Cataclysms on the Columbia The Great Missoula Floods Dr. John Eliot Allen Dr. Marjorie Burns Dr. Scott Burns Portland Stat...
1) Name for the Floods is Missoula Floods not Bretz Floods 2) Dates are in Calendar Years not C-14 Years 3) Color Photos 4...
In front of Mt. Rushmore “ Five great men in one picture – four of them don’t show” J Harlen Bretz
 
Bretz et al in the Grand Coulee, ca 1928 Bretz, circa 1910
 
Photo: Darryl Lloyd
 
 
 
A “Palouse Island” along I-90, about 5 miles north of Sprague, Washington
Big whorls have little whorls,  Which feed on their velocity:  Little whorls have smaller whorls  And so unto viscosity.  ...
Strand lines on the Washington side of the Columbia River Gorge
Bretz, 1933
USGS Controversy James Gilluly G.R. Mansfield O.E. Meinzer
Revisionists Ira Allison Richard Foster Flint
J.T. Pardee Breaks the Silence
 
Vindication Before Bretz dies in 1981  at 98 years of age
The Rest of the Story 1979  photo
Richard Waitt
 
Burlingame Gulch near Touchet, Washington Exposing 40 rhythmite beds
 
Burlingame Gulch near Touchet, Washington Exposing 40 rhythmite beds
Set S Mt. St. Helens Ash near Mabton in the Yakima Valley
Brian Atwater
Close-up of 2 rhytmites showing varved annual layers of silt and clay
 
Dating the Missoula Floods <ul><li>Radiocarbon Dating:  15,300 – 12,700 BP </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar Years (Calibrated Da...
 
Altai Mountains
 
 
Glacial Lake Missoula : 1) 530 mi 3  water 2) 50 mi 3  ice 3) 2100 feet deep 4) Elevation: 4250 ft.
Ancient beach strand lines can still be seen Lake Missoula was ~ ½ the size of Lake Michigan
Nine Mile Section : 1) Pale: river deposits (36) 2) Dark: varves (1000) 3) oldest: 58 varves
<ul><li>2400 ft. Elevation </li></ul><ul><li>2) Up to 500 ft deep </li></ul>
 
 
 
 
Grand Coulee Dam Spokane Odessa
Potholes in Quincy Basin
Palouse Falls
Wallula Gap
 
 
Mt. St. Helens  double ash layers, age 13,000 between 29th and 30th layer
 
Columbia River, west of Philippi Canyon
Gravel bar formed at entrance to Philippi Canyon
 
 
 
Bonneville
Beacon Rock – Columbia Gorge
Rooster Rock  (has had different names in the past)
 
 
Swan Island If the Missoula Floods were to occur today
 
Willamette Meteorite   ( 1902 photo) 1905 exposition
 
Foreset beds in Durham Pits – now under Bridgeport
 
15,000 year old soil overlies on older paleosol in the loess
 
1935  Ira Allison map
Bellevue Erratic – argillite – 1950 measured approx. 160 tons, now approx. 40 tons
Irish Bend south of Corvallis
 
Floodwaters, entrained sediments and turbid currents that swept across the Pacific Ocean floor for 700 miles (1100 km). No...
Ancient Cataclysmic Floods 5 Ancient Cataclysmic Floods  exposed in paleosols near The Dalles
 
Volcanic Soils on the hills of Dundee, Oregon Volcanic soils on the hills of Dundee, Oregon
 
Terroir Differences in PNW <ul><li>Washington: 95% of the vineyards are on Missoula Flood sediments; Vigor controlled by i...
 
Conclusions  -  But Not The End of the Story <ul><li>89+ floods, with 40 getting to Portland </li></ul><ul><li>Velocities ...
Future <ul><li>More information from Ancient Cataclysmic Floods </li></ul><ul><li>More information of time of the Floods p...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Cataclysms on the Columbia: The Great Missoula Floods

2,581
-1

Published on

Geology lecture about the Missoula Floods and how they shaped the Columbia Gorge

Published in: Education, Technology, Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,581
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cataclysms on the Columbia: The Great Missoula Floods

  1. 2. Cataclysms on the Columbia The Great Missoula Floods Dr. John Eliot Allen Dr. Marjorie Burns Dr. Scott Burns Portland State University Ooligan Press, PSU
  2. 3. 1) Name for the Floods is Missoula Floods not Bretz Floods 2) Dates are in Calendar Years not C-14 Years 3) Color Photos 4) Maps are shaded relief maps for easier reading 5) Rest of the Story added for history of the Floods 6) Totally updated science of the floods New Things in the Second Edition of the Book: Darryl Lloyd photo
  3. 4. In front of Mt. Rushmore “ Five great men in one picture – four of them don’t show” J Harlen Bretz
  4. 6. Bretz et al in the Grand Coulee, ca 1928 Bretz, circa 1910
  5. 8. Photo: Darryl Lloyd
  6. 12. A “Palouse Island” along I-90, about 5 miles north of Sprague, Washington
  7. 13. Big whorls have little whorls, Which feed on their velocity: Little whorls have smaller whorls And so unto viscosity. JEA p31
  8. 14. Strand lines on the Washington side of the Columbia River Gorge
  9. 15. Bretz, 1933
  10. 16. USGS Controversy James Gilluly G.R. Mansfield O.E. Meinzer
  11. 17. Revisionists Ira Allison Richard Foster Flint
  12. 18. J.T. Pardee Breaks the Silence
  13. 20. Vindication Before Bretz dies in 1981 at 98 years of age
  14. 21. The Rest of the Story 1979 photo
  15. 22. Richard Waitt
  16. 24. Burlingame Gulch near Touchet, Washington Exposing 40 rhythmite beds
  17. 26. Burlingame Gulch near Touchet, Washington Exposing 40 rhythmite beds
  18. 27. Set S Mt. St. Helens Ash near Mabton in the Yakima Valley
  19. 28. Brian Atwater
  20. 29. Close-up of 2 rhytmites showing varved annual layers of silt and clay
  21. 31. Dating the Missoula Floods <ul><li>Radiocarbon Dating: 15,300 – 12,700 BP </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar Years (Calibrated Dates: 15,000 – 18,000 years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>40 events came to Portland area </li></ul><ul><li>90 events came to Spokane </li></ul>
  22. 33. Altai Mountains
  23. 36. Glacial Lake Missoula : 1) 530 mi 3 water 2) 50 mi 3 ice 3) 2100 feet deep 4) Elevation: 4250 ft.
  24. 37. Ancient beach strand lines can still be seen Lake Missoula was ~ ½ the size of Lake Michigan
  25. 38. Nine Mile Section : 1) Pale: river deposits (36) 2) Dark: varves (1000) 3) oldest: 58 varves
  26. 39. <ul><li>2400 ft. Elevation </li></ul><ul><li>2) Up to 500 ft deep </li></ul>
  27. 44. Grand Coulee Dam Spokane Odessa
  28. 45. Potholes in Quincy Basin
  29. 46. Palouse Falls
  30. 47. Wallula Gap
  31. 50. Mt. St. Helens double ash layers, age 13,000 between 29th and 30th layer
  32. 52. Columbia River, west of Philippi Canyon
  33. 53. Gravel bar formed at entrance to Philippi Canyon
  34. 57. Bonneville
  35. 58. Beacon Rock – Columbia Gorge
  36. 59. Rooster Rock (has had different names in the past)
  37. 62. Swan Island If the Missoula Floods were to occur today
  38. 64. Willamette Meteorite ( 1902 photo) 1905 exposition
  39. 66. Foreset beds in Durham Pits – now under Bridgeport
  40. 68. 15,000 year old soil overlies on older paleosol in the loess
  41. 70. 1935 Ira Allison map
  42. 71. Bellevue Erratic – argillite – 1950 measured approx. 160 tons, now approx. 40 tons
  43. 72. Irish Bend south of Corvallis
  44. 74. Floodwaters, entrained sediments and turbid currents that swept across the Pacific Ocean floor for 700 miles (1100 km). Normark et al. (2000)
  45. 75. Ancient Cataclysmic Floods 5 Ancient Cataclysmic Floods exposed in paleosols near The Dalles
  46. 77. Volcanic Soils on the hills of Dundee, Oregon Volcanic soils on the hills of Dundee, Oregon
  47. 79. Terroir Differences in PNW <ul><li>Washington: 95% of the vineyards are on Missoula Flood sediments; Vigor controlled by irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon: 90% of vineyards are on upland vineyards and 10% are on Missoula Flood sediments; Vigor controlled by low nutrient, old soils. </li></ul>
  48. 81. Conclusions - But Not The End of the Story <ul><li>89+ floods, with 40 getting to Portland </li></ul><ul><li>Velocities up to 60 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Flows = 10 x the total flow of all of the world’s rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of the Floods: 16,000 square miles </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Floods were the first ones: 530 mi 3 of water and 50 mi 3 of ice; biggest were first floods </li></ul>
  49. 82. Future <ul><li>More information from Ancient Cataclysmic Floods </li></ul><ul><li>More information of time of the Floods passing the “Lakes” </li></ul><ul><li>More information from the deep sea record </li></ul><ul><li>New National Park will bring visitors to the region and new research will unlock further secrets </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×