Entrepreneurial Legacies of Notting Hill Masquerade Bands
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Entrepreneurial Legacies of Notting Hill Masquerade Bands

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Presentation on the business of Notting Hill Carnival Bands

Presentation on the business of Notting Hill Carnival Bands

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Entrepreneurial Legacies of Notting Hill Masquerade Bands Entrepreneurial Legacies of Notting Hill Masquerade Bands Presentation Transcript

  • The Entrepreneurial Legacy of the Notting Hill Masquerade BandsNicole Ferdinand, PhD. Candidate, CMCI, King’s College London
  • Discourse on the Entrepreneurial Legacy of the Notting Hill Carnival [it is] “particularly galling to Trinidadians”that the popularity of carnivals [like Notting Hill] “has not translated into anything of tangible value for Trinidadians in Trinidad save for the handful of designers or bandleaders who have been able to ply their trade overseas.” (Green and Scher, 2007:22)“We have so many Carnivals happening all over the world but what do we really get out of them?” (First Up, 2012)
  • Literature Review Festival Cultural Human Int’l Tourism Studies Geography Business• Mainly • Dominated by • Focused on • Dominated by focused on politically or capturing the study attracting sociologically ‘cultural manufactured customers focused landscapes’ goods , few• Focus on research • Highlight the studies on specific, aims linkages experience single case • Investigate between goods of any studies the cultural festivals in kind• “over- production Diaspora • Actor emphasis on process in an communities networks, consumer- indirect and their resource behaviour manner (e.g. countries of management theory and by examining origin • Configuration methods” texts or • Paths (Getz, 2010: media 20) reports)
  • How do festivals become international? Q1. How are festivals adapted and spread in the process of internationalization? Q2. What international business activities do festival organisations participate in? Q3. What are the benefits for the country of origin of festival internationalization?Research Questions
  • Methodology Nested or embedded case study Notting Hill Carnival can be described as a single unit of analysis and its four cultural arenas as nested or embedded units within it (Swanborn, 2010).
  • •9 interviews (October Case study of 2011- January 2012) Masquerade Bands •9 current CMAF members •2 former NHMBA executive members •1 current CMAF executive member •Archival research which includes: •Media reports and other reports, internal memos and organization materialsInitial Findings & Analysis
  • Actor Network Theory: Framing, focal actor, Festival OPP, enrollment of Development actors, outcomesInitial Findings & Analysis
  • “Our artists are not Piccassoes …. They are not reviewed in the Times or the Guardian…. They are nevertheless artists in their own right…. Our art is valid and as important as any other.” (Cohen, 1978 cited in Cohen, 1993: 46)
  • Problem Focal Obligatory Actors OutcomesFraming Actor Passage Enrolled PointTrinidadian /Black Carnival Fit with TT Trinidadians, • ‘TrinidadianizingCultural Development culture and Trinidadian festival ‘of the festivalCelebration Committee concerns of organizers • Funding from Arts(1970s) Black Britain Masquerade makers Council • Sound Systems. • Festival grows to Arts Council 100,000
  • “The two old committees virtually lost their control over the bands and, in view of their past bickering and of their failure to submit publicly accurate accounts they became discredited.” (Cohen, 1993: 47)
  • Problem Focal Obligatory Actors OutcomesFraming Actor Passage Enrolled PointTrinidadian /Black Carnival Fit with TT Trinidadians, •‘TrinidadianizingCultural Development culture and Trinidadian festival ‘of the festivalCelebration Committee1 concerns of organizers, •Funding from Arts(1970s) Black Britain masquerade makers Council Sound Systems. Arts •Festival grows to Council 100,000UK Arts Festival Arts council Meet UK masquerade • Dual carnival(early 1980s) requirements of bands organizations arts council forced to become one to meet Arts Council requirements
  • “At least when we had Claire we had money […] back in [those] days we use to win prizes and we used to make at least 2000 pounds from being on the road.” - Interviewee 3
  • Problem Focal Obligatory Actors OutcomesFraming Actor Passage Enrolled PointTrinidadian /Black Carnival Fit with TT Trinidadians, • ‘TrinidadianizingCultural Development culture and Trinidadian festival ‘of the festivalCelebration Committee1 concerns of organizers, •Funding from Arts(1970s) Black Britain masquerade makers Council Sound Systems. Arts •Festival grows to Council 100,000UK Arts Festival Arts council Meet UK masquerade • Carnival(early 1980s) requirements of bands organizations arts council forced to merge to meet accountability requirementsCarnival Means Carnival Arts Commercial Masquerade makers • Festival grows toBusiness Committee focus of non-Caribbean 1M.(mid-late 1980s) origins (especially • Arts education Brazilian) becomes key to masquerade bands.Sponsorship CEC/ Notting Commercial Big business (Virgin, •Financial surplus,Opportunity Hill focus BT and Coca-Cola) •Festival grows to(1990s) Carnival 2M. Trust
  • “… during the Golden Jubilee year […] people [masquerade band leaders] starting seeing the benefits of performing coming […] and what did they do? They ganged up and go rid of Claire Holder […] and they’ve never recovered, so sponsors and funding and all of those various things, they killed it.” - Interviewee 5
  • Problem Focal Obligatory Actors OutcomesFraming Actor Passage Enrolled PointTrinidadian /Black Carnival Fit with TT Trinidadians, • ‘TrinidadianizingCultural Development culture and Trinidadian festival ‘of the festivalCelebration Committee1 concerns of organizers, Funding from Arts(1970s) Black Britain masquerade makers Council. Festival Sound Systems. Arts grows to 100,000 CouncilUK Arts Festival Arts council Meet UK masquerade • Carnival(early 1980s) requirements of bands organizations arts council forced to merge to meet accountability requirementsCarnival Means Carnival Arts Commercial Masquerade makers • Festival grows toBusiness Committee focus of non-Caribbean 1M.(mid-late 1980s) origins (especially • Arts education Brazilian) becomes key to masquerade bands.Sponsorship CEC/ Notting Commercial Big business (Virgin, •Financial surplus,Opportunity Hill focus BT and Coca-Cola) •Festival grows to(1990s) Carnival 2M. TrustTurmoil, ? Accountability Other festival •Loss ofTransition organizations, commercial(00s –present) smaller sponsors support, •Reduced Arts Council funding
  • Actor Network Theory: Festival Framing, focal actor, Development OPP, enrollment of actors, outcomes Festival International- ization Models of Internationalization: Stage, Resource, NetworkInitial Findings & Analysis
  • “I don’t think there would be any carnivals in London without Notting Hill Carnival. Thefocus of most bands in London is Notting Hill, but they would do Thames Festival or Hackney or this or that but basically it youtake away Notting Hill it won’t work anymore.” - Interviewee 4
  • UK MasqueradeBand CarnivalCircuit• Calo Festival• One Hackney Festival• The Mayor’s Thames Festival• Bridgwater Guy Fawkes Carnival 0• Caribbean Carnival of Manchester Huddersfield Leeds• Coventry Caribbean Festival Liverpool Manchester Manchester• Derby Caribbean Carnival Derby• Huddersfield Carnival *Coventry Coventry• Liverpool International Street Carnival Chesam Luton• Luton International Festival *London• Schools of Chesham Carnival *Bridgewater Bristol• St. Paul’s Carnival Bristol• The Leeds West Indian Carnival
  • From Notting Hill to the World the Netherlands *Germany *Taiwan Cayman Islands Trinidad *Brazil SeychellesPort-of-Spain, Grand Cayman, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Rotterdam, Berlin, Dortmund, Hamburg, Seychelles &Tamsui
  • Actor Network Theory: Festival Framing, focal actor, Development OPP, enrollment of actors, outcomes Festival International- ization Configuration of Models of Activities Internationalization: Stage, Resource, Network Internationalization: Modes & DirectionsInitial Findings & Analysis
  • “I came here and I worked in London Notting Hill Carnival as a designer of a group for four years. I spent sometimes 4-6months working for summer.” -Interviewee MB3 “All the costumes are made in Brazil. All the drums are made in Brazil. Most of the T-shirts are printed in Brazil.” -Interviewee MB2“...in India I run a skill development project where I help people in a village who do embroidery ...” - Interviewee MB3“This year we are going to Germany for a stage performance. We’ve also done workshops in Germany ...” - Interviewee MB6
  • Inward Internationalization Imports • Masquerade design • Semi-finished and finished costumes • Musicians’ and vocalists’ services • Musical instruments • Managerial expertise
  • Outward Internationalization Exports • Masquerade design • Finished costumes • Production expertise • Managerial expertise • Festival appearances • Carnival consultancy
  • Discussion• Notting Hill Carnival is a festival which is served by a complex, interlinked web of actor networks and resource interactions which enables multiple modes and directions of international business activity• Its integration of international production and consumption activities has more in common with previous work on cultural clusters (Mommaas 2004) and interactive networks, or cultural production systems (Pratt 2008) rather than most festival tourism research which focuses on consumer behaviour with a fixed festival environment• The Notting Hill Carnival’s cultural entrepreneurs rather than incompetent (Burr 2006) have been skillful actors in their negotiations with state bodies and sponsors and have been innovative with their use of resources• Rather than being thieves of the Trinidadian culture (Green 2007) these cultural entrepreneurs have provided Trinidadian and Brazilian artists and designers with employment and export opportunities
  • Conclusions• Mapping of the Notting Hill Carnival as an experience production system (Ferdinand and Williams, 2012) is urgently needed to attract additional resources and new actors to contribute to the carnival (e.g. multi-national firms, television networks, other Caribbean Carnival organizations)• Festivals like the Notting Hill Carnival present a unique opportunity for cultural entrepreneurs to learn a complex range of business skills, with minimal investment• Festival organizations need to be wary of outsiders (e.g. funding agencies and sponsors) framing their festivals in ways which do not benefit the festival community
  • Thank You For Listening E-mail: Nicole.Ferdinand@kcl.ac.uk Nicole Ferdinand @evntmgt http://facebook.com/Ms.NicoleFerdinand