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27 February 2010 South Central Chile Earthquake Professor Scott Ashford Oregon State University Professor Jack Moehle Univ...
Acknowledgments for this broad collaborative effort funded primarily by the National Science Foundation <ul><li>Earthquake...
movie
2010 Chile earthquake 3:34 am local time 27 February 2010 M w  8.8 Fault rupture 100km x 500 km Population affected > 8M *...
 
Pacific Northwest
 
Concepcion
Talca  (AP Photo)
Santiago  (AP PHOTO/Carlos Espinoza)
Pelluhue ( AP Photo)
Learning from Chile Geological and Geotechnical Aspects 27 February 2010 South Central Chile Earthquake June 28, 2010
Typical Subduction Zone
Recent Seismic Events Previous Events - Seismic Gap 1960-M9.5 1985-M8.0
Measured (GPS) Coseismic  Horizontal Displacements Concepcion moved ~3m towards west
Coseismic  Vertical Displacements Uplift up to ~2m was recorded in Lebu
Uplift Evidence
Uplift Evidence
Tsunami
Ground Failure Overview <ul><li>Ground Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site effects & strong shaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
SITE EFFECTS <ul><li>Ground Failure </li></ul>
Site Effects: Vespucio Norte & Ciudad Empresiarial H/V peaks: 0.5-2sec  (Bonnefoy et al, 2008) Damage to 5 to 20-story bui...
LIQUEFACTION & LATERAL SPREADING <ul><li>Ground Failure </li></ul>
Lateral Spreading Lateral spreading near river banks due to liquefaction
Gas Station -  Concepción
LANDSLIDES &  DAMS/TAILING DAMS <ul><li>Ground Failure </li></ul>
Landslides Few deep seated slides were observed
Dams Most dams performed well
Dams & Levees Coihueco Zoned Earth Dam  Upstream Slope Failure Levee Breach
Tailing Dams Las Palmas tailings dam failure Approximate area of failure and flow direction
Las Palmas Tailing Dam failure (cont) Besides this case, most tailings dams  performed well
PORTS & HARBORS CASE STUDIES <ul><li>Impacts of Ground Failure </li></ul>
Ports & Harbors <ul><li>Provide important means for importing & exporting goods in Chile </li></ul><ul><li>95% of exports ...
Valparaiso:  Outward quay wall movement and pavement cracks
San Antonio:  Damaged dock
Talcahuano Port Area St Vincente Port Fishing Wharf Fish Packaging Facility Petroleum Facilities N
Fishing Pier 178m 24m 42m N Documented extent of lateral spread
N Approx extent of lateral spread
Lateral Spreading Effects on Industrial Facilities Fish Packing Facility, San Vicente
Petrobas Gas Facility  N Fish Packaging Facility Petrobas Gas Facility Water rise  Approx extent of lateral spread
Coronel:  Lateral spread displacements
Coronel:  Sinkholes   (2.2m deep, 3.5m in diameter)
Coronel:  Rotation of pile due to lateral spreading (not a raked pile!)
EMBANKMENT FAILURES <ul><li>Impacts of Ground Failure </li></ul>
Embankment Failures along Highway 5 Possible liquefaction  of thin seams in  foundation soils led  to translational  failu...
Talca
Talca
Valparaiso,  UNESCO Heritage City
Talca
 
Festival Viña del Mar, 14 Stories
MASS EQ
Santiago
Santiago
Santiago
MASS EQ
 
Concepcion (AP Photo)
 
Collapsed building in Concepcion openings solid typical unit Plan Tower under construction parking A B Section A Section B
 
Santiago
Santiago
Airports
Hospitals and health care
<ul><li>US$2 billion annual sales </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 1 billion liters  </li></ul><ul><li>70% exported </li></ul><ul...
 
Stainless steel tanks
Thank You
Santiago  (AP PHOTO/Carlos Espinoza)
Bridge Team Members <ul><li>Mark Yashinsky, Team Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caltrans </li></ul></ul></ul></u...
shear key Temporary shoring of the beam
Vertical axis Rotation or twisting of the deck Abutment Deck Lateral displacement
Failed shear key  Seismic bars Undamaged shear key
Tubul Bridge Eight span simply supported steel girders on pier walls. Collapsed attributed to unseating of beams
 
 
Summary of Observations on Bridges <ul><li>Structures with less continuity generally suffered more damage </li></ul><ul><l...
Summary of other Lifeline Performance <ul><li>Electric Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate blackout to 90% of Chile’s po...
Pelluhue ( AP Photo)
<ul><li>Maximum inundation 10m </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum run-up 30m </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of life limited thanks to local...
NOAA Tsunami wave heights for Feb. 27, 2010, 8.8 EQ
NOAA Tsunami wave heights, May 22 1960, 9.5 EQ
1500 homes destroyed in Dichato from tsunami; only 17 residents killed
 
 
 
Where do we fit in? The Pacific “Ring of Fire”
200 mi Juan de Fuca Plate Cascadia Subduction Zone Oregon Washington California Gorda Plate Pacific Plate North America Pl...
Comparison of Haiti and Chile earthquakes <ul><li>Haiti was: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude 7.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
What are the implications for Oregon? <ul><li>2010 Chile Earthquake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peru-Chile Subduction Zone </li>...
What can you do? <ul><li>Take personal responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have several days of emergency supplies </li><...
THANK YOU! <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake Engineering Research Institute </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
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OMSI Science Pub - Chile Earthquake

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OMSI Science Pub - Chile Earthquake

  1. 1. 27 February 2010 South Central Chile Earthquake Professor Scott Ashford Oregon State University Professor Jack Moehle University of California at Berkeley Professor Pedro Arduino University of Washington
  2. 2. Acknowledgments for this broad collaborative effort funded primarily by the National Science Foundation <ul><li>Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jack Moehle, Team Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geo-Engineering Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jon Bray, Team Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broad participation from Chilean Faculty and Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University de Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 100 other volunteers from around the world </li></ul>
  3. 3. movie
  4. 4. 2010 Chile earthquake 3:34 am local time 27 February 2010 M w 8.8 Fault rupture 100km x 500 km Population affected > 8M * 521 confirmed deaths ** 190000 homes severely damaged or destroyed ~800,000 homeless ~$30B damages * ACHISINA ** USAID, 3/25/10
  5. 6. Pacific Northwest
  6. 8. Concepcion
  7. 9. Talca (AP Photo)
  8. 10. Santiago (AP PHOTO/Carlos Espinoza)
  9. 11. Pelluhue ( AP Photo)
  10. 12. Learning from Chile Geological and Geotechnical Aspects 27 February 2010 South Central Chile Earthquake June 28, 2010
  11. 13. Typical Subduction Zone
  12. 14. Recent Seismic Events Previous Events - Seismic Gap 1960-M9.5 1985-M8.0
  13. 15. Measured (GPS) Coseismic Horizontal Displacements Concepcion moved ~3m towards west
  14. 16. Coseismic Vertical Displacements Uplift up to ~2m was recorded in Lebu
  15. 17. Uplift Evidence
  16. 18. Uplift Evidence
  17. 19. Tsunami
  18. 20. Ground Failure Overview <ul><li>Ground Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site effects & strong shaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquefaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral spreading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landslides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure impact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dams, tailings dams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ports & harbors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation (roads & bridges) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. SITE EFFECTS <ul><li>Ground Failure </li></ul>
  20. 22. Site Effects: Vespucio Norte & Ciudad Empresiarial H/V peaks: 0.5-2sec (Bonnefoy et al, 2008) Damage to 5 to 20-story buildings Q fno : Silt & Clay Layers Localized Damage – Site Effects? A B A B Gravel, Sandy gravel Silty Clay, Silty Sand Collapse No collapse
  21. 23. LIQUEFACTION & LATERAL SPREADING <ul><li>Ground Failure </li></ul>
  22. 24. Lateral Spreading Lateral spreading near river banks due to liquefaction
  23. 25. Gas Station - Concepción
  24. 26. LANDSLIDES & DAMS/TAILING DAMS <ul><li>Ground Failure </li></ul>
  25. 27. Landslides Few deep seated slides were observed
  26. 28. Dams Most dams performed well
  27. 29. Dams & Levees Coihueco Zoned Earth Dam Upstream Slope Failure Levee Breach
  28. 30. Tailing Dams Las Palmas tailings dam failure Approximate area of failure and flow direction
  29. 31. Las Palmas Tailing Dam failure (cont) Besides this case, most tailings dams performed well
  30. 32. PORTS & HARBORS CASE STUDIES <ul><li>Impacts of Ground Failure </li></ul>
  31. 33. Ports & Harbors <ul><li>Provide important means for importing & exporting goods in Chile </li></ul><ul><li>95% of exports & 90% of imports are conducted through ports </li></ul><ul><li>Country has 35 operational ports (10 state owned, 25 privately owned). 2 are military ports </li></ul><ul><li>4 ports were inspected in the period 3/13 to 3/18 by GEER team: Valparaiso, San Antonio, Talcahuano & Coronel </li></ul><ul><li>Information & Assistance was provided by EERI team and local engineers. </li></ul>
  32. 34.
  33. 35. Valparaiso: Outward quay wall movement and pavement cracks
  34. 36. San Antonio: Damaged dock
  35. 37. Talcahuano Port Area St Vincente Port Fishing Wharf Fish Packaging Facility Petroleum Facilities N
  36. 38.
  37. 39. Fishing Pier 178m 24m 42m N Documented extent of lateral spread
  38. 40. N Approx extent of lateral spread
  39. 41. Lateral Spreading Effects on Industrial Facilities Fish Packing Facility, San Vicente
  40. 42. Petrobas Gas Facility N Fish Packaging Facility Petrobas Gas Facility Water rise Approx extent of lateral spread
  41. 43. Coronel: Lateral spread displacements
  42. 44. Coronel: Sinkholes (2.2m deep, 3.5m in diameter)
  43. 45. Coronel: Rotation of pile due to lateral spreading (not a raked pile!)
  44. 46. EMBANKMENT FAILURES <ul><li>Impacts of Ground Failure </li></ul>
  45. 47. Embankment Failures along Highway 5 Possible liquefaction of thin seams in foundation soils led to translational failures of highway embankments
  46. 48. Talca
  47. 49. Talca
  48. 50. Valparaiso, UNESCO Heritage City
  49. 51. Talca
  50. 53. Festival Viña del Mar, 14 Stories
  51. 54. MASS EQ
  52. 55. Santiago
  53. 56. Santiago
  54. 57. Santiago
  55. 58. MASS EQ
  56. 60. Concepcion (AP Photo)
  57. 62. Collapsed building in Concepcion openings solid typical unit Plan Tower under construction parking A B Section A Section B
  58. 64. Santiago
  59. 65. Santiago
  60. 66. Airports
  61. 67. Hospitals and health care
  62. 68. <ul><li>US$2 billion annual sales </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 1 billion liters </li></ul><ul><li>70% exported </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 full-time workers </li></ul>Chilean Wine Industry
  63. 70. Stainless steel tanks
  64. 71. Thank You
  65. 72. Santiago (AP PHOTO/Carlos Espinoza)
  66. 73. Bridge Team Members <ul><li>Mark Yashinsky, Team Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caltrans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rodrigo Oviedo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universidad Catolica de Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scott Ashford </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon State University </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luis Fargier-Gabaldon </li></ul><ul><li>Universidad de los Andes, Merida . </li></ul><ul><li>Matias Hube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universidad Catolica de Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled over 2000 km from Santiago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to Temuco and back over 5 days </li></ul></ul>Nazca Plate 200 mi Valparaíso South America Plate Temuco Talca Ruta 5 Ruta 5 Santiago
  67. 74. shear key Temporary shoring of the beam
  68. 75. Vertical axis Rotation or twisting of the deck Abutment Deck Lateral displacement
  69. 76. Failed shear key Seismic bars Undamaged shear key
  70. 77. Tubul Bridge Eight span simply supported steel girders on pier walls. Collapsed attributed to unseating of beams
  71. 80. Summary of Observations on Bridges <ul><li>Structures with less continuity generally suffered more damage </li></ul><ul><li>Localized damage suggests the importance of local site effects </li></ul><ul><li>Significant liquefaction and lateral spreading along coast greatly impacted mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread fill settlement was easily repaired, but adversely affected traffic. </li></ul>
  72. 81. Summary of other Lifeline Performance <ul><li>Electric Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate blackout to 90% of Chile’s population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission capability to provide power within 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution system service restored with two weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both landlines and wireless service serverly affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most cell sites ran out of battery power within 3 hours of quakes, eliminating communications with repair crews and hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most services restored within seven days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water and Wastewater severely impacted along coast </li></ul>
  73. 82. Pelluhue ( AP Photo)
  74. 83. <ul><li>Maximum inundation 10m </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum run-up 30m </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of life limited thanks to local awareness and good signing </li></ul><ul><li>Most tsunami-related deaths from tourists </li></ul>Tsunami
  75. 84. NOAA Tsunami wave heights for Feb. 27, 2010, 8.8 EQ
  76. 85. NOAA Tsunami wave heights, May 22 1960, 9.5 EQ
  77. 86. 1500 homes destroyed in Dichato from tsunami; only 17 residents killed
  78. 90. Where do we fit in? The Pacific “Ring of Fire”
  79. 91. 200 mi Juan de Fuca Plate Cascadia Subduction Zone Oregon Washington California Gorda Plate Pacific Plate North America Plate Seattle Portland Corvallis Salem Redding Medford Vancouver I-5 I-5 Nazca Plate 200 mi Valparaíso South America Plate Temuco Talca Ruta 5 Ruta 5 Santiago
  80. 92. Comparison of Haiti and Chile earthquakes <ul><li>Haiti was: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude 7.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow Strike-Slip under urban area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chile was: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude 8.8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subduction Zone EQ covering huge area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 500 more powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last 6 times as long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less vulnerable infrastructure </li></ul></ul>Chile Haiti Finite fault models by Gavin Hayes, USGS National Earthquake Information Center
  81. 93. What are the implications for Oregon? <ul><li>2010 Chile Earthquake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peru-Chile Subduction Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude 8.8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaking and Tsunami </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern Building Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$30B damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 500 dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 EQ M=8.0+ in past 100 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last M=8.0 in 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur about every 15 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future CSZ Earthquake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cascadia Subduction Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude 9.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaking and Tsunami </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern Building Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damages estimated at $30B* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated up to 5000 dead* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No M=7.0 is past 100 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last M=9.0 in 1700 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur about every 300 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Source: DOGAMI 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  82. 94. What can you do? <ul><li>Take personal responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have several days of emergency supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake proof your home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support earthquake preparedness efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in earthquake education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to support State efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOGAMI tsunami hazard mapping to be completed by 2013 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seismic mitigation of public schools not complete until 2032 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ODOT Phase I and II seismic retrofits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Support higher education </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative solutions through research and next-generation engineers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  83. 95. THANK YOU! <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake Engineering Research Institute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.eeri.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geo-Engineering Extreme Events Reconnaissance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.geerassociation.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.OregonGeology.org </li></ul></ul>

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