Paraguayan Report about Biodiversity


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Paraguayan Report about Biodiversity

  1. 1. Martín Villalba Environmental Engeneer Representative of Paraguay TAIPÉI, TAIWÁN JUNE, 2013
  2. 2. CURRENT SITUATION OF BIODIVERSITY  Paraguay has 125 species currently included in the 2003 Red List of Endangered Species catalogued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Of these, 100 are animals and 25 are plant species. The three species listed as critically endangered are birds. Thirteen species are considered endangered. The remainder is considered lower risk, near threatened or vulnerable. Some 17 species are listed as data deficient. Table 4 lists the relative numbers of species and numbers considered threatened or of concern by CITES and IUCN:
  3. 3. FLORISTIC DIVERSITY  Currently, it is estimated that the number of plant species in the country would be about 13.000, although other studies suggest that would reach 20.000  It is difficult to determine the exact number of endemic plant species in Paraguay because flora studies are in progress. Preliminarily, we can say that almost all of the species are endemic to the Cuenca del Plata and many of them endemic to Paraguay. For example, it is important to note that of the 156 common tree species, 107 (69%) are regional endemics shared with neighboring countries
  4. 4. FAUNAL DIVERSITY  The faunal diversity reflects the variety of ecosystems in the country. Estimating the existence of about 100.000 invertebrate species and 1233-1336 of vertebrates species.  Ichthyofauna (Fish)  Herpetofauna (Amphibians and Reptiles)  Avifauna (Birds)  Mastofauna (Mammals)
  5. 5. THE NATIONAL SYSTEM OF PROTECTED AREAS  The National Protected Areas System (SINASIP) began its development in 1988. The identification of 23 priority potential areas was achieved by the Conservation Data Center with the support of The Nature Conservancy and a Peace Corps technical volunteer. Following this process, they prepared the seminal document laying the groundwork for a protected areas system in Paraguay–the Strategic Plan of the National Protected Areas System (SINASIP), presented in 1993. This plan considered priorities from several different perspectives including ecological value, potential environmental services, institutional and administrative capacity, among others.
  6. 6. TYPES OF PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS  In addition to national parks, the country has many other types of protected areas allowed under the Protected Areas Law of 1993 which established the categories of areas considered to be part of the system. The system or SINASIP encompasses many categories of areas beyond the six categories established by the IUCN. It incorporates public, private, and special protected areas with the recent addition of Biosphere Reserves in Mbaracayú and the Chaco (proposed to UNESCO in 2004). The so-called special management areas are managed by the bi- national entities that operate the Itaipú and Yacyretá dams between Paraguay and the neighboring countries of Argentina and Brazil on the Paraná River
  8. 8. ECOREGIONS 1. Ecoregions for the Eastern Region: • Eco Aquidaban region • Eco Amambay region • Eco Alto Paraná region • Eco Central Selva region • Central Coast ecoregion • Eco Ñeembucú region 2. Ecoregions for the Western Region: • Eco Medanos region • Eco Cerrado region • Eco Pantanal region • Humid Chaco ecoregion • Eco Dry Chaco region
  9. 9. CONVENTIONS RATIFIED BY PARAGUAY  1973 - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild fauna and  flora (CITES).  1986 - Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural  heritage.  1992 - The Vienne convention for the protection of the ozone layer.  1993 - United Nations framework convention on climatic change.  1993 - Convention on biological diversity.  1993 - The Ramsar Convention on wetlands.  1995 - United Nations convention to combat desertification.  1996 - Convention for the protection of new varieties of plants.  1996 - Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals.  1998 - Protocol of Kyoto of the United Nations framework convention on climatic change.  1999 - Amendment to the Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer.  1999 - Gaborone amendment to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered  Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
  10. 10. MAJOR ADVANTAGES INTERAGENCY AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION INITIATIVES Public Sector:  The National Forestry Bureau (1999)  Interinsitucional Consortium for the systematization of the flora and fauna of Paraguay  National Wetlands Committee  Commission of Biosafety and Biotechnology (1997)  The National Council for Science and Technology (2002)  International Cooperation (WWF, GIZ, UN, JICA, USAID, WCS, CI, FAO, many others)  Environmental Management Planning (SEAM)
  11. 11. MAJOR ADVANTAGES INTERAGENCY COOPERATION INITIATIVES Private Sector:  The nongovernmental sector is leading the establishment of new conservation figures private hands. Among them are conservation easements. These consist of civil agreements between two or more owners, in which a property agree, voluntarily, to plan the future use of their natural resources in order to preserve them and grant benefits to the other property. It has now been begun the process of establishing easements Itapúa departments, Guairá and Alto Paraguay. Other private figures seeking the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources including ecological leases or condominiums, co-ownership, loan, usufruct of conservation between others, that have been implemented primarily in the Reserve of San Rafael Managed Resources.
  12. 12. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY  Changing land use  Deforestation  Lumbering  Urban sprawl  Hunting of wildlife species  Plant trade  Fishing indiscriminate  Infrastructure development  Construction of dams  Salinization  Exotic and invasive species
  14. 14. NATIONAL CAPACITIES FOR BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH The capabilities of the country to carry out research on biological diversity are restricted, and most of this capacity is limited to taxonomic study. The country has three collection sites and internationally recognized taxonomic study:  The Herbarium and Collection of Vertebrates and Invertebrates National Museum Natural History SEAM dependent;  The Herbarium of the Botany Department of the School of Chemical Sciences (UNA)  The Herbarium History of the Municipality of Asuncion.
  15. 15. GENETIC RESOURCES  The national authorities responsible for work related to research, management and conservation of germplasm is the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (MAG) and the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (UNA). In the Regional Agricultural Research Centre and the National Agronomic Institute , both under the MAG, you have the physical infrastructure required for the conservation of germplasm.  The activities in this area focus on collection projects, regeneration, characterization and investigation of diverse germplasm, including locote, native corn, cassava, soybeans, wheat, sorghum and sunflowers, among others.
  16. 16. TECHNICAL SECRETARIAT OF PLANNING  We are the leading government institution for planning, coordinate, evaluate, design and promote actions leading to sustainable development of the country, providing guidelines, studies, information and technical assistance for the formulation and implementation of plans and policies aimed at the welfare of the population, within the framework of the principles of equity, participation and social and environmental responsibility.
  17. 17. FUNCTIONS  Develop overall development goals, by sector and region, coordinate projects and programs in the Public sector and horn action of private with government action, establishing the General Plan and Development Plans by Sectors and Regions.  Define and / or promote in coordination with the respective public policies derived from sectoral plans, territorial and / or national.  Develop and implement processes and products of planning and public policies that allow the realization of the strategic vision of the country. o To organize and support the development of diagnostics and studies at national, sectoral and intersectoral.
  18. 18. POSITION AT WORK Directorate General of Planning and Public Policy Environmental Development Division Economic Development Division Social Development Division Sectoral Policy Address
  19. 19. WHAT WE WHAT FROM THE NSOFP  Plan, organize, direct and control all activities necessary to prepare Plans and Policy, in order to institutionalize the National Planning System, proposing rules and actions for compliance.  To organize and support the development of diagnostics and studies at national, sectorial and inter sectorial.  Define and promote in coordination with the respective public policies derived from sectorial plans, territorial and / or national.
  20. 20. NATIONAL CAPACITIES FOR BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH The country does not have a Taxonomic Reference Center to develop conservation policies based on relevant scientific studies. Currently, the taxonomic work performed in the two first institutions mentioned. Regarding the private sector, many environmental NGOs perform identification fieldwork of species of flora and fauna, based on the methodology of rapid ecological assessments, which does not necessarily involves making strict taxonomic work.
  21. 21.  Establishing a National Plant Genetic Resources Programme, which is set within the same action and include agricultural species and their close relatives, forage species and popular consumer species indigenous medicinal and forest species present and potential use  Identify funding sources that enable the provision and equipment facilities required for adequate ex situ conservation and the means to monitor the in situ conservation (Parks and Forest Reserves) NATIONAL CAPACITIES FOR GERMPLASM CONSERVATION OF PLANT RESOURCES
  22. 22.  Set the priority training areas and obtain the necessary resources to strengthen specialization programs at the master's and doctoral degrees in the area of ​​plant genetics with emphasis on development, evolution and conservation of plant species  Create a legal basis allowing for Institutional management of plant genetic resources  Implement and strengthen national and sub regional conservation and use of genetic resources NATIONAL CAPACITIES FOR GERMPLASM CONSERVATION OF PLANT RESOURCES
  23. 23.  Generate national and sub regional mechanisms that allow ongoing maintenance and improvement of existing infrastructure and as raising funds to create infrastructure programs will to be managed with a long-term strategy for the conservation of genetic resources in the most appropriate.  To guide conservation actions in the sub regional, prioritizing areas with the greatest diversity of plant genetic resources in the past not properly treated or they do not have enough resources human or financial. NATIONAL CAPACITIES FOR GERMPLASM CONSERVATION OF PLANT RESOURCES
  24. 24.  Collect of priority fodder plant species, medicinal, of agricultural interest for future use and forest species, counting for the effect with a sub-regional vision and the use of specialists of the highest level possible to achieve the mission. To characterize this germplasm through traditional methods and unconventional techniques. NATIONAL CAPACITIES FOR GERMPLASM CONSERVATION OF PLANT RESOURCES