Good afternoon, my name is Alice Kuo, I come from Taiwan, and I am a graduate student in Arts Management Program at George Mason University. Today I am going to present orchestra audience development in the U.S. and Taiwan based on arts marketing and cultural policy.
In this presentation, I will include these information in order to present my research. First of all, I will give topic background in order to provide an outstanding about this topic. By explaining my research question and data analysis to address the purpose of paper. Also, I will report additional information to refine my claim and finding.Last, I will present my next step and recommendation as my conclusion in this research.
Where is audience? The question: if you have $50, which activity will you attend, the classical concert, live concert, watching a movie, or watching a sport game?If you choose a concert, yes, you are our audience.
By providing the interesting film to attract audiences’ attention. Ok, now, I provided a short video about an orchestra concert, this video is Japanese Drama, and it is about the music students in the music institute.And the students in this orchestra do not have ant talents to provide a high-quality concert, and in this concert, they tried to find another way to attract audiences’ attention. So after watching this video, please answer this question again. If you have another $50, will you attend this concert?
After answering the questions above, I provided this table to determine my observations and some basic theories about audiences. As an audience in a performance, I want to know theses information, including a performance, a performer, a ticket cost, and a location. Also, I want to more about these information, for instance, is this performance interesting? Does this performance provide any benefits which is good for me and so on. Thus, Lauterborn provided this model in order to show customers’ consideration through deciding products. On the other hand, as an arts managers, we need to consider many issues in order to attract more audiences to experience a performance, so we need to think about a performance, a performer, audiences, ticket cost, and so on. Specifically, we need to consider about audiences’ favors, realize their behaviors, understand their needs, and also listen their voice. The reasons to attract more audiences, because we want people to experience arts, and gain their supports. Thus, the scholar-Peter Drucker illustrated this 4Ps model in order to help marketing managers to target audiences and find effective marketing strategies to extend our audiences. Again, 4Cs and 4Ps need to be respond each catalogs. For instance, customer needs to reflect product, cost needs to reflect to price etc.
I would like to provide some backgrounds within classical music, arts audience, complicated issues in the field, and arts management to help you understand my topic more. First of all, I will talk about classical music, and the reason of focusing on symphony orchestras. Second, I will provide some basic information about arts audiences in order to help you understand arts audiences more. Next, I will report some basic theories about audience development in Arts Management, why it is
In classical music, there have many different genres, including symphony orchestra, instrument solo, chorale, chamber music, opera etc….In my viewpoint, symphony orchestra is one of the fundamental genres of classical music.Because the importance of symphony orchestra, and also audiences for orchestra is important as well, I want to explore and search orchestra audience development. Thus, by analyzing orchestra audience to inform effective marketing strategies of audience development in classical music genes in general.
Based on the scholar Roose’s definition of arts audience, arts audience can separate into four circles in general: the inner circle, the interested participants, the passers-by.The inner circle comprises the small, usually highly educated core audiences.The second circles is the interested participants, who frequently make an appearance. The third and last skin covers the incidental visitors or participants, they are rather pass-by than participants’The last circle is incidental spectators, who seldom or only incidentally participate. On the other hand, potential audiences means that these people may want to attend a performance, but the decisions should depends on many elements, such as the interests of the performances. So how can we find current audiences and potential audience?The scholar Mr. Bernstein in his book Arts Marketing Insights explored three main characteristics of current and potential arts audiences.Segmenting by Age and Life Cycle:Mature adults, children, youngersSegmenting by Gender:Differences between women and menSegmenting by Ethnicity: Hispanics, Asian Americans, African American
In order to attract more audiences, as arts managers in the field of arts management, we need to do a lot of things. For example, we need to target our audience groups based on 4Ps and 4Cs, and we need to communicate with audiences through different approaches.Specifically, we need to make objectives, such as how many percentages do we want to achieve, making strategies and promoting performances, such as the ticket discounts.Or providing arts education to children and adults, for instances, orchestras may invite children to rehearsals, or orchestras may have a pre-concert or a lecture to explain a performance.
However, this topic articulate to many complex issues in order to achieve the objective by extending audiences, such as arts education, cultural policy, organization mission, arts marketing, performances etc…So there has no one specific solution or theories to explain this topic. Also, the field of arts management is a new field, so we build up theoretical map now, maybe there will have one solution or conclusion in the future in this discourse community.
I PROVIDED A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE FIELD AND THE CONSIDERATIONS SO THAT YOU HAD THE BACKGROUND NECESSARY TO UNDERSTAND MY RESEARCH QUESTION. About my research question, I would like to say the research topic specifically, I will explain my research topic through three stages. And I will talk about the details of these three stages later. At the beginning, I want to learn about symphony orchestra in the U.S. versus Taiwan. After I explored some information through different books, articles, and databases, I could not find many sources about this topic, Especially analyses in Taiwan. So I changed my research direction to orchestra audience development in the U.S. and Taiwan, rather than comparisons of these countries. Because orchestra audience development includes many different issues, I want to focus on two issues more specifically. So I want to discuss orchestra audience development in the U.S. and Taiwan based on Arts marketing and cultural policy.
At beginning, I want to study orchestra audience development in the U.S. and Taiwan, because I want to find out 1. Are strategies of orchestra audience development in the U.S. different than the strategies in Taiwan?2. What are the standard marketing strategies that orchestras used in the workplaces in order to attract more audiences in general?3. Within the long orchestra history and the importance of audience for performances, what are effective strategies to attract more audiences? 4. Can we build up a standard and effective marketing system to attract more audiences in general5. Can this marketing system be applied to every country, rather than specific areas? I want to explore these questions in order to understand where is an opportunity for symphony orchestras to extend audience groups in the future, and where is an opportunity for orchestras in the Asia Market in the future?By exploring these questions and comparing different countries, we will know more about the topic of audience development in the world, and also we will build up our theoretical map in the field of arts management.
Before I go to next stage, I want to point out why this topic is so important in the field. For now, it has many challenges to attract audiences to experience performances, because economy is bad, government can not support arts organizations, we can’t find private support,Performances would cost a lot money, and we have less audiences in a performance. Therefore, for arts managers, we need overcome these challenges, and explore opportunities by building an effective arts marketing strategies system. So the discussion of this topic will be a important topic in arts management.
I tried to answer my research question by looking at books and articles in the U.S. and Taiwan.And I separated into five aspects to clarify my research and answer my research questions.Fist of all, I defined arts audience based on the basic theories of audience development, and also found two specific chapters from a book to explain how organizations target their audiences and communicate with their audiences. Second, I searched some articles particular discussed about orchestra audience experiences through data collection, such as audience interview, or the author had a partnership with orchestras in order to observe audiences’ behaviors. Third, I founded some authors explored about the balances between audiences and concerts, for instances, some performers may want to perform some special performances, rather than the popular songs, and these decisions may not satisfy audiences’ needs. This situation is happened in symphony orchestras so often, so this situation is one of challenges for arts managers.Next, in order to find some opportunities from new audiences, some scholars assumed some situations to speculate an opportunity from potential audiences by listening their experiences.Last, I selected two cases in the U.S. and Taiwan in order to understand the brief information of audience development.
Also, as a result of reviewing these research, I observed that the theories of audience development are basically through the discussion of arts marketing and cultural policy, so I want to narrow my topic, so my topic is changed to orchestra audience development in the U.S. and Taiwan based on cultural policy and arts marketing.Also, I found that the explorations of audience development in the U.K. influenced on the U.S., and then the U.S. is influenced to Taiwan, because the field of arts management is developing in the U.S. and Taiwan now, the specific databases and analyses could not be found in the U.S. and Taiwan.
However, I found that my research topic have to change the direction, I need to address this research more specifically, because the lacks of related research, especially in the U.S. and Taiwan, even though the issue of audience development is very important in these countries. And I need to narrow my research more specifically, because the issue od audience development is the interdisciplinary subject. Last, my analyses are focused on the data collection in the U.K. more than my research areas. So I focus on exploring orchestra audience development in the U.S. and Taiwan, rather than compare and integrate orchestra audience development in these countries. Therefore, my research is suggested that the field would benefit from more robust analysis of audience development of symphony orchestra in order to gain more international discussion of audience development.By reviewing previous research, I saw that we need to gather more information about audience development of symphony orchestra from the U.S. and Taiwan, and we need to search more analyses or theories about audience development in the field of classical music; in order to address this issue of specific orchestra audience development in the U.S. while also addressing the issue of orchestra audience development in Taiwan, because there have a few specific research about orchestra audience development in the U.S. and Asia Market currently, even though the issue of audience development is one of the significant issues in the field of arts management.
This paper aims to analyze two observant-based models of orchestra audience development within two countries, the United States and Taiwan, based on their cultural backgrounds, unique cultural policies, and strategies of arts marketing. Also, this paper addresses the current discussion around symphony orchestras, arts marketing and cultural policies in the U.S., and explores whether same strategies are suitable for symphony orchestras in Taiwan. Because Arts Management is still a developing field in Taiwan, this paper provides an opportunity for Taiwan’s arts managers to understand successful examples from the U.S. by analyzing cases in the U.S. The presenter asserts that analysis of successful cases and theories in the U.S. can enhance orchestra industry in Taiwan based on their arts marketing and cultural policies. Furthermore, this paper argues for more international discussion about orchestra audience development, particular in the Asia market, because the Asia market is a potential market in the world, and the Asia wants to develop the field of arts, including performing arts and visual arts. So I think that international discussion of orchestra audience development is necessary for all arts managers in the world.
Audience development is one of the significant issues in the discipline of arts management, so we need to discuss and explore this issue more. However, audience development included diversified issues, such as arts marketing, audience behaviors, cultural policies, arts education and so on. Also, arts management is still a developing field, it tried to build their own specific theories and knowledge, so the related research about audience development are few in the U.S. and Taiwan. Because the significance of audience development and the diversified issues of audience development, I recommend that we need to explore this issue by analyzing the cases from different countries, gathering more audience experiences in order to fulfill audience needs. Therefore, I believe that the field of arts management would benefit from the research about orchestra audience development, because these research can help arts managers to understand their audience in order to target their audience, to find potential audience based on diversified audience behavior, and to educate audience in order to help audience experience performances and arts. Recently, I attended to an arts management conference. In this conference, people discussed about this topic-audience development a lot, and they also pointed out the discussion about international arts management. This conference help me to think of some ideas about this topic in the future. Because my international background and experiences, I want to focus on orchestra audience development by analyzing different areas and countries in order to gain more information to enhance the connection in the global community and build the map within international arts management.So in the future, I will focus on explorations of orchestra audience in the U.S., Analysis of orchestra audience development through the cases in the U.S. and Taiwan, exchanged information of audience development, and building effective marketing strategies system.
Thank you for your question, I am still work on it. Or I have the same question,
PROV 500 Project 2
Presenter: Kuo, Yi-Chun, Alice
Outline Topic BackgroundResearch Question/ Topic Research Process The Purpose of Paper Conclusion
If you have $50, you willattend…… A. a concert A. B. B. a live concert C. a movie D. a sport game C. D.
As an audience, I care about…… As an arts manager, I need to think about…… A performance A performance A performerA performer An audience A ticket cost A cost A locationA location Marketing strategies The organization‟s mission4Cs ( Lauterborn, 1990, pp.26) 4Ps (Peter F. Drucker, 1967) Product Price Customer needs Cost and wants Promotio Place Convenience Communication n
• Symphony • Types of Audiences Orchestra • Current Audience • Potential Audience Classical Arts Music Audience Complicated Arts Issues Management• Arts Marketing • Audience Cultural Policy Development Arts Education ………
Classical Music • Many Genres Symphony Orchestra Solo of Instruments Chorale Chamber Music Opera • Symphony Orchestra is one of the fundamental genres of classical music. • By analyzing orchestra audiences to inform effective marketing strategies of audience development in classical music genres in general.
Arts AudienceThe frequency of attendances(Roose, 2008,p. 238)• The Inner Circle• The Interested Participants• The Passers-by• The Incidental SpectatorsThree main characteristics of arts audiences(Bernstein, 2007)• Age and Life Cycle: Mature adults, children• Gender: Differences between women and men• Ethnicity: Hispanics, Asian Americans, African
Attracting More Audiences Targeting Communicating audience with audiences groups Making Making Promoting ProvidingObjectives Strategies Performances Arts Education Arts
Extending Audiences Arts Education Cultural Policy Organization Mission Board of Directors Performances; Performers Arts MarketingComplex Issues
Research Question/ Topic Now… In the Middle… Arts MarketingAt the & Orchestra Audience Cultural Policy:Beginning… Development Orchestra Audience in the U.S. and Taiwan Development Orchestra Audience in the U.S. and Development Taiwan in the U.S. versus Taiwan
At Beginning…1. Are strategies of orchestra audience development in the U.S.different than the strategies in Taiwan?2. What are the standard marketing strategies that orchestrasused in the workplaces in order to attract more audiences ingeneral?3. Within the long orchestra history and the importance ofaudience for performances, what are effective strategies toattract more audiences?4. Can we build up a standard and effective marketing system toattract more audiences in general5. Can this marketing system be applied to every country, ratherthan specific areas?
At Beginning…The Importance of the topic Effective Arts Less Marketing Audiences Strategies High Costs of Performances Govt. Grants System Donors Economy Orchestra Audience Developmentin the U.S. vs Taiwan
In the Middle… Definitions of Audience Development in the Arts Experiences from Orchestra Audiences Explorations of Arts Audience and Aesthetic Disposition Opportunities from New Audiences Specific Cases in the U.S. and Taiwan
In the Middle… The theories of audience development are basically through the discussion of arts marketing and cultural policy. The explorations of audience development in the U.K. are influenced on the U.S. The explorations of audience development in the U.S. are influenced on Taiwan The U.K. The U.S. Taiwan
In the Middle… The interdisciplinary subject The lack of related The relatedresearch, specifically in research is based the U.S. and Taiwan on the U.K. Changing the research direction Orchestra Audience Development in the U.S. and Taiwan
The Purpose of this paperCurrent Discussionaround Symphony Orchestra Orchestras, arts Audience Successful examples Marketing and Development in from the U.S.cultural Policies in the U.S. the U.S. International Discussion about Orchestra Audience Orchestra Audience Development, Development in especially in the Asia Market Taiwan
Next Analyses of Exchanged Orchestra Audience information of Development Audience through the cases in Development the U.S. and Taiwan Explorations ofOrchestra Audience Effective MarketingDevelopment in the Strategies System U.S. International Arts Management
Reference s Audiences and the Arts: Communication Perspectives. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2010. Print. Hampton Press Communication Series. Communication Alternatives. Bernstein, Joanne Scheff. Arts Marketing Insights: The Dynamics of Building and Retaining Performing Arts Audiences. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007. Print. Cheng, Tsung-Chi, and Wei-Jen Wen. “Determinants of Performing Arts Attendance in Taiwan: a Multivariate Probit Analysis.” Applied Economics Letters 18.15 (2011): 1437–1442. Dobson, Melissa C. “New Audiences for Classical Music: The Experiences of Non-attenders at Live Orchestral Concerts.” Journal of New Music Research 39.2 (2010): 111–124. Kolb, Bonita M. “The Effect of Generational Change on Classical Music Concert Attendance and Orchestras‟ Responses in the UK and US.” Cultural Trends 11.41 (2001): 1–35. O‟Sullivan, Terry. “All Together Now: A Symphony Orchestra Audience as a Consuming Community.” Consumption Markets & Culture 12.3 (2009): 209–223. Radbourne, J. et al. “The Audience Experience: Measuring Quality in the Performing Arts.” International Journal of Arts Management 11.3 (2009): 16. Print. Roose, Henk. “Many-Voiced or Unisono? An Inquiry into Motives for Attendance and Aesthetic Dispositions of the Audience Attending Classical Concerts.” Acta Sociologica 51.3 (2008): 237–253. Print. Sigurjonsson, Njordur. “Orchestra Audience Development and the Aesthetics of „Customer Comfort‟.” Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society 40.4 (2010): 266–278. Wai-Chung, Ho. “Music and Cultural Politics in Taiwan.” International Jounal of Cultural Studies 10.10 (2007): 463–483.