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Dr. Nanyingi Technology Keynote

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Its my utmost belief that Kenya and other developing countries should be in the mainstream of adapting technology in excellent service delivery. …

Its my utmost belief that Kenya and other developing countries should be in the mainstream of adapting technology in excellent service delivery.

Veterinary Medicine applications of technology can improve education and service delivery.Here i highlight Informatics, Diagnostics,Biotechnology.Data analysis,Simualtion modelling and networks to outline policy changes for Kenya

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  • Evidence based medicine and increase operational efficiency by instant access to medical records and images, Teleconferencing for medical rounds via the internet to share case material and medical specialists between universities.(Revenue) Cost effectiveness studies by eliminating revenue losses from dictation, transcription, phone consultation and mailing radiographs and reports to consulting veterinarians. College and faculty recognition by peers and peer institutions for their innovative use of information technology in veterinary medicine
  • Evidence based medicine and increase operational efficiency by instant access to medical records and images, Teleconferencing for medical rounds via the internet to share case material and medical specialists between universities.(Revenue) Cost effectiveness studies by eliminating revenue losses from dictation, transcription, phone consultation and mailing radiographs and reports to consulting veterinarians. College and faculty recognition by peers and peer institutions for their innovative use of information technology in veterinary medicine
  • Ultrasound:  In small animal and equine practice, ultrasound is routinely used as a diagnostic aid. Applications of ultrasound in ruminants have not been fully exploited, except in pregnancy
  • Ultrasound:  In small animal and equine practice, ultrasound is routinely used as a diagnostic aid. Applications of ultrasound in ruminants have not been fully exploited, except in pregnancy
  • Transcript

    • 1. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS FOR IMPROVED VETERINARY SERVICE DELIVERY IN KENYA
      • Nanyingi M O 1, 2 §
      • 1 Ministry of Livestock and Development, District Veterinary Office, PO BOX 60 -50135, Khwisero, Kenya,
      • 2 Kenya Scientific Analysts, P.O. Box 531-00202, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya,
      • §Corresponding author: [email_address] , +254721117845
      Keynote address Presented at 45 th KVA Scientific Conference ,Kisumu Hotel 29 TH April 2011
    • 2. OUTLINE :
      • Background
      • Curriculum
      • Informatics and Animal Health
      •   Disease Diagnosis
      • Molecular Biology and Instrumentation
      • Statistical Applications and Simulation models
      • Reproductive technologies
      • E-Resources
      • Veterinary Information Networks
    • 3. BACKGROUND:
      • The Kenyan developments in information technology over the past decade are tremendous and offer great potential in improving animal health through various measures like effective disease forecasting, rapid and accurate disease diagnosis, modern therapeutic measures
      • The technology needs for Kenya are enormous as the country has yet to achieve the poverty eradication targets set out in the NPEP (6.6%), while growth rates of above 7% are required to achieve the industrial transformation goals by 2020.
      • Utilisation of scalable technology inputs to transform the veterinary service delivery will be of crucial importance to the overall growth of the kenyan Economy.
    • 4. BACKGROUND:
      • Technology contributes significantly in a number of other areas and is bound to play an important role in improving animal health, thereby benefitting a majority of our population which are dependent on livestock and agricultural activities.
      • Technological competence will be as important as veterinary competence to practice at the highest levels.
      • In Kenya there is insufficient investment in veterinary technologies creating a digital divide that hampers veterinary service delivery and realisation of vision 2030.
    • 5. 1.0 VETERINARY CURRICULUM
      • There is urgent need to integrate current advances in standardization of veterinary training in Kenya to match global standards
      • Pre-clinicals : Anatomy and Biochemistry ; Image resources and simulation models can ease understanding of complex features and pathways. By digitizing library, classroom, and laboratory visual images, students can access these materials conveniently.
      • A communication link between students or between students and faculty by sharing the same email platform.
      • Provision of class notes on-line or on CDs. This provides students an easily searchable database of their veterinary education, Provision of on-line veterinary courses and access to scientific(veterinary) literature databases (portals)
    • 6. 1.1 VETERINARY CURRICULUM (Clinical; Teaching Hospital)
      • Information Technology in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) consists :
        • Patient Medical History ,2. Medical Procedure costs 3. Patient Images
      • Information from diagnostic equipment will be interfaced directly into a web-based database system. All computerized radiographic imaging modalities can be input directly into a picture archival system. This will enable:
        • Evidence based medicine and increase operational efficiency
        • Teleconferencing for medical rounds via the internet to share case material and medical specialists between universities.(Revenue)
        • Cost effectiveness studies by eliminating revenue losses from dictation, transcription and consultation
        • College and faculty recognition for their innovative use of information technology in veterinary medicine
    • 7. ANIMAL HEALTH (Veterinary Informatics)
      • Animal Disease Monitoring and Epidemiological Surveillance :
      • Geo-Informatic and Geocomputation ; spatial and Temporal dynamics of animal infectious diseases can be predictable by integration of Geographical Positioning Systems and Geographical Information Systems. Remote sensing for NDVI
      • GIS/GPS is capable of presenting chloropleths that allows the visualization of the spatial pattern of diseases, Bayesian geostatistic models can be used to estimate underlying disease risk.
      • Digital pen technology: web-based servers for real time submission of disease incidence (Pilot NEP= GOK/FAO) and RFID traceability.
      • Mobile data gathering technologies ( M-vethealt h): PDA, i-pads, Android OS, Nokia with MS, Linked to relational database
    • 8. 2. 0 DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
      • Radio diagnosis : X-ray for internal anatomical discomfitures, fractures, tumors.
      • Ultrasonography: Assessment of intra/peri-abdominal disease. versatile addition to the non-invasive and non-surgical procedures.
      • Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT): A unique cross-sectional imaging ability useful for the Diagnosis of tumors, malformations, inflammation, degenerative and vascular diseases and trauma.
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): highly sensitive and non-invasive technique providing accurate and detailed anatomic images with good contrast and spatial resolution.CNS diseases in small animals, New MR angiography and MR spectroscopy .
    • 9. 2. 1 DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
      • Echocardiography: These procedures are designed to investigate cardiac and blood vessel problems like heart murmurs or congestive heart failure. The transducer is placed in position at an angle designed to bounce sound waves off the walls and valves of the heart in order examine heart chamber size, wall motion, valve movements, and structural changes in and around the heart, as well as the aorta, carotid (neck) arteries, and renal (kidney) arteries. Doppler echocardiography: determine the direction and velocity of blood flow within the cardiovascular system.
      • Clinical application in small animal medicine and surgery
    • 10. 2.2 DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
      • Laparoscopy : Extensively used for research, clinical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It allows direct examination of abdominal cavity with only minimal and superficial surgical intervention. Thoracoscopy allows visualization and biopsy of a large surface of the lung and provides adequate specimen for histo-pathological diagnosis.
      • Endoscopy: Minimal invasive diagnostic modality FOR mucosal inflammation, hyperemia, active bleeding, irregular mucosal surface and facilitates biopsy in tubular organs like GI tract, respiratory and UG systems.
      • Image Intensifier TV system (IITV ): Used in orthopaedic surgery for fracture repair using a small incision thus achieving minimal invasive surgical manoeuvre. IITV helps in X-ray imaging of the intrao-perative site for orthopaedic manipulations, and the same can be stored for future reference.
      • Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA):   Radiographic modality which allows dynamic imaging of the vascular system following IV of iodinated X-ray contrast media, through the use of image intensification, enhancement of the iodine signal and digital processing of the image data.
    • 11. 3.0 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
      • Genomic Analysis : Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, RT-PCR) : Genomic analysis gains importance since it is the irrefutable and definitive form of diagnosis .
      • Genotype–Phenotype Databases, phylogenetic trees and gene banks is essential in developing, molecular clock for immunological distinctiveness.
      • Functional genomics of host–pathogen interactions ; genetic models for parasite families could greatly enhance functional analysis of genes in these important protozoan pathogens.
      • Proteomics-based approaches, which examine the expressed proteins of a tissue or cell type, complement the genome initiatives and are increasingly being used to address biomedical questions.
    • 12. 3.1 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
      • Bioinformatics and high throughput approach to create genomic resources for the study of bovine immunobiology. (RT-PCR) and cDNA microarrays are the future.
      • The web-accessible resource contains information on gene name, the forward and reverse primers used to amplify each segment, expected product size, and if the gene was found in unstimulated PBMCs or only in ConA stimulated PBMC.
      • Comparative genomics: Trypanosoma, Tick genomes have been sequenced, annotated and analyzed(accessed via pubmed).
    • 13. Taqman RT-PCR
    • 14. 4.0 INSTRUMENTATION (Drug residue Analysis)
      • Microcomputers and user-friendly software are provided to operate molecular instruments that are vital in pharmacological and Toxicological analysis:
      • High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectophotometry (AAS)
      • Strengthening of central and regional veterinary investigative laboratories can enhance rapid diagnosis
    • 15. 3.0 ANIMAL MODELS
      • In Vivo rodent models : Identifying and Characterizing candidate vaccines and Drugs. To identify promising substances at the earliest possible stage of the development process, robust and predictive surrogate animal models, capable of rapidly characterizing potency with minimal compound requirements, are necessary.
      • In vivo surrogate animal bioassay capable of rapidly and accurately predicting the topical activity of drugs (acaricides) emerging from in vitro acaricide bioassays.
      • They have proved to be economical, rapid surrogate animal bioassay that together with the in vitro acaricide bioassay can be used for the rapid identification, characterization, and prioritization of candidate drugs.
      • Vaccinology : Recombinant vaccine technology in veterinary medicine. pseudorabies, rabies, canine distemper, Newcastle disease, and avian influenza. Major steps in ECFIM Vaccine: Infect and treat models
    • 16. 4.0 STATISTICAL APPLICATIONS & SIMULATION MODELS
      • Statistical analysis of data is important area in animal health.  The data collected from outbreaks over a period of time can be analyzed statistically to develop mathematical models and forecast future incidences of the disease. Manual analysis is error-prone and time consuming. User-friendly and efficient statistical packages are available: EpiInfo, STATA, R, GRASS
      • Epidemiological burden of disease can be used in prioritization of resource allocation when evidence based pictures are available.
      • Simulation of in vivo disease conditions .: Interaction of antigen and antibody is essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases.  The role of graphics based software in studying 3D structures of Ag and Ab is important to analyze the interactions between them  in vivo
      • The Monte-Carlo Simulation is vital in statistical prediction of disease outcome.
    • 17. 5.0 REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES
      • In Vitro Embryo Production (IVEP): Combinations of emerging and existing reproductive technologies (ET/AI) for improvement and reconstruction of livestock breeds.
      • Environmental and genetic diversity can be selected in response to climate change for disease tolerance and increased productivity.
      • Major output will be identification, multiplication and conservation of selected superior desirable breed (sire/dam) traits
      • Commercialization and supportive government policies coupled with stringent legal regulatory frameworks can enhance service delivery
    • 18. 5.1 REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES
      • Artificial Insemination : The Application of sexed semen
      • Evaluation of farmer preferences, conception rates and costs should be evaluated before mainstreaming in veterinary services.
    • 19. 6.0 VETERINARY e-RESOURCES
      • Digital instruction courseware over the public internet, online distance learning networks or in-house via an intranet.
      • Use of the Internet, email, discussion forums, and collaborative software to support students and veterinarians may also be considered where greater flexibility.
      • Web resources :
      • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
      • World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID)
      • World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS)
      • WHO Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)
      • Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED)
      • Networking and creating infrastructure for interconnectivity with all national, international animal/veterinary/fisheries/agricultural research institutes.
    • 20. 6.1 VETERINARY INFORMATION NETWORKS VETFORUM Vs VETKENYA ???
    • 21.
      • These inputs must be a combination of technology developed locally utilizing local and other skills and large-scale technologies imports. This will require spending more on human resource training especially on high-level technology Research and Development.
      • Stronger linkages between policy makers, extension services, farmers and research agencies are critical for effective information dissemination and application.
      • Those that can be accomplished at low cost, but that have high impacts represent the highest priorities for short-term action can be easily adapted in mainstream veterinary services.
      • This review describes the underlying technology and illustrates several areas of veterinary research, ranging from pathogenesis of neurological disorders to drug and vaccine design, in which potential clinical applications are being explored.
      FUTURE INSIGHTS
    • 22.
      • This report reviews the current status of adaptable technologies in veterinary service delivery. It provides a roadmap for improving and strengthening national and regional systems.
      • The main reasons for the poor implementation of IT in the animal husbandry sector are - role of government in partnership with the private sector is not fully realized.
      • Myriad of difficulties in collection of accurate information and the imperfect network system with outdated methodologies negates effective service delivery.
      • Utilisation of technology inputs to transform the economy will be of crucial importance to Kenya. The need of the hour is to overcome hurdles in its implementation and devise efficient animal disease policies that prioritize technological for effective service delivery.
      CONCLUSIONS AND RECCOMENDATIONS
    • 23. THANK YOU ALL FOR LISTENING SUGGESTIONS AND QUESTIONS ARE INVITED?