost
effective. New emerging Fresnel mirror design is now entering the market.
Point Focusing Parabolic
Most Expensive Technology - Highest Efficiency
This technology uses the thinnest glass metal back mirror that reflect sun light onto a
Sterling helium gas displacement engine to make a reciprocating A/C cycle electricity
compared to a rotational D/C steam turbine. No water is required
Weaknesses of All Current Designs
• Too sophisticated, too precise and too expensive
• High cost from:
– lower reflection, higher polarization.
– heavier reflector units requiring heavier support structures, and tracking
– manufacture of bent glass.
– Shorten life span of reflective material due to mono-structure.
• Breakable glass restricting installation and manufacturing options.
– Complex glass mounts to support structure.
• Bent light means tighter focal points requiring expensive materials.
• Inability to track sun in 2 axis's.
• Require high cost conversion units because of high temperature
• Not for public consumption!
The Bagno Solar
changing the business and energy environment
Recognizing Energy is a Technology Crisis, not a Resource Crisis!
The Bagno Advantage
Low Cost Point Focusing Solar Concentrators
• Utilizes flat plate mirror technology
– Allows for use of diffused, cloudy sun light,
– Spacing allows for lower wind loads, and less surface degradation from wind blown particulates
• Made from composite material
– Requires less energy to make than 3,000-degree F glass.
– Allows complete fabrication at factory level
– Have dielectric properties that reduce electromagnetic polarization
– No thermal expansion differentials causing deformation of reflection
– Surface silvering allows for a 33% increase over traditional mirror reflection
– Lower weight reduces tracking and support structure requirements.
– Child safe if used at home or school.
4. Flexible Character
– Mirroring can be altered for improved infrared, or ultraviolet characteristics
• Higher ir makes higher thermal energy conversions e.g. steam turbine.
• Higher uv reflection makes higher energy conversions with CPV.
– Composite substrate can be etched into a Fresnel lens
– Composite can be molded to form parabolic reflectors
• Simple construction and installation
– Mirrors less expensive to make.
– Unit transportable in one piece because of unbreakable mirrors
– Less mounting hardware; composite mirror can be screwed through mirror right to support structure
– No metal backers that corrode silvering
– Lower weight reduces tracking and support structure requirements.
The Bagno Design Benefits
•incorporates new light weight, low cost materials which allow for higher efficiency
that is mass producible
• Notice the slight gentle angle of the mirror reflectors, the less you bend the light the
less reflectance loss from polarization.
• Notice the flat plate mirror reflector not curved, or parabolic further increasing
reflection while lowering cost.
Bagno Flat, Light Weight Composite
A fiber glass composite substrate surface silvered has many advantages
over traditional silver backed glass mirror reflectors.
• 5 times lighter than glass.
• cost one fifth of glass.
• Longer lasting
– No oxidation of silvering from metal substrates.
– No expansion rates differences that cause reflect deformation
• Unbreakable nature allows for one piece on site installation.
• Optionally, can be surfaced to gain reduced polarization and higher
reflectance due to opaque nature
The Bagno for Combined Heat and Power
• CHP concepts for industry, research, and commercial
buildings efficiently integrate distributed power generation and
thermal energy systems.
– reduces stress on the grid by replacing peak-power-
consuming components with thermally activated
• use thermal energy for heating, cooling, humidity control, and
power (mechanical and electric) in buildings, factories,
Picture 772.mpg •
campuses, industrial parks, and district systems.
Point Focusing Concentrator’s can be used with new solid
state Thermal Electric Modulators (TEM), Concentrated
photovoltaic cells (CPV), Standard photovoltaic cells (PVC),
Sterling helium gas displacement generators, or standard
steam turbine generators.
• System can be used for commercial/industrial fuel
replacement to generate hydrogen, for waste incineration, and
water distillation .
Back of Envelope ROI
The 10 meter Bagno prototype Based in NY - cost of machine is $3,000
• Average of 1000 watts of in coming solar isolation per meter
• Concentrator will deliver. 10,000 watts or 34,140 Btu
• Due to polarization factor; 66% delivered or 22,532.4 Btu/hr., or 95,000/day
• over 20 years the machine will deliver 700 million Btu‘s.
• The cost of machine divided by 700 million Btu’s = .000004 cents per Btu.
• At heating oil cost of $4 a gallon, $1,000 a year saved or an ROI of 3 years.
• The Bagno Concentrator can also make 1.5 kilowatts hr. of electricity instead of
heat = 6 years to pay off.
– To make electric cost more because the heat to electric conversion is 37%. PVC’s will
take you 20 years because of higher cost, and no tracking.
• Initial calculations indicate a $3 per watt cost with tracking for the Bagno [before
gov’t rebate] and ultimately <$1/watt.
– To build a conventional power plant cost > $1/watt w/o fuel.
– PVC’s cost $8 a watt without tracking.
Small Scale CSP for under $5K!
•suitable for both residential
•high quality design lowers
•built to withstand extreme
•compatible and interfaceable
with existing heat and power
Here is a Difference – Making
• Short Cycle Time to Use
• Cost Competitiveness
Value creation or increased profitability is dependent two
components of innovation
• Most recognizable is technological innovation: The “What”
– the “better mousetrap”, associated with R&D
– The Bagno
• The second is business systems development: The “How”
– how an R&D idea is turned into a marketed and distributed product.
'You don't get anywhere by standing on the sidelines waiting for somebody
else to take action. Whether it's building a better car or building a better future
for our children, we all have a role to play.’ Lee Iacocca
• Prioritize potential projects.
– Set a strategy for achieving the business goals through research (the "how").
– Net present value, which is the present value of cash inflows minus the present value of cash
outflows, is used as a tool to quantify opportunities to guide the tactical leadership
• Once a business has set its strategy, flexible allocation of R&D resources for fast
development and implementation of value-generating technology.
– Requires focus on a few projects and the need to drive the right ones to completion.
– The projects with the highest net present values win resources in proportion to their value, and
because each project has a relative richness in resources, the many activities required to
validate its concept can run in parallel.
• Identify the critical issues of the project,
– Establish expected time lines for the project,
– Determine the skills and capital equipment required to complete the project.
– Emphasis at the group formation stage is on speed
– The team operates in a "boundaryless" environment without regard for group, geography, or
• The business will quickly have the information necessary to make a "Go/No go" decision
– faster than if it had to wait for all the activities to be done in series.
– Projects can succeed quickly or be killed just as quickly.
Commercial Development Stages
• Experimental Proof-of-Concept DONE
• First System Prototype in 90 Days 1kW Heater
• Commercial System Prototype
• Commercial Engineering Drawings/Specifications
• Qualification Testing – UL approval
• Commercial Electricity Prototype
• Qualification Testing – UL approval
• Market Analysis
• Fixed-Rate Production
• Volume Production
Work To Date:
• Persistent Energy has been conducting in-house research and development
in technical areas strategic to core intellectual property development.
– This has encompassed system design, component design, material science,
materials engineering, materials/component manufacturing and engineering.
– conducted optical performance comparisons of tracking and non-tracking systems
• Comparisons been made between the following:
• Very-large, high-performance, multi-acre, ground-based, flat-reflector/compound
concentrator systems. These are ideal for solar thermal steam-turbine electricity
• Large-scale, linear troughs;
• Reduced-scale, compound troughs;
• Various Fresnel lenses, including refractive, reflective, square, linear and circular;
– These comparisons have been conducted using mathematical analysis, to-scale
ray-tracing, concentration ratios, image size and focal-length calculations with
system manufacturing tolerance and error analysis being factored-in.
The Bagno tracks the sun as it moves across the sky from sunrise to sunset.
The performance difference between tracking systems and fixed systems is significant.
Typical solar systems The Bagno
(such as PV mounted on Tracking
home rooftops) are fixed Difference
and do not track the sun.
In a day, Persistent
Energy's tracking system
will capture and convert
175% more sunlight than
a fixed system at the
same advertised peak
• Persistent Energy has been taking appropriate steps in to protect its
intellectual property. Provisional patents have been filed
• Activities relating to additional patent filings are on-going.
Next Steps – System Simulations:
• Over the near term Persistent Energy plans to continue its research
and development activities.
– creating a demonstrable performance simulation of a series of
concentrated solar energy system that can be showcased to prospective
– to fine-tune the system’s design attributes and parameters.
Some Applications of The Bagno
• Generate electricity for home, business, school,
industrial building, and power plant.
• Make steam/hot fluid for commercial and residential
heating, domestic hot water.
• Desalinate seawater/waste water/sewage via distillation.
• Process heat for gasification, pyrolysis or other reactions
• On site destructive incineration of hazardous materials.
• Incineration of residential waste.
• Production of hydrogen
Bagno for Hot Water
• Solar hot water system is operates automatically, •Reduce your
taking advantage of solar energy when it is available.
• The system turns on when solar energy can be
added to the water heater. •Environmentally
• The controller activates the circulation module, which friendly -- reduce
pushes water to the solar collector(s) and begins greenhouse
• When solar energy unavailable or when heated
water is not required, the system will turn off and all •Add Value to your
water will gravity drain into the drainback tank.
•Extends the life of
hot water tank by
•Qualifies for the
Convergence of Forces: New Energy Solutions
Size of Generator
Fossil Fuel Oil
Type of Fuel
Hydro Hydrogen Fuel fuel source
all Cells economics
On -s ite
Wind Utility Solar
New S o lar/Wind
Source: Solar Revolution: The Economic Transformation of the Global Energy Industry by Travis Bradford
Thermal vs PV
This compares to
cells (such as thin
film) that are less
than 1/3 as
efficient and take
up to 3-times the
Near Commercialization in CSP for Electricity
• solar electricity technologies are high-value electricity at both the wholesale
and retail levels since they create electricity at the most valuable time of the
day - during peak daylight hours, displacing the need for expensive [natural
gas fired] intermediate power generators that are subject to substantial
swings in fuel prices
Selected Renewable Power Technologies
A "Hybrid" System
• A "hybrid" system which
combines wind and solar
technologies is best.
• These systems work together to
produce power when needed
• in the winter, there is more wind
and less sun, and vice versa.
• Generators shared; other
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) to convert wind energy to
• System produces electrical electrical power. A number of critical advantages are generated
for this configuration in the urban environment.
power off the grid, for use by
individual homeowners, small
businesses,schools and •easily installed practically
commercial industry. • silent and seen as a solid.
•However, the designs have failed commercially because they
stood alone, and the resulting inefficiencies made their
electricity too expensive
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
• A typical average home horizontal-axis wind generator has the main rotor shaft as
well as the electrical generator sitting on top of a tall tower and will have blades that
are over twenty feet in diameter and it will be raised more than eighty feet in the air.
For this reason, one acre properties are a minimum standard for wind power
• A vertical wind generator has the primary rotor shaft arranged in a vertical fashion.
• highly efficient and they have low torque ripple - contributes to excellent reliability.
• machine does not have to be pointed toward the wind to be effective.
– Turbulent flow can be created by air flow close to the ground and other objects therefore,
when mounted on top of a roof, the building will usually redirect the wind over the roof which
can often double the wind speed at the generator
• With a vertical wind generator the gearbox can be placed near ground level.
– Therefore, the tower does not have to support it.
– This generator more accessible for maintenance.
• The eutectic of high purity nitrate salts is
called solar salt.
• This lower cost heat transfer and heat
storage medium, has been shown to be
effective, both from an economic and
• The major solar salt performance
advantage is its ability to store large
amounts of heat in a small volume.
– heat density of 43 BTU/ft3 °F.
– ~ 2.7 times greater than most liquid metal
fluids (~16 BTU/ft3 °F).
• chemically stable up to 1100 °F
Sea Water Desalination
Solar distillation In sum, solar stills have:
• can extend the usage of existing fresh • high initial costs;
water in locations where the quality or • low maintenance costs (ideally);
quantity of supply is deteriorating.
• Where sea water is available, Solar stills, Most competing technologies are:
operating on sea or brackish water, can • low in initial costs;
ensure supplies of water during a time of • dependent on economy of scale;
drought. • high in operating and maintenance-
• Solar distillation generally uses less • high in energy input costs;
energy to purify water than other methods.