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Climate change impact and adaptation- Climate change: impact and adaptation, Les "Dossiers d'Agropolis International", n° 20, Février 2015,

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This Dossier showcases research structures based in
Languedoc-Roussillon Region whose activities are
focused on addressing challenges encountered in
studies on climate change impacts and adaptations

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Climate change impact and adaptation- Climate change: impact and adaptation, Les "Dossiers d'Agropolis International", n° 20, Février 2015,

  1. 1. Climate change: impact and adaptation Expertise of the scientific community in the Languedoc-Roussillon region (France) Number 20
  2. 2. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 2 Agropolis is an international campus devoted to agricultural and environmental sciences. There is significant potential for scientific and technological expertise: more than 2,700 scientists in over 75 research units in Montpellier and Languedoc-Roussillon, including 400 scientists conducting research in 60 countries. Agropolis International is structured around a broad range of research themes corresponding to the overall scientific, technological and economic issues of development: • Agronomy, cultivated plants and cropping systems • Animal production and health • Biodiversity and Aquatic ecosystems • Biodiversity and Land ecosystems • Economics, societies and sustainable development • Environmental technologies • Food: nutritional and health concerns • Genetic resources and integrative plant biology • Grapevine and Wine, regional specific supply chain • Host-vector-parasite interactions and infectious diseases • Modelling, spatial information, biostatistics • Water: resources and management Agropolis International promotes the capitalization and enhancement of knowledge, personnel training and technology transfer. It is a hub for visitors and international exchanges, while promoting initiatives based on multilateral and collective expertise and contributing to the scientific and technological knowledge needed for preparing development policies. Agropolis International brings together authorities of research and higher education in Montpellier and Languedoc- Roussillon in partnership with local communities, companies and regional enterprises and in close cooperation with international institutions. This scientific community has one main objective– the economic and social development of Mediterranean and tropical regions Agropolis International is an international space open to all interested socioeconomic development stakeholders in fields associated with agriculture, food production, biodiversity, environment and rural societies. AGROPOLIS INTERNATIONAL agriculture • food • biodiversity • environment
  3. 3. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 3 Climate change: impact and adaptation 4Foreword 52Climate change & interactions between organisms 5Topics covered by the research teams 8Climate change & resources, territories and development 26Climate change & biodiversity and ecosystems 28Biodiversity and continental ecosystems 40Biodiversity and marine ecosystems 86List of acronyms and abbreviations 68Climate change & agricultural and livestock production systems Climate change impact and adaptation research expertise in Languedoc-Roussillon This Dossier showcases research structures based in Languedoc-Roussillon Region whose activities are focused on addressing challenges encountered in studies on climate change impacts and adaptations:  46 research units (UR, depending on a single supervisory authority), or joint research units (UMR, depending on several supervisory bodies), members of the Agropolis International research community  2 ‘laboratories of excellence’ (LabEx Agro – Agronomy and Sustainable Development, and LabEx CeMEB - Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement et de la Biodiversité) and a federative structure (IM2E: Montpellier Institute forWater and Environment) that manage the scientific activities of some research units on these topics  5 research infrastructures of national or European scope that are devoted to observations in the natural environment or in controlled experiments: the Observatoire de Recherche Méditerranéen de l’Environnement (OSU OREME), the Oceanic Observatory of Banyuls-sur-Mer (OOB), one of the three national branches of the European Marine Biological Resource Centre (EMBRC-France), the Mediterranean Platform for Marine Ecosystem Experimental Research (MEDIMEER) and the European Ecotron of Montpellier  5 foreign or international partners set up in the region that conduct scientific activities in collaboration with Agropolis members: the CGIAR Consortium (international organization),‘external laboratories without walls’ of EMBRAPA (Brazil) and INTA (Argentina), and subsidiary laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) and USDA/ARS (USA). Scientific research carried out by the regional research stakeholders on climate change impacts and adaptations is very broad in scope.This Dossier— which is far from being comprehensive—aims to give readers an overview of this research by highlighting the stakeholders involved and giving a few practical examples of their research activities.These are presented under four major themes:  Climate change & resources, territories and development  Climate change & biodiversity and ecosystems  Climate change & interactions between organisms  Climate change & agricultural and livestock production systems Agropolis International members also offer a broad range of diploma training-education courses (2-8 years of higher education) in which the climate change issue is taken into account in the light of the most recent advanced research on the topic. The list of training and education courses is available online (www.agropolis.org/training/). Cover photo: Savannah landscape,Ambalavao,Hautes Terres (Madagascar) M. Grouzis © IRD The information presented in this Dossier is valid as of 01/02/2015.
  4. 4. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 4 Foreword he year 2015 is marked by a series of events related to climate change.This priority issue is covered at the Salon International de l’Agriculture in Paris (February), the third Global Science Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture in Montpellier (March) and at the UNESCO* Our Common Future under Climate Change Conference (July), which will provide an occasion for the scientific preparation of the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC** in Paris (December). Climate change will also be a focus of concern at the 3rd UNCCD*** Scientific Conference taking place at Cancún, Mexico in early March.As the laboratories and research organizations established in Languedoc-Roussillon Region are recognized—via the high level of their publications—as the leading French scientific research community in the fields of agronomy, environment and biodiversity, we felt they warranted contribution to this year’s discussions and debates through a publication presenting their teams and research.This 20th Dossiers d’Agropolis International issue regarding impact and adaptation to climate change showcases the work of this community! Research units constituting the Agropolis scientific community, representing French and foreign institutions, conduct highly multidisciplinary research using integrated approaches that are particularly relevant with regard to agriculture and natural resources issues.They participate in many national and international networks, associations and learned societies, all of which offer them a top quality scientific environment for developing these approaches. The regional scientific community therefore has the expertise and tools necessary to contribute to the assessment of climate change impacts and associated adaptation needs. The 5th IPCC**** Report is in line with the previous findings of the Panel, confirming their conclusions and strengthening the hypotheses, which are no longer seriously questioned—global warming is now an established fact and an unprecedented number of associated changes have already been observed.These changes have profound direct and indirect impacts, raising critical concerns for human societies.The preservation and evolution of our resources remain in question and a focus of considerable apprehension.Alongside these profound changes, societies are tapping often already degraded and weakened ecosystems to an increasing extent.The development trajectories have thus placed populations or activity sectors in situations of high vulnerability regarding climate change and its impact on agricultural activities, ecosystems and natural resources. * United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ** United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change *** United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification **** Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Hence, it is not so much climate change processes sensu stricto that are studied here, but rather their effects on the environment and production systems.The aim is to be able to foresee future changes and design intervention methods or adjustments to be made in order to avoid unwanted situations, according to the concept of ‘adaptive management’. This might lead one to think that the issue is essentially approached from an adaptation perspective, suggesting that there is no place for mitigation approaches. However, scientific reasoning does not differentiate these two aspects of the same issue—contrary to political debates that confront them for strategic purposes without any connection with the reality of the phenomenon.When, for instance, studying livestock farming systems, are we not concerned with both mitigation and adaptation? This Dossier is organized in four main sections that address issues from a systemic standpoint.The first part is focused on the preservation and use of resources at territorial management scales—functioning of aquatic systems and watersheds, water uses, the role and status of forest areas, observation and information platforms, social forms and conditions of territorial and resource governance.The second part deals with ecosystems and the biodiversity that sustains their functionality.This pertains to continental ecosystems, studied using current or past indicators in order to assess their dynamics, as well as the marine environment—both coastal and pelagic—from fish populations to phytoplankton elements.The next part deals with the question of interactions within the ‘host organisms–pest, parasite/pathogen or symbiotic organisms– environment’ triad, including monitoring and control methods based on modelling of these interactions and design of new practices aimed at reducing risks induced by new dynamics associated with climate change. Finally, the last part is devoted to agricultural and livestock production, from genetic research to studies on landscape dimensions, so as to view production systems from a broader scope, thus leading to a better overall understanding of the processes under way and to proposals for action. This overview confirms the importance of developing integrated approaches, from functional biology dimensions to approaches on territorial scales, while relying substantially on observations, experiments and modelling so as to gain a clear overall understanding of the processes involved and to act with discretion to mitigate and adapt to them. Enjoy reading this directory of expertise in which abundant useful references and addresses can be found to fulfil everyone’s needs and expectations. It is also hoped that this Dossier clearly illustrates the high extent of mobilization of our scientific community to address the challenges of climate change currently under way. Bernard Hubert, President of Agropolis International T
  5. 5. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 5 Topics covered by the research teams (January 2015) esearch units and teams mentioned in this Dossier are listed in the following chart. 1. Climate change & resources, territories and development 2. Climate change & biodiversity and ecosystems 3. Climate change & interactions between organisms 4. Climate change & agricultural and livestock production systems The ‘page’ column indicates where the research unit or team is presented. Red dots (•) indicate the main topics focused on by the unit or team, while black dots (•) indicate secondary topics in which they are also involved. R Research teams and units Page 1 2 3 4 IM2E – Montpellier Institute for Water and Environment (BRGM/CIRAD/CNRS/INRA/IRD/IRSTEA/AgroParisTech/CIHEAM-IAMM/EMA/ENSCM/Montpellier SupAgro/UAG/UM/UPVM/UPVD/UR) Director: Éric Servat, contact@im2e.org 10 • • • • UMR HSM – HydroSciences Montpellier (IRD/UM/CNRS) Director: Patrick Seyler, patrick.seyler@ird.fr 12 • UMR G-EAU – Water Resource Management,Actors and Uses (AgroParisTech/CIRAD/IRD/IRSTEA/Montpellier SupAgro) Director: Olivier Barreteau, olivier.barreteau@irstea.fr 13 • • UMR EMMAH – Modelling Agricultural and Hydrological Systems in the Mediterranean Environment (INRA/UAPV) Director: Liliana Di Pietro, liliana.dipietro@avignon.inra.fr 14 • • UMR GM – Geosciences Montpellier (CNRS/UM) Director: Jean-Louis Bodinier, dirgm@gm.univ.montp2.fr 15 • UR D3E/NRE – Nouvelles Ressources en Eau et Économie (BRGM) Director: Jean-Christophe Maréchal, jc.marechal@brgm.fr 16 • UR LGEI – Laboratoire de Génie de l’Environnement Industriel (EMA) Director:YannickVimont, yannick.vimont@mines-ales.fr 17 • • UR GREEN – Management of Renewable Resources and Environment (CIRAD) Director: Martine Antona, dir-green@cirad.fr 19 • • • UMR ESPACE-DEV – L’espace au service du développement (IRD/UM/UR/UAG) Director: Frédérique Seyler, frederique.seyler@ird.fr 20 • • • UMRTETIS – Spatial Information and Analysis forTerritories and Ecosystems (CIRAD/AgroParisTech/IRSTEA) Director: Jean Philippe Tonneau, jean-philippe.tonneau@cirad.fr 21 • • • UMR GRED – Governance, Risk, Environment, Development (IRD/UPVM) Director: Bernard Moizo, bernard.moizo@ird.fr 22 • • UMR ART-Dev – Actors, Resources andTerritories in Development (CNRS/UPVM/CIRAD/UPVD/UM) Director: David Gibband, artdev@univ-montp3.fr 24 • • • UMR LAMETA – Laboratoire Montpelliérain d’ÉconomieThéorique et Appliquée (INRA/Montpellier SupAgro/UM/CNRS) Director: Jean-Michel Salles, jean-michel.salles@supagro.inra.fr 25 • • • LabEx CeMEB – Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement et de la Biodiversité (UM/UPVM/Montpellier SupAgro/CNRS/IRD/INRA/CIRAD/EPHE/INRAP/UNîmes) Director: Pierre Boursot, Pierre.Boursot@univ-montp2.fr 29 • • •
  6. 6. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 6 Research teams and units Page 1 2 3 4 UMR CEFE – Center for Functional and Evolutionary Ecology (CNRS/UM/UPVM/EPHE/Montpellier SupAgro/IRD/INRA) Director: Richard Joffre, dirCEFE@cefe.cnrs.fr 30 • • • • UMR ISEM – Institute of Evolutionary Sciences of Montpellier (CNRS/UM/IRD/EPHE) Director:Agnès Mignot, dirisem@univ-montp2.fr 31 • • • UMR AMAP – Botany and Computational Plant Architecture (CIRAD/CNRS/INRA/IRD/UM) Director:Thierry Fourcaud, diramap@cirad.fr 32 • • • UR URFM – Écologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes (INRA) Director: Éric Rigolot, eric.rigolot@avignon.inra.fr 34 • • • UR B&SEF –Tropical Forest Goods and Ecosystem Services (CIRAD) Director: Laurent Gazull, laurent.gazull@cirad.fr 35 • • • OSU OREME – Observatoire de Recherche Méditerranéen de l’Environnement (UM/CNRS/IRD) Director: Éric Servat, oreme@univ-montp2.fr 36 • • European Ecotron of Montpellier (CNRS) Director: Jacques Roy, jacques.roy@ecotron.cnrs.fr 37 • OOB – Oceanic Observatory of Banyuls-sur-Mer (UPMC/CNRS) Director: Philippe Lebaron, lebaron@obs-banyuls.fr 41 • UMR CEFREM – Centre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Environnement Méditerranéens (UPVD/CNRS) Director:Wolfgang Ludwig, cefrem@univ-perp.fr 42 • • UMR MARBEC – Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (IRD/Ifremer/UM/CNRS) Director: Laurent Dagorn, laurent.dagorn@ird.fr 44 • • UMR LECOB – Benthic Ecogeochemistry Laboratory (UPMC/CNRS) Director: Nadine Le Bris, lebris@obs-banyuls.fr 45 • UMR BIOM – Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms (UPMC/CNRS) Director: Hervé Moreau, umr7232@obs-banyuls.fr 46 • UMR LOMIC – Microbial Oceanography Laboratory (UPMC/CNRS) Director: Fabien Joux, dirumr7621@obs-banyuls.fr 47 • USR LBBM – Laboratory of Microbial Biodiversity and Biotechnology (UPMC/CNRS) Director: Marcelino Suzuki, suzuki@obs-banyuls.fr 48 • UMS MEDIMEER – Mediterranean Platform for Marine Ecosystem Experimental Research of OSU OREME (CNRS/UM/IRD) Director: Éric Servat, Eric.Servat@msem.univ-montp2.fr 49 • EMBRC-France – European Marine Biological Resource Centre at Banuyls-sur-Mer (UPMC/CNRS) Director: Philippe Lebaron, lebaron@obs-banyuls.fr 50 • UMR CBGP – Center for Biology and Management of Populations (INRA/CIRAD/IRD/Montpellier SupAgro) Directrice : FlavieVanlerberghe, dircbgp@supagro.inra.fr 54 • • UMR LSTM – Laboratory ofTropical and Mediterranean Symbioses (IRD/CIRAD/INRA/UM/Montpellier SupAgro) Director: Robin Duponnois, Robin.Duponnois@ird.fr 55 • • • UMR IPME – Interactions Plantes-Microorganismes-Environnement (IRD/CIRAD/UM) Director:ValérieVerdier, valerie.verdier@ird.fr 56 • • UMR DGIMI – Diversity, Genomes and Microorganism-Insect Interactions (INRA/UM) Director:Anne-NathalieVolkoff, volkoff@supagro.inra.fr 57 • • UR B-AMR – Pests and Diseases: Risk Analysis and Control (CIRAD) Director: Christian Cilas, christian.cilas@cirad.fr 58 • • UR Plant Pathology (INRA) Director: Marc Bardin, Marc.Bardin@avignon.inra.fr 59 • • UMR BGPI – Biology and Genetics of Plant-Parasite Interactions (INRA/CIRAD/Montpellier SupAgro) Director: Claire Neema, bgpi-dir@cirad.fr 60 • • Topics covered by the research teams
  7. 7. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 7 Research teams and units Page 1 2 3 4 CSIRO European Laboratory (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) (CSIRO) Director:Andy Sheppard,Andy.Sheppard@csiro.au 61 • • • EBCL – European Biological Control Laboratory of USDA/ARS (United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service) (USDA/ARS) Director: Lincoln Smith, Link.Smith@ars.usda.gov 62 • • • UMR IHPE – Host-Pathogen-Environment Interactions (UM/UPVD/IFREMER/CNRS) Director: Guillaume Mitta, mitta@univ-perp.fr 63 • • UMR MIVEGEC – Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases (IRD/CNRS/UM) Director: Frédéric Simard, frederic.simard@ird.fr 64 • • UMR InterTryp – Host-Vector-Parasite Interactions in Infections byTrypanosomatidae (CIRAD/IRD) Director: Philippe Solano, philippe.solano@ird.fr 65 • • UMR CMAEE – Emerging and Exotic Animal Disease Control (INRA/CIRAD) Director:Thierry Lefrançois, thierry.lefrancois@cirad.fr 66 • • UR AGIRS – Animal and Integrated Risk Management (CIRAD) Director: François Roger, francois.roger@cirad.fr 67 • • • LabEx Agro – Agronomy and Sustainable Development (CIHEAM-IAMM/CIRAD/CNRS/INRA/IRD/IRSTEA/Montpellier SupAgro/UAPV/UM/UPVD/UR) Director: Pascal Kosuth, fondation@agropolis.fr 70 • • UMR LISAH – Laboratoire d’étude des Interactions entre Sol-Agrosystème-Hydrosystème (INRA/IRD/Montpellier SupAgro) Director: Jérôme Molenat, umr-lisah-dir@supagro.inra.fr 71 • • UMR SYSTEM –Tropical and Mediterranean Cropping System Functioning and Management (CIRAD/INRA/Montpellier SupAgro/CIHEAM-IAMM) Director: Christian Gary, dirsystem@supagro.inra.fr 72 • • UR HortSys – Agro-ecological Functioning and Performances of Horticultural Cropping Systems (CIRAD) Director: Éric Malezieux, eric.malezieux@cirad.fr 73 • • UR AIDA – Agro-ecology and Sustainable Intensification of Annual Crops (CIRAD) Director: Éric Scopel, diraida@cirad.fr 74 • • UMR SELMET – Mediterranean andTropical Livestock Systems (CIRAD/INRA/Montpellier SupAgro) Director:Alexandre Ickowicz, alexandre.ickowicz@cirad.fr 75 • UMR Innovation – Innovation and Development in Agriculture and the Agrifoods Sector (INRA/CIRAD/Montpellier SupAgro) Director: Guy Faure, guy.faure@cirad.fr 76 • • UMR Eco&Sols – Functional Ecology & Bio-geochemistry of Soils & Agro-ecosystems (INRA/CIRAD/IRD/Montpellier SupAgro) Director: Jean-Luc Chotte, eco-sols@ird.fr 77 • • UMR AGAP – Genetic Improvement and Adaptation of Mediterranean andTropical Plants (CIRAD/INRA/Montpellier SupAgro) Director: Patrice This, diragap@cirad.fr 78 • • UMR DIADE – Crop Diversity,Adaptation and Development (IRD/UM) Director:Alain Ghesquiere, alain.ghesquiere@ird.fr 79 • • UMR LEPSE – Laboratoire d’Écophysiologie des Plantes sous Stress Environnementaux (INRA/Montpellier SupAgro) Director: Bertrand Muller, bertrand.muller@supagro.inra.fr 80 • UMR B&PMP – Biochemistry and Plant Molecular Physiology (INRA/CNRS/Montpellier SupAgro/UM) Director:Alain Gojon, alain.gojon@supagro.inra.fr 81 • CGIAR Consortium Director: Frank Rijsberman, consortium@cgiar.org 83 • • • • EMBRAPA LABEX Europe – External Laboratory Without Walls of EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) (EMBRAPA) Coordinator: Claudio Carvalho, embrapa.labex.europe@agropolis.fr 84 • • • • LABINTEX – External Laboratory Without Walls of INTA (Instituto Nacional deTecnología Agropecuaria) (INTA) Coordinator: Daniel Rearte, drearte@agropolis.fr 85 • • • •
  8. 8. F.Anthelme © IRD-UMR AMAP  Bofedal: montain ecosystem of high natural value in the tropical Andes (Bolivia). Climatechange:impactandadaptation 8
  9. 9. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 9 Climate change & resources, territories and development s indicated in the last IPCC report, changes in rainfall patterns and melting snow and ice under way in many parts of the world are disrupting hydrological systems and impacting the quality and quantity of water resources, as well as dynamics and resources in the ‘critical zone’ for life on Earth. A marked depletion of renewable surface and groundwater resources is expected in most subtropical dryland regions during the 21st century. Moreover, current climate change patterns raise concerns that major problems could arise regarding relationships between societies and their environment, even threatening the ecosystem services from which they directly or indirectly benefit.The impacts of recent extreme weather events —heat waves, droughts, floods, cyclones, etc.—highlight the high vulnerability and extent of exposure of ecosystems and human societies to current climate fluctuations. In this setting, research must shed light on the major issues by: (1) focusing studies on the impact of climate change on socioecosystems at various territorial levels and characterization of their vulnerability; (2) drawing up—in collaboration with the various stakeholders concerned—adaptation measures to mitigate the effects of climate change; and (3) developing assessment and monitoring tools to support decision making and adaptive resource management. The Agropolis scientific community is particularly well equipped to provide, along with its many national and international partners, answers or ideas regarding these key questions, which arise in different manners in various socioecosystems on all continents and at several territorial scales. Water resource research is federated within the Montpellier Institute forWater and Environment (IM2E), which combines research in hydrology, geology, chemistry/ biochemistry, microbiology, agronomy, engineering science, economics, social science, modelling, etc. Building on substantial technical resources, some of which are provided by OSU OREME (permanent observatories, joint research platforms, large-scale technical platforms, etc.), the scientific questions addressed by the Institute’s research units are focused especially on:  Analysis of water resources, flows and transfers and fluctuations related to climate change: functioning of complex aquifers (especially karstic aquifers typically found in the Mediterranean region, e.g. through the LEZ-GMU project); scenarios regarding changes in hydrological systems associated with global change via modelling and prospective approaches (REMedHE and ClimAware projects); and the impact of climate change on water resource quality.  Analysis of the vulnerability of territories to climate change impacts: coastline modifications and flooding risks, impacts on freshwater ecosystems, societal risks associated with extreme events (floods, water shortages), the development of relevant monitoring and assessment indicators.  Adaptation challenges: many studies are also focused on water use efficiency in agriculture, at scales ranging from landscapes (e.g. in the ALMIRA project), plots (e.g. with agroecological practices) to plants (HydroRoot and LeafRoll projects); while other studies concern rainfed or irrigated agriculture (studies on the impact of irrigation on water resources, development and dissemination of innovations to reduce water consumption, tapping of new resources through, for instance, wastewater reuse). Other adaptation research is focused on resource management arrangements on political, economic and institutional levels through multi-stakeholder approaches and the development of decision-support tools. Beyond water resources, the regional scientific community addresses the broader issue of the dynamics of nature-society interactions through natural resource management (soil, mineral resources and biodiversity) and the governance of territories and environments. In this area, the research aims to gain insight into relationships between societies and ecosystem services provided by their environment, their evolution with respect to global change, their vulnerability or conflictual nature and their adaptation and resilience capacities.Adaptation strategies are analysed by assessing linkages between global and local dynamics, between issues and stakeholders —individuals, local, regional, national and international institutions (AFCAO,‘Of lands and waters’, SERENA, EcoAdapt projects). Finally, one of the driving forces of the regional scientific community is also the spatialization and historization of environmental knowledge for environmental monitoring and decision support, based on a range of methods: remote sensing and space observation, direct environmental observation, stakeholder surveys, data processing, development of indicators, knowledge and digital data modelling. Éric Servat (IM2E) & Nicolas Arnaud (OSU OREME) A
  10. 10. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 10 Climate change & resources, territories and development  become a leading European resource centre (training and research) attractive to both developed and developing countries. The project implemented by IM2E is based on different areas of excellence shared by the scientific community that provide the basis for addressing primary challenges regarding sustainable ecosystem use and adaptation to climate change. The aim is also to boost the production of innovations and research capacities in companies, and to put forward recommendations for institutions involved in public policy design, implementation and monitoring (ministries, water agencies local authorities). IM2E’s strengths and successes are based on the pooling of shared resources in many areas: training, technical and analytical platforms, observation and modelling resources. The aim of this federative structure, in the latter sector especially, is to develop complex and highly interactive hybrid models for the future. Training has directly benefited from the emergence of IM2E, which is striving to foster relationships with companies and communities in order to enhance the employability of students who have received diplomas from its partner establishments and laboratories. IM2E also aims to internationalize the training, especially by ensuring that at least 30% of its students are foreign, while also hosting over 200 Master’s and PhD students. ••• A federative structure that positions Languedoc- Roussillon as driving force for national water research In view of the range of expertise and technology deployed by the Montpellier Institute for Water and Environment (IM2E – BRGM, CIRAD, CNRS, INRA, IRD, IRSTEA, AgroParisTech, CIHEAM-IAMM, EMA, ENSCM, Montpellier SupAgro, UAG, UM, UPVM, UPVD, UR), Languedoc- Roussillon (L-R) is the region where public research on water is the most substantial and diversified in France, excluding the Ile de France region. Water resource and aquatic ecosystem management is a major challenge for humanity in the 21st century. Multidisciplinary approaches are required to take the corresponding issues into account (environmental, food, health, societal, economic and financial, political and geopolitical, etc.). In this setting, IM2E brings together a set of technical and human resources to:  take up knowledge and adaptation challenges in order to address water related issues  promote interdisciplinary research to meet environmental issues  acquire international scientific visibility via its position in L-R  produce technological innovations and expertise in interaction with the Competitive ‘Water’ Cluster of global scope (Pôle EAU), and with the SWELIA cluster (pooling over 100 L-R companies specialized in the water sector)  support public policies through recognized multidisciplinary expertise Main teams IM2E Montpellier Institute forWater and Environment (BRGM/CIRAD/CNRS/INRA/IRD/IRSTEA/ AgroParisTech/CIHEAM-IAMM/ EMA/ ENSCM/Montpellier SupAgro/UAG/UM/ UPVM/UPVD/UR) 400 scientists UMRART-Dev Actors,Resources andTerritories in Development (CNRS/UPVM/CIRAD/UPVD/UM) 66 scientists UMR EMMAH ModellingAgricultural and Hydrological Systems in the Mediterranean Environment (INRA/UAPV) 53 scientists UMR ESPACE-DEV L’espace au service du développement (IRD/UM/UR/UAG) 35 scientists UMR G-EAU Water Resource Management, Actors and Uses (AgroParisTech/CIRAD/IRD/IRSTEA/ Montpellier SupAgro) 60 scientists UMR GM Geosciences Montpellier (CNRS/UM) 90 scientists …continued on page 14
  11. 11. The project ‘Adapting landscape mosaics of Mediterranean rainfed agrosystems for sustainable management of crop production, water and soil resources’ (ALMIRA) aims to mitigate pressure caused by climate and socioeconomic changes. It thus proposes to rationalize the spatial organization regarding land use and cropping systems in order to optimize the provision of several ecosystem services (agricultural biomass production, surface water production in man- made reservoirs, curbing erosion, etc.). In this project, these spatial organizations are called ‘landscape mosaics’ and jointly viewed as:  networks of natural and anthropogenic elements that integrate relationships between biophysical and socioeconomic processes in a resource catchment basin  structures that impact flows within the landscape, from the crop plot to the catchment basin, with consequences on the landscape functions and resulting services  levers for the management of cropping areas via trade-offs between agricultural production and soil and water resource conservation. ALMIRA proposes to design, implement and test a new integrated modelling approach to meet these goals.This approach integrates —from farm plot to small regional scales—stakeholders’ innovations and levers in prospective landscape mosaic change scenarios, as well as the spatial organizations, biophysical and socioeconomic processes considered. Methodologically, implementation of this integrated modelling requires:  designing of spatially explicit landscape change scenarios  combining biophysical processes involved in the hydrology of cultivated catchment basins  digital mapping of landscape features  economic assessment of landscape functions. This integrated modelling approach is being tested in three catchment basins in France, Morocco and Tunisia.ALMIRA brings together researchers from these three countries specialized in a broad range of scientific disciplines.Within this partnership, two research units of the laboratory of excellence LabEx Agro are working specifically on the characterization of cropping systems (UMR SYSTEM, see page 72) and biophysical processes (UMR LISAH, see page 71). Contact: Frédéric Jacob, frederic.jacob@ird.fr For further information: www.almira-project.org ALMIRA: adapting landscapes for sustainable management of crop production, water and soil resources  A cultivated landscape in Tunisia. © R. Calvez Climatechange:impactandadaptation 11
  12. 12. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 12 worldwide, in developed and developing countries, thus giving it a high level of international recognition. HSM also works with public partners such as the Regional Directorate for the Environment, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety, local authorities (communities of municipalities, joint basin organizations), private consultancy and engineering companies (SDEI, Bio-U, SOMEZ, etc.). HSM has also filed several patents (especially in metrology) and has developed software tools for professionals (‘progiciels’, especially based on data management). One of HSM’s fields of excellence—study of organic contaminants—is the focus of a training and research chair, in partnership with the company Veolia, devoted to ‘Risk analysis related to emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment’. Moreover, HSM is involved in the ‘Water’ (global scope) and ‘Local vulnerability and risk management’ competitiveness clusters (“Pôle EAU” and “Pôle Risques”). HydroSciences Montpellier is highly involved in research- oriented training and education. The training courses provided by the laboratory (‘Water’ Master’s degree, ‘Health Engineering’ Masters degree, ‘Water Sciences and Technologies’ engineering degree of Polytech’Montpellier) attract French and foreign students alike (especially from developing countries). The UMR is also involved from the Bachelor’s to the PhD levels. The laboratory is a member of the Observatoire de recherche méditerranéen de l’environnement (OREME), an Observatory for Science of the Universe (OSU). Its research is also supported by major technical facilities such as the large regional technical platform for the analysis of trace elements in the environment (GPTR AETE) and the collective laboratory for the analysis of stable isotopes in water (LAMA). One of HydroSciences’ strengths is its involvement in many national and international projects, its extensive network of collaboration with research laboratories and institutions Water science research and training The HydroSciences Montpellier laboratory (UMR HSM – IRD, UM, CNRS) is a joint research unit (UMR) that is highly devoted to water science research. The studies span a broad range of domains from biogeochemistry to extreme events, including microbiology, underground water and the hydrological cycle. Most of its scientific activity is in the Mediterranean and tropical regions. HSM activities are organized in four scientific fields:  Transfers, contaminants, pathogens, environment, health  Water, environmental and societal changes  Transfers in ecohydrosystems  Karsts, heterogeneous environments and extreme events. The laboratory conducts two cross- disciplinary technical workshops: ‘ATHYS’ (spatial hydrology workshop) and ‘Hydrosphere tracers’ (workshop promoting the use of analytical techniques for tracing transfers or hydrological processes). Balancing water resources and uses— will future demands be fulfilled? The GICC REMedHE 2012-2015 project (Management and Impacts of Climate Change – Impacts of climate change on integrated water resource management in the Mediterranean: Hérault-Ebre comparative assessment) combined scientists from HSM and the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE, CEA, CNRS, UVSQ) along with catchment basin managers (Syndicat mixte du bassin du fleuve Hérault, Confederación Hidrográfica del Ebro). The aim is to assess potential climatic and anthropogenic patterns in 2050 on hydrological systems and water demand in the Hérault (2 500 km², France) and Ebro (85 000 km², Spain) basins in order to develop different water resource management strategies to maintain the balance between water supply and demand.These issues are assessed through the development of an integrative modelling chain calibrated and validated over a 40-year retrospective period.The modelling involves three steps:  water resource simulation (natural flow and disturbance by dams and canals)  representation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of water uses (domestic, agricultural, industrial and energy) and associated demand  and assessment of water usage/resource balances via vulnerability indicators. Complex prospective scenarios were formalized from the latest simulations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and local socioeconomic scenarios in collaboration with managers.The preliminary results showed that the basins should be subjected to more deficit climatic conditions (increased temperatures associated with decreased spring and summer precipitation) and to increased anthropogenic pressure (increase in population and in irrigated areas). The combination of these conditions should lead to a substantial decline in available water resources and an increase in domestic and irrigation needs, thus undermining the future balance between the resource supply and demand.Adaptation strategies to reduce water demand (improved network efficiency, changes in agricultural practices) or to increase the availability (alternative dam management, inter-basin water transfers) are thus currently being tested in the modelling chain.The aim is to assess the viability of trajectories in an uncertain future setting. Contact: Denis Ruelland, denis.ruelland@um2.fr For further information: www.remedhe.org Climate change & resources, territories and development
  13. 13. Water management and adaptation to climate change—multidisciplinary research The joint research unit Water Resource Management, Actors and Uses (G-EAU – AgroParisTech, CIRAD, IRD, IRSTEA, Montpellier SupAgro) conducts interdisciplinary research on water management. It brings together expertise in earth sciences (hydrology, hydraulics) engineering (automation, fluid mechanics, structural mechanics), life science (agronomy) and social science (economy, sociology, political science). It also includes methodological expertise for interdisciplinary research. Priority is given to research in Europe and Africa, with a special focus on the Mediterranean Basin. This expertise is encompassed within nine teams, that address issues regarding adaptive water and aquatic environment management, focused on specific topics:  Hydraulic management, optimization and supervision of water transfers  Optimization of irrigation management and technology  The unit also focuses on the unintended impacts of adaptations to change in coastal areas.  Methodologically, the unit is working on the implementation of participatory approaches regarding integrated natural resource management in Africa (AFROMAISON project). This research focuses specifically on uncertainties associated with global change and how this process is perceived.  Finally, adaptation is approached through technological and organizational innovations. The unit is thus assessing highly efficient water use technologies (e.g. optimization of irrigation management under climatic constraints) and possibilities for tapping new resources such as wastewater (e.g. Water4Crops project). •••  Controversies and public actions  Innovation and change in irrigated agriculture  Tools and governance of water and sanitation  Combined water-society dynamics  Water management participation  Experimental analysis of sociohydrological dynamics and regulations  Assessment—production and use of indicators. The teams address climate change adaptation issues from several angles.  The unit analysed possibilities of adaptation of Seine Basin reservoirs upstream from Paris, for instance.  It also studies the impact of hydraulic projects in Sub-Saharan Africa, such as the expansion of irrigation in the Upper Niger Basin.  Climate change is also considered in terms of the generated vulnerability. The unit is modelling this and assessing the adaptation capacity of individuals and institutions. Several projects have focused on flooding and water shortages in Europe (France, Spain) and North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco). ClimAware: reservoir management and adaptation to climate change The ClimAware project (2010-2013), funded by IWRM-NET (Integrated Water Resource Management—‘Towards a European exchange network to improve the dissemination of research results on integrated water resource management’, aimed to develop adaptation strategies to mitigate climate change impacts through regional case studies in three areas related to water:  hydromorphology in the Eder catchment basin, Germany (Kassel University, Germany)  irrigation in the Pouilles region, Italy (CIHEAM-IAM at Bari, Italy),  and reservoir management in the Seine Basin, France (UMR G-EAU). An integrated European-scale model was developed for combined analyses at two study scales (Kassel University). The case study on the Seine Basin concerned major socioeconomic issues in the Paris region. It focused on the adaptation of reservoir management, with two main objectives, i.e. minimum flow and flood management. Four large reservoirs with a total capacity of 800 million m3 managed by the Établissement PublicTerritorial de Bassin (EPTB) Seine Grands Lacs, the project partner, regulate the upstream section of the Seine River and its three major tributaries (Aube,Yonne and Marne). A hydrological modelling chain integrating reservoir management was developed to simulate the hydrological functioning of the basin.The parameters were calibrated according to real conditions (climate observations and management over the 1958-2009 period).The modelling chain was then forced with data from seven climate models under present (1961-1991) and future (2046-2065) conditions.Adaptation scenarios regarding annual filling curves and real-time reservoir management were drawn up and their performances were tested under present and future climatic conditions, and then compared with those of the current management scheme. The results showed that climate change could have a significant impact on low flows regardless of the selected management strategy for the four reservoir lakes in the basin. Contact: David Dorchies, david.dorchies@irstea.fr For further information: www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE  Impact of climate change at Paris. Mean daily discharges for seven present time (PST; 1961- 1991) and future time (FUT; 2046-2061) climate scenarios. Naturalized (blue) and influenced (red) flows according to the current lake management scheme. ©D.Dorchies Climatechange:impactandadaptation 13
  14. 14. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 14 or semi-controlled conditions (especially in laboratories), and on methodological development to gain insight into and model the functioning of Mediterranean ecosystems. EMMAH brings together a range of expertise that it makes effective use of in studies on landscape changes on a regional scale (especially land use patterns) and on water transfers in the aquifer, deep unsaturated zone, soil, plant and atmosphere continuum. It also studies the impact of biogeochemical reactivity on water quality, the environmental fate of human pathogens, and crop functioning according to climatic conditions. Impacts of global change on water and adaptation in the Mediterranean environment The joint research unit Modelling Agricultural and Hydrological Systems in the Mediterranean Environment (UMR EMMAH – INRA, UAPV) brings together staff from INRA Avignon, and the Université d’Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse. The research is focused on:  the impact of global change on water resources (in quantitative and qualitative terms),  and adaptation to global change. The unit’s studies are base on observation of instrumented sites, experiments carried out in controlled Wastewater reuse helps address water resource quantity and/ or quality problems that are increasing due to population growth, urbanization, global warming and environmental (refilling rivers or lakes) or recreational (swimming pools, water parks, watering sports fields, etc.) water uses.Wastewater reuse is substantial in semiarid and arid regions (southwestern USA,Australia, Near East, Middle East, Mediterranean countries) and has been growing in recent years in Spain, Italy, Cyprus and Malta. It remains moderate in Greece and is negligible in other southern European countries (Portugal, France, formerYugoslav Republic,Albania, Bulgaria). This practice should be promoted by enhancing the assessment of societal, technological, sanitary, agricultural and environmental risks, identifying current constraints, and developing decision support tools to guide public and project developer arbitration. UMR EMMAH conducted a review of around 600 articles on this topic and identified some recycling success and constraint factors in association with Suez-Environnement,TNO (a Dutch applied research organization, the Netherlands), Polytechnic University ofValencia (Spain) and UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures (INRA,AgroParisTech). In collaboration withVeolia Water Systems Iberica and the group Economía del Agua de l’Universitat deValencia in Spain, it submitted to Climate-KIC (Knowledge and Innovation Community, a network devoted to climate change) a project to assess the economic viability and competitiveness of agricultural waste recycling, identify market opportunities and define win-win strategies. The research unit is also conducting studies on the environmental fate (soil, water, plant, atmosphere) of enteric viruses in wastewater. The collaborations combine quantitative microbial risk assessment with (in future) an economic analysis. Several research programmes on these issues are ongoing or pending funding (by CNRS-INSU, the French National Research Agency,Agropolis Fondation, Campus France). They bring together various partners, including Suez-Environnement, the Centre National de Référence des virus entériques, the Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail (ANSES), the Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Pathogens (Technion, Israel), and research units, including G-EAU, the Division of Applied Mathematics and Informatics (AgroParisTech, INRA), D3E/NRE, etc. Contact: Pierre Renault, pierre.renault@avignon.inra.fr For further information: www6.inra.fr/agadapt/Water-reuse/State-of-the-art Wastewater reuse for irrigation  Irrigation of an olive grove in Cyprus. © P. Renault Main teams UMR GRED Governance,Risk, Environment,Development (IRD/UPVM) 53 scientists UMR HSM HydroSciences Montpellier (IRD/UM/CNRS) 90 scientists UMR LAMETA Laboratoire Montpelliérain d’ÉconomieThéorique etAppliquée (INRA/Montpellier SupAgro/UM/CNRS) 53 scientists UMRTETIS Spatial Information andAnalysis forTerritories and Ecosystems (CIRAD/AgroParisTech/IRSTEA) 42 scientists UR D3E/NRE Nouvelles Ressources en Eau et Économie (BRGM) 16 scientists UR Green Management of Renewable Resources and Environment (CIRAD) 18 scientists UR LGEI Laboratoire de Génie de l’Environnement Industriel (EMA) 30 scientists Climate change & resources, territories and development
  15. 15. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 15 Climate change, Earth geodynamics and surface manifestations—risk analysis and management The joint research unit Geosciences Montpellier (UMR GM – CNRS, UM) has developed a global approach to Earth dynamics and surface manifestations, while taking couplings between the various layers (including the hydrosphere) into account. The aim is to gain further insight into the dynamic processes involved at different scales and to take societal expectations into account, such as:  supply of non-energy resources (mineral and hydric)  energy choices for the future, from extending carbon-based reserves to developing new energy technologies (natural hydrogen, geothermal energy)  waste storage and confinement (downstream from the nuclear cycle, CO2 , mining waste, etc.)  natural hazards (earthquakes, tsunamis, gravity hazards, floods, etc.)  environmental and climatic changes with a high anthropogenic impact (coastline changes, coastal saline intrusion). GM is also part of a large-scale national and international cooperation network that includes countries and programmes from Europe (HORIZON 2020 programme), the Mediterranean region (North Africa, Middle East), and elsewhere in the world (Taiwan, Japan, India, Australia, New Zealand, Iran, Brazil, Mexico and USA). GM also collaborates with the private sector, especially via the creation of business start-ups by PhD students and for the funding of research contracts and theses. It belongs to the Geosciences Cluster, which was launched in 2011, involving key companies from L-R Region (Geoter, Cenote, imaGeau, Schlumberger, Fugro, Antea, Areva, Lafarge) and R&D and training agencies (GM, BRGM, EMA, CEFREM, HSM research units). ••• * GPTR-AETE: Grand Plateau Technique Régional – Analyse des Eléments en Trace dans l’Environnement. Five research teams (Mantle & Interface, Lithosphere Dynamics, Risks, Basins, and Porus Environment Transfers) conduct studies in three main scientific fields: geodynamics, reservoirs and risks. Of particular interest, the Risk and Climate subtheme is focused on climate change issues:  heavy rainfall forecasting  paleoclimates, extreme events and coastal system dynamics  hydromorphodynamic modelling and coastal hazards. In the Mediterranean Basin, UMR GM coordinates two experimental Systèmes d’Observation et d’Expérimentation au long terme pour la Recherche en Environnement (SOERE H+) research sites in Larzac (France) and Mallorca (Spain). The unit is also a member of OREME for which it conducts different observation tasks. It is also involved in GPTR AETE*, and hosts some equipment of the national platforms of the CNRS National Institute of Sciences of the Universe (INSU), including an absolute gravimeter and a scanning electron microscope for electron backscatter diffraction analysis (SEM-EBSD).  Coastal monitoring. ©S.Pistre
  16. 16. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 16 The R&D service of this unit addresses societal demands associated with increased water needs by developing the yet relatively untapped potential of natural water resources (complex aquifers) and unconventional water resources (treated wastewater, surface water, rainwater, etc.). Groundwater and aquifers—from hydrogeological and economic standpoints—is therefore the general focus of study of the D3E/NRE research unit. Note however that, through a scientific programme on economic aspects of the environment and risks, the unit’s economists also intend to conduct research topics such as natural risks or contaminated sites and soils (e.g. former industrial wastelands) in R&D, public policy support or international projects. The water management issue is still the key overall focus of the unit’s research, regardless of whether it is assessed from an environmental or natural risk standpoint. structure and functioning—the potential of karstic aquifers, crystalline aquifers, volcanic environments, thermomineral and mineral water springs  characterizing the distribution of hydrodynamic properties of complex aquifers, including coastal aquifers, in order to develop active water resource management methods through multidisciplinary (geology, hydrology, geophysics, geochemistry and economy) approaches  developing prospective approaches and methods to assess the economic value of environmental resources, to model various water demands, to analyse economic and institutional water resource access regulation mechanisms and assess the economic vulnerability of users to global change  finally, developing modelling and decision support tools to manage these aquifers and predict the impact of global change (climatic and anthropogenic) on different scales, while integrating physical and socioeconomic issues. Mainstreaming hydrogeological and socioeconomic issues to enhance management of growing water needs The main missions of the research unit Nouvelles Ressources en Eau et Économie of the Water, Environment and Ecotechnologies division (UR D3E/NRE – BRGM) are to:  study optimal groundwater management conditions (active management), especially for complex aquifers (karsts, crystalline rocks, volcanic environments) in situations when they are subjected to increased constraints (climate change, anthropogenic pressure, socioeconomic change, urbanization, etc.)  develop suitable economic approaches to fulfil emerging needs regarding integrated management of water resources, aquatic environments and risks. The scientific research and public service support activities of this unit are aimed at:  developing innovative methods to study and assess—regarding their  Tracing experiment to characterize water transfers and assess the vulnerability of the Lez River hydrosystem (France). ©V. Leonardi
  17. 17. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 17 LEZ-GMU project—a study on the impact of global change on groundwater resources based on a case study of the Lez karstic aquifer The research project ‘Multiuse management of Mediterranean karstic aquifers–Lez River, its watershed and catchment area’ (LEZ-GMU), coordinated by the French Geological Survey (BRGM), involved a partnership with UR D3E/ NRE, UMR HSM, G-EAU,TETIS, the European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation (CERFACS) and Biotope, the ecological engineering consultant.This project was funded by Montpellier Agglomération, the Conseil Général de l’Hérault, the Agence de l’Eau Rhône Méditerranée Corse and BRGM. The aim of this project was to improve knowledge on the functioning of the Lez hydrosystem (Hérault, France) and the quality of the resource in an active management and global change setting. Hydrogeological models to reproduce the Lez catchment hydrodynamic were built for this project.They facilitated studies on the impact of global change on groundwater resources. Nine climate scenarios from the CERFACS SCRATCH 2010 project (fine-scale climate projections for France in the 21st century) were used.These scenarios indicated an increase in temperature and a slight decrease in rainfall by 2050. The performance of the karstic system was assessed for different extents of pumping with or without climate change.The findings indicated that climate change would result in an average 30% decrease in the annual recharge.This reduction would mainly occur in the autumn and spring periods and, to a lesser extent in winter. It would be observed through a decrease in the piezometry within the aquifer and result in a slight increase in the duration of the dry period in the Lez spring (+30 days on average compared to the reference period).The extraction scenarios showed a risk of greater water table depletion, but they also highlighted the possibility—while taking the uncertainties inherent to this type of approach into consideration—of increasing the current extraction volume, while maintaining a monthly average piezometric level above pump elevation. Contact: Jean-Christophe Maréchal, jc.marechal@brgm.fr  Impact of climate change on water resources. Comparative results of hydrogeological model simulations for the Lez spring when subjected to nine climate scenarios: for the present (blue) and for 2050 (red).Two variables; the piezometric level of the spring (in m NGF, i.e.in metres relative to the benchmark elevation for France) and its discharge rate (in l/s). Analysis and management of pollutant flows and natural and technological risks The Laboratoire de Génie de l’Environnement Industriel (UR LGEI – EMA) is one of the three laboratories of the École des Mines d’Alès (EMA), which in turn depends on the French Ministry of Industry. LGEI focuses on resource management, including ecosystems, hydrosystems, anthropogenic systems, as well as raw materials, i.e. fossil and mineral resources. These resources should be utilized in rational and responsible ways to ensure the sustainability of ecosystems and the production capacity of humankind. To meet these challenges, LGEI has developed a multidisciplinary approach on the following topics:  assessment of the chemical and ecological quality of water and effluents; development of treatment systems; integrated data processing, modelling) and design decision support tools for different stakeholders (local authorities, companies in charge of sanitation or drinking water purification). Regarding hydrosystem research, LGEI’s expertise is focused mainly on statistical modelling using formal neural networks in order to develop models for nonlinear and nonstationary systems. This choice raises questions regarding the validity of the models—built solely using data—when considering future changes that could arise as a result of climate change and extreme events. LGEI’s teams therefore carefully validate their models testing their performances with regard to the most intense events in the database (floods, drought). See an example of a project conducted by UR LGEI on page 38. ••• management of pollutant flows (industrial environments, water resources) according to a ‘territorial ecology’ type of approach  understanding and spatializing hydrological processes in catchment basins; understanding and modelling karstic or fractured aquifers for sustainable water resource management  finally, natural and technological hazard analysis and management. LGEI’s research activities are focused mainly on water resource management in connection with anthropogenic and climatic forcing. To address the societal demand (catchment basin managers, water agencies), the unit conducts studies on different types of contamination (persistent pollutants, toxins, algal blooms) in an effort to gain further insight into the status (chemical and ecological) of water bodies and their potential change patterns. LGEI intends to develop integrated systems (sensors, sensor networks, ©J.-C.Maréchal piezometriclevel(m) dischargerate(l/s) Max/Mini reference scenari Max/Mini future scenario Mean multi-model reference Mean multi-model future Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  18. 18. Understanding plant responses to water stress to enhance performance in a climate change setting Because of global change and the growing world demand for food, it is crucial to clearly understand how plants take up and utilize soil water and especially how cereal crops tolerate and react to water stress.These issues are studied through two research projects conducted by UMR B&PMP (see page 81). The HydroRoot project aims to boost our fundamental understanding of root water transport.This will provide an integrated view of roots by taking the hydraulic properties of tissues and the root architecture into account, and by explaining how these components are molecularly controlled by physiological and environmental parameters.Through the strong physiological and genetic components of this project, this type of research could also have an impact on plant improvement programmes geared towards generating plants featuring optimised water use and stress responses. Leaf rolling resulting from leaf epidermal contractile cell movements is an adaptive response to water deficit that occurs in many cereals. The aim of the LeafRoll project is to identify molecular mechanisms responsible for turgor and contractility variations in these cells by focusing specifically on transmembrane ion fluxes. Molecular, physiological and agronomic analyses will be conducted on a panel of wheat cultivars showing various degrees of drought tolerance and on lines with modified expression of genes coding for ion transport systems.The studies will assess the role of these genes in leaf rolling and wheat productivity under water deficit conditions. This project is being developed in collaboration with the Ecology and Environment laboratory of the Faculté des Sciences Ben M’sik in Casablanca (Morocco), as part of a Hubert Curien Partnership of the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Contacts: Christophe Maurel, christophe.maurel@supagro.inra.fr Anne-Aliénor Very, anne-alienor.very@supagro.inra.fr For further information: www1.montpellier.inra.fr/ibip/bpmp  Leaf rolling in durum wheat plants under drought conditions.This decreases the leaf area exposed to sunlight,thus reducing tissue heating and water loss by transpiration.  Schematic diagram of water flow paths in a plant root during its radial transfer from the soil to vascular tissues. Y.Boursiac©B&PMP S. Mahboub © Université de Casablanca Through field measurements combined with modelling, the Assessment of Annual Cropping Systems team of the AIDA research unit (see page 74) is further assessing the effects of conventional and innovative agricultural practices on the agricultural and environmental performance of crops.This assessment focuses especially on the impact of cropping practices on water usage. In some situations, the enhanced infiltration and reduction in evaporation achieved by leaving a mulch layer on the soil surface enhances cereal crop yields without increasing the interannual variability. However, in other situations (generally more humid conditions), the increased water infiltration only results in increased drainage but has little effect on crop yields, even though this practice contributes to reducing erosion problems. Greater representation of these phenomena in crop models enables better ex ante quantification of the potential of innovative techniques designed to enhance adaptation to future climate change.These studies are currently being carried out as part of the Agroecology-Based Aggradation-Conservation Agriculture (ABACO) and Environmental and Social Changes in Africa: Past, Present and Future (ESCAPE) projects.The EU-funded ABACO project aims to evaluate and implement conservation agriculture and agroecology based technical solutions that are also designed to reduce soil degradation and food insecurity.The ANR-funded ESCAPE project assesses the vulnerability of rural societies in sub-Saharan African regions to climate and environmental changes, while studying adaptation strategies to reduce this vulnerability. The AIDA research unit is contributing to this project particularly by assessing the potential impact of future climate change on cropping systems. These projects are being carried out in countries such as Burkina Faso, Madagascar and Senegal, and the scientific questions to which AIDA teams are proposing answers (via an in silico test on technical and organizational changes) are, for instance,“Could economic risks for farms be reduced through crop insurance assistance based on meteorological analyses?” Contact: François Affholder, francois.affholder@cirad.fr For further information: www.locean-ipsl.upmc.fr/~ESCAPE Crop water balance and climate change Climate change & resources, territories and development  Crop residue left in the field. F.Baudron©CIRAD Climatechange:impactandadaptation 18
  19. 19. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 19 to determine how a society in its environment, i.e. an SES, perceives given disturbances. This involves studying, through a set of concepts and tools, how the society prepares and reacts. GREEN’s research includes analyses and factors involved in modifying nature-society interactions within SES—changes in viewpoints and/ or knowledge and/or practices, power games, network mobilization, socioeconomic and environmental processes. ••• (watersheds, forest ecosystems, etc.). It spurs cross-disciplinary analyses on biodiversity, land, land- use changes, arbitration between conservation and usage, as well as access and types of appropriation of natural renewable resources. The unit conducts research on all continents in association with many scientific communities in developed and developing countries. Although its headquarters are in Montpellier (France), the team is highly involved in studies in West Africa, the Indian Ocean region, Southeast Asia, and more recently in Central America and Brazil. One of the unit’s research priorities concerns adaptation and transformation. The aim is Socioecosystem adaptation and transformation Since 1994, the research unit Management of Renewable Resources and Environment (UR GREEN – CIRAD) has been investigating—in a systemic and interdisciplinary way—the role of ecosystems and the environment as a development sustainability factor. The unit provides knowledge, methods and tools to gain insight into ecological and social systems (i.e. socioecosystems [SES]). It focuses on different resources (water, forests, land, fisheries, etc.), which it studies on different scales—from village to region and sometimes to the country level, from areas delineated by social dynamics (pioneer front areas) to ecosystems EcoAdapt project—climate change adaptation for local development The EcoAdapt project has been funded for a 4-year period (beginning in January 2012) by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme to promote integrated collaboration between science and civil society to benefit ecosystems and inhabitants in three areas in Latin America. EcoAdapt hopes to show that scientists working together with civil society organizations (CSOs) can help design strong socially and technically based strategies for adaptation to climate change. CSOs provide knowledge through their work in the field and with local communities, while researchers provide knowledge acquired through their social and biophysical science research. This work of combining different types of knowledge and collectively generating new knowledge is the real challenge addressed by EcoAdapt to support communities living in the project’s focus areas: Jujuy Model Forest in Argentina, Chiquitano Model Forest in Bolivia, and Alto Malleco Model Forest in Chile. EcoAdapt considers that adaptation to climate change cannot be done individually, so collective efforts are needed to bring together organizations with complementary skills and fields of activity.The project consortium includes five CSOs and four research partners, including UR GREEN and UMR ART-Dev. Local stakeholders involved in the project are from model forest platforms (universities, national agencies, producers’ associations, community councils, private operators, etc.). Internationally, the project also has connections with the Latin American network of climate change offices (RIOCC* ) and with the Ibero-American Model Forest Network (IAMFN). The experience of the EcoAdapt project in creating adaptation plans will be utilized to benefit other areas where water-related conflicts could be worsened by the increasing impacts of climate change.To this end, EcoAdapt is using existing networks while strengthening and developing them so that the results are disseminated and shared, with new ideas also being introduced into the project. Contact : Grégoire Leclerc, gregoire.leclerc@cirad.fr For further information: www.ecoadapt.eu * Red Iberoamericana de Oficinas de Cambio Climático.  Measuring climate parameters in the Jujuy Model Forest in Argentina. ©C.E.Manchego
  20. 20. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 20 Spatialization of environmental knowledge —for monitoring tropical areas vulnerable to global change Founded in 2011, the joint research unit L’espace au service du développement (UMR ESPACE- DEV – IRD, UM, UR, UAG) conducts research (fundamental, technological and applied) on decision processes in favour of sustainable development in the developing world, at local, regional and global scales. By focusing on environmental monitoring and renewable resource management, the UMR investigates issues regarding the spatialization of environmental knowledge. The aim is to provide decision support in peripheral tropical regions that are vulnerable to global change. UMR ESPACE-DEV has broad ranging skills and knowledge in research, training, expertise and service. on fragmentation processes and on the vulnerability and viability of territories. The AIMS team implements remote sensing, direct field observations and stakeholder surveys in its research.  The Modelling, Knowledge Engineering and Spatial Data Analysis (MICADO) team is specialized in knowledge modelling and digital and symbolic data in the environment field. The data is derived especially from remote sensing and in situ observations. The following five themes are investigated in a cross-disciplinary manner by the three teams:  ontology of spatiotemporal systems  integrated study of the continent- coast-ocean continuum  observatory of environmental, territorial and landscape changes  environment, societies and sanitary hazards  co-viability of social and ecological systems. See and example of a project conducted by UMR ESPACE-DEV on page 65. The unit consists of three research units:  The Spatial Observation of the Environment (OSE) team conducts research ranging from satellite data management to the analysis of data flows and their salient features, with the aim of highlighting the environmental dynamics. From Earth observation data, the main activity of the OSE team is to contribute to gaining insight into interactions that regulate tropical systems, especially so-called terrestrial, oceanic and anthropogenic ‘tropical landscapes’, as well as physical, biological and human processes that they host.  The Integrated Approach to Environments and Societies (AIMS) team studies the dynamics, functioning and co-viability of systems (ecosystems and sociosystems) in fragilized environments (islands, coasts, forests, oases, etc.) under the stress of global change. It focuses Ressources, territoires et développement © 2009 CNES; BD KALIDEOS ISLE-REUNION; Distribution SPOT Image SPOT 4 image (19/05/2009),Réunion: false-colour image (MIR/PIR/R), CNES KALIDEOS programme. Climate change & resources, territories and development
  21. 21. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 21 including developing methods for information extraction from spatio- temporal data;  Uses of spatial information for multi-scale development (UsIG). Assessing and improving the relevance of geo information according to stakeholder needs, developing methods for turning data into useful and used information, monitoring and evaluating the use of this information and its impact on actors, management and territorial governance. The research is supported by the Montpellier-based Remote Sensing Centre and the EQUIPEX-GEOSUD (Geoinformation for Sustainable Development) project. Through this project, the Remote Sensing Centre provides access to researchers and innovative satellite data companies, calculation resources, specialized software (image processing spatial analysis, geographical information, statistics, etc.), training facilities and hosting capabilities. ••• See an example of a project conducted by UMR TETIS on page 74. on agriculture, the environment, resources, territories, health, etc. On this basis, the unit devotes a major share of its activities to education, training, expertise and public policy support. The TETIS research unit is organised in four research teams: ATTOS, AMoS, SISO and UsIG  Data acquisition and remote sensing (ATTOS). Developing tools and methods for acquiring spatial data through satellite and airborne (drones, planes) remote sensing, and for extracting bio-physical information from remotely- sensed data;  Spatial analysis and modelling (AMoS). Focus on analyzing and modelling spatial structures and temporal dynamics of agro- environmental systems, developing spatial indicators for characterizing these systems, and evaluating uncertainties related to the data and models used;  Spatial Information Systems: (SISO). Design and implementation of information systems to address environmental and landscape management related issues, Spatial information for the monitoring and analysis of territories and ecosystems The structure of the joint research unit Spatial Information and Analysis for Territories and Ecosystems (TETIS – CIRAD, AgroParisTech, IRSTEA) includes two scientific dimensions, with one being thematic (territories and environment) and the other methodological (remote sensing and spatial information). These two priority areas define the unit’s research field—spatial information— and its mandate is outlined as, “the production of knowledge, tools and methods to gain greater insight into nature/society dynamics and interactions and to support stakeholders in the management of their territories and renewable natural resources (land, water, forests, biodiversity).” The unit implements an integrated approach regarding the spatial information chain, from its acquisition to treatment, including its management and use by stakeholders. Research is focused  LIDAR technology—useful, usable and used information. ©UMRTETIS LIDAR signal Amplitude Time/Distance Pulse emitted Backscattered wave form
  22. 22. Changes in governance and territorial and resource management in response to global change The joint research unit Governance, Risk, Environment, Development (UMR GRED — IRD, UPVM) focuses on relationships that societies overall, as well as individuals, have with the environment. It strives to address the following dual-sided question: how do new constraints and vulnerabilities modify the governance and management of territories and resources? Biodiversity conservation and rural system dynamics is the first line of research at GRED. Agricultural societies are hampered by the fragilization of ecosystems and conservation injunctions associated with the globalization of issues. These policies are nevertheless undergoing drastic changes. They are no longer considered independently of development and, moreover, biodiversity and climate change issues tend to overlap, which is a powers following the emergence of new territories or international regimes. This multiplicity of scales and stakeholders leads to the emergence of hybrid governance strategies and institutional pluralism situations, both of which are drivers of complementarities or —conversely—conflicts. The risks and vulnerability of societies and territories is the last line of research of GRED teams. So far, public efforts to strengthen resilience have been focused on risk prevention through the setting up of material and territorial infrastructures. They have recently turned towards supporting adaptation and resilience phenomenon in order to weigh the risks. However, the questions of the role of sociocultural factors in the vulnerability and that of the adaptation of social and cognitive structures have yet to be addressed. The aim now is to explain these interrelationships and the case of coastal and island areas is specifically targeted from this standpoint. ••• source of complementarities as well as contradictions. This pattern is illustrated by measures regarding the mitigation of impacts or adaptation to climate change with, for instance, carbon sequestration negotiations being focused at the tropical forest level. The result is that these new policies orient the representation of the forest and affect the vulnerability of communities and the ecosystem. The second line of research at GRED concerns the governance and management of resources and territories. These concepts are priorities for development policies and a strategic social issue, as illustrated by the conflicts and discrimination associated with territorial resource access. In this setting, special attention is paid to individual and collective strategies of the stakeholders involved. Being constrained by existing institutional frameworks, they adapt, circumvent or intervene to develop them. The question of governance scales thus seems crucial, along with the redistribution of decision-making  Decentralized resource governance. A training session as part of a community management study programme,bringing together teachers, researchers,students and members of a farmers’association.Maps and diagrams are used for mediation between stakeholder groups. © T. Ruf Climate change & resources, territories and developmentClimatechange:impactandadaptation 22
  23. 23. The Environmental Services and Uses of Rural Areas project (ANR SERENA) implemented by the research units GRED,ART-Dev, GREEN and METAFORT (AgroParisTech, IRSTEA, INRA,VetAgroSup) between 2009 and 2013 focused on issues related to the emergence of the ‘environmental service’ or ‘ecosystem service’ (ES) concept and its inclusion in public policy. The ES concept takes the productive function of ecosystems into account (e.g. carbon sequestration) as well as so-called cultural functions.The latter refer to educational and recreational roles of protected areas as well as the unique relationship between some societies and their environment.This identity aspect confers a heritage value to some practices or threatened natural landscapes and objects. ‘Payment for environmental services’ (PES) instruments illustrate this type of representation of nature-society relationships.Although the genealogy of the two concepts (ES and PES) was originally distinct, biodiversity conservation stakeholders now put them both simultaneously forward as a justification for economic incentives, nature preservation cost compensation and protected area funding.The role of these tools is to promote services provided by environment managers. Contributions are thus requested from resource users and ES beneficiaries. A comparison of three countries revealed the extent of dissemination of the concept and the marked differences in its application.  In Costa Rica, a country that has played a major role, the ES concept circulated through a forest policy launched in 1996. It reclassified as ‘PES’ a previous policy of financial support to forest properties that was partly funded by public subsidies backed by a tax on petroleum products and, more recently, on water.  In Madagascar, the concept was gradually introduced via international cooperation from the year 2000, with the aim of boosting public awareness on conservation and providing sustainable funding for New Protected Areas and community management of forests. Stakeholders of these projects then focused on carbon markets, biodiversity, water and tourism.  In France, the ES concept has yet to gain wide popularity. In conservation and biodiversity areas, it is currently being introduced through a biodiversity law. In agricultural policies, it is economic incentives, via regulation services rendered by farmers, which attract stakeholders’ attention regarding the new European policy. Application of the ES concept and its links with international issues (climate change, biodiversity conservation, sustainable water management, ecotourism) has been promoted by the environmental and forestry sectors in international arenas. PES are being developed in Costa Rica on a national scale, and in Madagascar on a more local scale (REDD+ pilot programmes, local water platforms, and conservation contracts drawn up by NGOs). Generally, the agricultural sector—and more generally rural development policies—have not yet appropriated this concept to a sufficient extent to be able to renew their practices and intervention tools. Some existing initiatives (ecotourism, environmental certifications) sometimes include the ES concept, but this is often just empty rhetoric used to justify their legitimacy. Contact: Philippe Meral, philippe.meral@ird.fr For further information: www.serena-anr.org SERENA project—ecosystem service issues  Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) pilot project. This project aims to reduce the conversion of natural forests into food crop production sites,responsible for GHG emissions (Ranomena,Fandriana-Vondrozo Forest Corridor (COFAV) New Protected Area in Madagascar). © G. Serpantié Climatechange:impactandadaptation 23
  24. 24. Climate change—a new constraint for stakeholders, resources and territories in development The joint research unit Actors, Resources and Territories in Development (UMR ART-Dev – CNRS, UPVM, CIRAD, UPVD, UM) develops research on the reconfiguration of territories from economic, political and social standpoints, while highlighting relationships between globalization and local dynamics. Its main research themes concern rural and urban territorial trajectories, the natural resource governance question, and other issues regarding mobility and circulation processes in the globalization setting. These themes are studied on the basis of territorial scales and public policies. The unit works on several continents an in many geographical and political settings with marked differences in terms of choices and levels of development. It is striving to promote this wealth through comparative approaches. Adaptation strategies may include setting up incentive economic mechanisms to encourage natural resource users to implement more sustainable practices. They thus accompany climate change policies (INVALUABLE and REDE CLIMAT projects). Research has also revealed that climate change adaptation is necessarily specific to the local setting and that there is no quick fix that could be universally applied anywhere and under any circumstances. As shown in the CIRCULEX project, the complementarity of the different types and levels of stakeholders (ranging from individuals to national and international decision-making bodies) is essential to ensure the proper design and success of these adaptation strategies and linkages between the different environmental issues (climate, biodiversity, water, desertification, etc.). Climate change—a factor responsible for environmental disturbances as well as socioeconomic and political tension—is a rising cross-cutting theme within the unit (‘Of lands and waters’, EcoAdapt and BLUEGRASS projects). The research teams are primarily seeking to understand and analyse these impacts by combining analyses on local, national and international scales. Climate change also places new constraints on natural resource management, including the risk of the emergence of conflicts regarding the distribution and appropriation of these resources. Besides these efforts to characterize and analyse climate change impacts, the unit’s research also assesses various current political, institutional, regulatory, technical and behavioural options to address climate change challenges. They include climate change mitigation initiatives (human interventions to reduce sources of or increases in GHG sinks, as well as climate change adaptation strategies (modifications in natural and human systems). Of lands and waters Around the globe smallholder farmers are coping with major disruptive changes that are unfolding simultaneously. Rapid changes in land tenure and water management practices are now overlapped with climate change processes. For instance, uncertainties regarding rainfall or the increased likelihood of extreme weather events coexist with other uncertainties on the future of land tenure or the maintenance of local water management customs. Hence, farmers’ strategies do not simply address climate change related problems, but rather a set of disturbances they are forced to cope with at once. As the ‘Of lands and waters’ project specifically illustrates, and in which UMR ART-Dev participates, farmers develop their own strategies to manage these combined uncertainties.This project explores ways in which the relationship with land and water is affected by these global changes on very local to global scales. Based on eight case studies involving long-term field surveys in Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique, France, Spain, Nepal, Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories, this project assesses the experience of local agricultural stakeholders in order to gain insight into their perception of issues affecting them and the rationale behind their coping strategies.The project is also focused on processes that underlie these issues on regional, national and global scales. This scientific research clearly differentiates locally developed strategies that are effective from those that, conversely, induce vulnerabilities.These latter strategies are quite logical from the standpoint of producers on the local level, but they could induce a vulnerability for farmers when they encounter stakeholders active at national or global levels, e.g. foreign investors or development support organizations. Contact: Julie Trottier, julie.trottier@univ-montp3.fr Climate change & resources, territories and development  Irrigation canal in Lebanon. F.Molle©IRD Climatechange:impactandadaptation 24
  25. 25. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 25 support public decisions on climate change adaptation policies (risk of inland and coastal flooding) and to identify awareness and training needs regarding governance. Since 2014, several LAMETA researchers have been participating in a multidisciplinary ANR project entitled ‘Modelling to accompany stakeholders towards adaptation of forestry and agroforestry systems to global changes’ (MACACC, see page 77). This project aims to develop various global change adaptive management scenarios and to test producers’ capacities to adopt them in tropical and temperate regions worldwide.  of research projects with a common thematic field—sustainable development and resource management. Most of these research studies concern quantitative and qualitative water management (watersheds and coastal areas), as well as agroenvironmental schemes, a conventional area of expertise and scientific collaboration in Montpellier. Several research programmes (ANR-MISEEVA: French National Research Agency–Marine Inundation Hazard Exposure and Social, Economic and Environmental Vulnerability Assessment; LITEAU SOLTER, or Sustainable Coastal Management–Territorial Solidarity and Strategies for Coastal Flooding Resilience; Alternalive Fondation de France) are focused on coastal hazards (erosion and coastal flooding) related to the sea level rise due to climate change. The aim of these studies is to inform and Sustainable development and management of resources from an economics standpoint The Laboratoire Montpelliérain d’Économie Théorique et Appliquée (UMR LAMETA – INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, UM, CNRS) is a general- interest economics research unit. It encompasses a broad range of theoretical and methodological frameworks—applied econometrics, behavioural economics, experimental economics, public economics, the history of economic thought and philosophy, microeconomics, socioeconomics and game theory. The unit conducts a set of studies structured around several priority topics. The ‘Biodiversity, ecosystem services and natural resource’ priority line includes a broad range ACFAO: for sustainable forest management and climate change adaptation in Sudanian-Sahelian communities The overall aim of the Forest and Adaptation to Climate Change in West Africa (ACFAO) project is to contribute to the development of ecosystem-based adaptation policies and projects to face climate change in the Sudanian-Sahelian region.This involves strengthening sustainable forest and landscape management and enhancing the coping capacities of the most vulnerable social groups, while improving their livelihoods, via ecosystem goods and services sustainably supplied by woodlands and parklands. This project includes five main components:  analysing forest and adaptation policies (and their linkages) by fostering the involvement of regional, subnational and national stakeholders in planning and discussions and identifying opportunities to influence these policies  analysing the current and future vulnerability of communities living on pilot sites through a participatory, multiscale and integrative approach, while focusing on links between ecosystem dynamics and the reduction of this vulnerability  formulating adaptation strategies that take ecosystem services into account and that mainstream local community strategies  informing stakeholders involved in the project (policymakers, experts, practitioners and local operators) and building their capacities  disseminating information and creating—within and outside of the countries involved in the project—networks of stakeholders concerned about climate change adaptation and ecosystem services in dryland regions. This 4-year project with a €3.9 million budget, in which UR B&SEF (see page 35) participates, is coordinated by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), with cofunding from the French Global Environment Facility (FFEM) and various other sources. Contact: Denis Gautier, denis.gautier@cirad.fr For further information: www.ffem.fr/accueil/projets/projets_ffem-par-secteur/Projetschangement-climatique/CZZ1603-AfriqueOuest-ForetAdaptation-ACFAO  A forest stand in Senegal at the forest-cropland interface. ©F.Affholder
  26. 26. © M. Broin Climatechange:impactandadaptation 26
  27. 27. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 27 Climate change & biodiversity and ecosystems cientific studies conducted over the recent decades—as widely covered in the latest IPCC report—have revealed modifications in the range, seasonal activities, migratory movements, abundance and interspecies interactions in many terrestrial, freshwater and marine species as a result of climate change presently under way.The nature and extent of future disruptions are hard to foresee because of the limited time scale within which they occur, the diverse range of biological responses, as well as the complexity of species-species and species-environment interactions. One certainty is that these phenomena are unprecedented within such a short period in the Earth’s history. Acquiring knowledge on the future vulnerability, exposure and response capacity of natural systems interlinked with societies is a major challenge for science due to the large number of factors involved and their complex interactions.The issues are very broadly addressed by research teams working in Languedoc-Roussillon (France) through multidisciplinary studies on changes taking place in the living world, on the evolution of biodiversity and ecosystems, and on adaptations to climate change—all of this on different temporal (short- to long-term), spatial and life (genome to ecosystem) scales. This research concerns both ‘model’ organisms and the specificities of Mediterranean and tropical environments. It is partially supported by established observatories (in terrestrial and marine environments) and leading-edge research platforms (Ecotron, MEDIMEER, European Marine Biological Resource Centre). This chapter provides an overview of the work of regional research units that are studying the impact of climate change on continental and marine ecosystems from various standpoints. The research seeks to gain insight into the dynamics and functioning of biodiversity (through field monitoring, with the support of OSU OREME, and experiments in controlled conditions, combined with theoretical and modelling approaches).They also aim to foresee the biological impacts of global change (via scenarios), anticipate changes in ecosystem services and identify tailored management strategies for species and the environment. Philippe Jarne (UMR CEFE) & Philippe Lebaron (OOB) S
  28. 28. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 28 Biodiversity and continental ecosystems Main teams European Ecotron of Montpellier (CNRS) 7 scientists LabEx CeMEB Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement et de la Biodiversité (UM/UPVM/Montpellier SupAgro/CNRS/IRD/ INRA/CIRAD/EPHE/Inrap/UNîmes) 630 scientists OSU OREME Observatoire de Recherche Méditerranéen de l’Environnement (UM/CNRS/IRD) 10 scientists UMRAMAP Botany and Computational PlantArchitecture (CIRAD/CNRS/INRA/IRD/UM) 54 scientists UMR CEFE Centre for Functional and Evolutionary Ecology (CNRS/UM/UPVM/EPHE/ Montpellier SupAgro/IRD/INRA) 86 scientists …continued on page 31 substantial amount of the research conducted on biodiversity and continental ecosystems is pooled within LabEx CeMEB.The research approaches implemented draw from a broad range of disciplines (ecology, population biology, botany, genetics, physiology, computer science, etc.).The aim is to study ecosystem dynamics and responses to climate change in natural and pseudo-natural environments—as well exemplified by research carried out at the Experimental Site of Puéchabon and in the low wetlands of the Ain river valley (France). Studies are also carried out in controlled environments, e.g. in enclosed chambers at Ecotron, greenhouses or animal research facilities.These approaches are also focused on species adaptation mechanisms to their environment from genotypic, phenotypic and biogeographical viewpoints.This includes, for instance, simulation of the range of several tree species in relation to climate change forecasts (EvoRange project). The studies concern microorganisms, plants and animals in all ecosystems (terrestrial, aquatic, soil) from the Equator to the two poles, with emphasis on Mediterranean and tropical ecosystems.These are investigated regarding their relationship with societies in order to identify tailored management strategies (e.g. REDD and INFORMED projects). Species and their communities are studied in terms of their diversity, structure, organization and functioning. Mathematical and computer representations of organs, plants, populations, landscapes and processes are developed for analysis, prediction and simulation. Soils are the focus of special attention as a nutrient substrate for plants and as a habitat hosting a wealth of biodiversity of organisms essential for biogeochemical cycles. Ecological engineering methods based, for instance, on plant-microorganism symbiosis, and targeted for restoring degraded environments, are also studied. One of the community’s strong features is that human-environment relationships are explicitly taken into account through combined human and social science approaches.This includes studies on ecosystem services and assessments of the capacities of ecosystems as carbon sources or sinks with a view to mitigating the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sophie Boutin (LabEx CeMEB) & Philippe Jarne (UMR CEFE) A
  29. 29. Climatechange:impactandadaptation 29 Knowledge sharing and transfer on biodiversity and ecosystems in a global change setting Accredited as an ‘Excellence Laboratory’ (LabEx) by the ANR ‘Investissement d’Avenir 2011- 2019’ programme, the Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement et de la Biodiversité (LabEx CeMEB; headed by UM, UPVM, Montpellier SupAgro, CNRS, IRD, INRA, CIRAD, EPHE, INRAP, UNîmes) is a federative structure grouping eight research units (AMAP, CBGP, CEFE, Eco&Sols, Ecotron, ISEM, LAMETA, MIVEGEC). CeMEB draws up common strategies on its research areas in close collaboration with local and regional partners, including the Observatoire des sciences de l’univers (OSU) OREME, DiPEE de Montpellier, the Comité technique d’établissement (CTE) B3E of the Montpellier University and other LabEx* . It also undertakes research support missions (PhD, postdoctoral), scientific coordination (organization The LabEx CeMEB project proposes:  to set up a centre of biodiversity expertise and knowledge to meet growing world demand for interventions by the research community on biodiversity issues for schools, the general public and in more specialized areas. Another aim is to enhance the expertise and support capacities to benefit various stakeholders such as decision makers, planners, managers and public authorities  to create new Bachelor’s and Master’s training courses, and to open PhD courses on management and the economic environment so as to facilitate their vocational integration. ••• * DiPEE: Dispositifs de Partenariat en Écologie et Environnement; B3E: Biologie Écologie Évolution Environnement. and financing of workshops, meetings and participatory science programmes), training (public professionals, teachers and future secondary school teachers, etc.), knowledge transfer and development (ecology and biodiversity web portal, participation in the Assises de la Biodiversité 2014 conference, etc.). LabEx CeMEB supports research in the following areas:  biodiversity, ecology and evolutionary biology dynamics  functional role of biodiversity and ecosystem services  health-environment  socioeconomics of the environment  biological impacts of global change. The objectives are:  to understand biodiversity dynamics and functioning by combining observations, experimentations and modelling  to predict the biological impacts of global change via scenarios  to anticipate changes in ecological services and human societies. Vegetative bud burst and blossoming of female larch flowers,phenological stages monitored at the Observatoire des saisons (www.obs-saisons.fr). Phenological events—flexible in response to environmental conditions and able to quickly adapt under the effects of global warming—are major adaptive traits in trees (which have a long generation time).This explains a substantial part of their geographical distribution. © E. Gritti

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