Carlisle floods jan 2005


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Carlisle floods jan 2005

  1. 1. Carlisle FloodsJan 2005 AS Level Geography Revision Topic: Rivers By: Ollie Taplin
  2. 2. Section 1Carlisle location
  3. 3. Carlisles location Carlisle is situated on the flood plain of the River Eden with three rivers meeting in the city. The catchment is made up of the Rivers Eden, Eamont, Irthing, Petteril and the Caldew, as well as smaller rivers and streams draining into the Eden estuary. The catchment covers approximately 2400km2 and is home to approximately 244,000 people. The catchment is mainly rural, with only 1% classified as urban: the main urban areas are Carlisle, Penrith and Appleby. Carlisle has a history of flooding with flood events recorded as far back as the 1700s. In recent years there have been significant floods in 1963, 1968, 1979, 1980, 1984, and recently in 2005.
  4. 4. Carlisle’s locationThis map shows the areaaround Carlisle and the threerivers that meet in the city. Thelargest being the river Eden
  5. 5. Carlisles locationThis map shows the catchmentarea of the river Eden. Carlisle isrepresented by the circle.As you can see it sits in themiddle of the wettest area ofCumbria.
  6. 6. Section 2Causes
  7. 7. Causes of the Carlisle floodRainfallRainfall was very high for the period6th to 8th January, during which twomonths worth of rainfall werereleased in 24 hours. However, itfollowed a month of high rainfall inthe Carlisle area, so the ground wassaturated and would no longerallow water to infiltrate, and surfacerun-off was excessive. The result wasrapidly rising water levels in anumber of rivers ( Eden, Kent andDerwent ) 67% of the flooding resulted from rivers and watercourses 25% of flooding was caused by surface water 8% was due to flooding from sewage and infrastructure failures.
  8. 8. Rainfall
  9. 9. Causes of the Carlisle floodPhysical  Low lying flood plain less than 20m  Many tributaries joining the Eden e.g. River Petteril  Lack of vegetation limits interception rates.  Higher than average rainfall  High drainage density
  10. 10. Causes of the Carlisle floodHuman  Homes built on the floodplain (wet point site) Edentown  Levees along river banks may have been artificially strengthened  Recreational activities deliberately built on the floodplain e.g. golf course  Impermeable surfaces increasing surface run- off created by the urban environment of Carlisle.  Sewage works
  11. 11. Section 3Impacts
  12. 12. Impacts of the Carlisle flood Across the catchment, the January 2005 flooding affected 2,700 homes In Carlisle three people died The cost of the flooding was estimated at over £400 million. 50% of residents in the flood risk area had not signed up to receive a warning. The area immediately to the south of the River Eden was worst affected, where the floodplain had been used for development. flood waters neared the second floors of a few houses, leaving residents stranded- Evacuation was dangerous in darkness and high winds 2.5 metres of water flooded the fire station and police station adding to the problem of help by these services.
  13. 13. Section 3Responces
  14. 14. ResponsesImmediate Evacuation of people from buildings was undertaken as best as emergency services could. Use of private boats for transport was used Large relief centres set up for those whose homes were destroyed by the floods. Rapid response by sewage companies in the area to try and limit spillages.
  15. 15. ResponsesLong termCost benefit schemeFlood management schemeEngineering solutionsFlood risk assessments
  16. 16. The End AS Level Geography Revision Topic: Rivers By: Ollie Taplin