Florida Soils Presentation

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Florida Soils Presentation

  1. 1. SOIL SCIENTISTS PERFORMING WETLAND DELINEATIONS<br />Mark S. McClain<br />October 19, 2009<br />
  2. 2. Objective<br />The objective of this lecture is to examine the importance of having an adequate knowledge of soil science to be able to perform wetland delineations.<br />A brief history of the regulations relative to jurisdictional waters, wetlands, and delineation procedures will be covered.<br />A Florida case study will be presented showing the importance of soil knowledge in wetland delineations.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  3. 3. Why was the topic of wetland delineations selected?<br />Wetland delineations are an important application of environmental soil science.<br />Wetland delineations are a meaningful opportunity that soil scientists should take advantage of as a part of their careers.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  4. 4. The Clean Water Act<br />The Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972 is commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA).<br />The basis of the CWA was enacted in 1948 and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, but the Act was significantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. The "Clean Water Act" became the Act's common name with amendments in 1977.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  5. 5. The Clean Water Act<br />The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters.<br /> 33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq. (1972)<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  6. 6. The Clean Water Act 404(b)(1) Guidelines<br />Under section 404(b)(1) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344), these Guidelines are applicable to the specification of disposal sites for discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  7. 7. What are Waters of the U.S.?<br />All waters which are currently used, or were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide.<br />All interstate waters including interstate wetlands. <br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  8. 8. What are Waters of the U.S.?<br />All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent and ephemeral streams), mudflats, sandflats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds, the use, degradation or destruction of which could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters. <br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  9. 9. Wetland Delineation Manual<br />The US Army Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual became effective in 1987 with revisions made in 1991, 1992, and 1997.<br />The US Army Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual is used as the legal and technical means of evaluating and delineating wetlands in the field.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  10. 10. Baseline Information<br />Aerial Photographs<br />USGS Topographic Map<br />USFWS Wetland Inventory Map<br />USDA-NRCS Soil Survey Map<br />Soil Data Mart Hydric Soils List<br />Develop a Geographic Information System (GIS) from this information and later add GPS locations of the wetland delineation and sampling points.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  11. 11. Jurisdictional Wetlands<br />Jurisdictional wetlands must have all three criteria:<br />Hydrophytic Vegetation<br />Hydric Soils<br />Wetland Hydrology<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  12. 12. Hydrophytic Vegetation<br />Hydrophytic vegetation is defined herein as the sum total of macrophytic plant life that occurs in areas where the frequency and duration of inundation or soil saturation produce permanently or periodically saturated soils of sufficient duration to exert a controlling influence on the plant species present. <br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  13. 13. Wetland Indicator Categories<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  14. 14. Hydric Soils<br />Definition: Hydric soils are those soils that are saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during the growing season for the development of anaerobic conditions in the upper part. The anaerobic conditions in a hydric soil favor the growth and regeneration of hydrophytic vegetation. <br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  15. 15. Hydric Soils<br />Must have conditions suitable for the formation of redoximorphic features. The soil conditions necessary for reduction are:<br />Soil<br />Water<br />Anaerobic conditions<br />Microorganisms<br />Energy Source (i.e., organic matter)<br />c 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  16. 16. Guide for Hydric Soil Determinations<br />Field Indicators of Hydric Soils in the United States (Hurt and Vasilas, 2006)<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  17. 17. Wetland Hydrology<br />Periodically inundated or have soils saturated to the surface at some time during the growing season for sufficient duration to develop hydric soils and support vegetation typically adapted for life in periodically anaerobic soil conditions.<br />The presence of water has an overriding influence on characteristics of vegetation and soils due to anaerobic and reducing conditions.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  18. 18. Jurisdictional Wetlands<br />A jurisdictional wetland must have all three criteria:<br />Hydrophytic Vegetation<br />Hydric Soils<br />Wetland Hydrology<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  19. 19. Three Criteria for Wetland Delineations<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  20. 20. Delineation Boundaries by Soil Scientists and Biologists<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  21. 21. Delineation Boundaries by Soil Scientists and Biologists<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />Biologists emphasize the extent and taxonomy of plants and the presence of indicator plants.<br />Soil Scientists emphasize the geomorphic landform, soil morphology, soil classification, soil hydrology, and plant identification.<br />
  22. 22. Florida Case Study<br />Cecil Field (Old Navy Base) in Duval County, Florida<br />Soil transect and wetland delineation of sandy poorly drained soils (somewhat poorly drained inclusions mapped as Albany fine sand) to very poorly drained muck soils<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  23. 23. © 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />Duval County, Florida<br />
  24. 24. Longitudinal Cross-Section of Landform<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />g<br />g<br />
  25. 25. Site #1 Vegetation<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br /><ul><li>There is >60% hydrophytic vegetation, therefore the criterion is met.</li></li></ul><li>Site #1 Soils<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  26. 26. Site #1 Hydric Soil Indicators<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />This soil appears to be hydric because of the low chroma colors in the upper portion of the profile.<br />Does not meet the criteria for:<br />S6. Stripped Matrix <br />S7. Dark Surface<br />No other hydric soil indicators<br />Therefore this soil is not hydric.<br />
  27. 27. Site #1 Hydrology<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />Does this site have wetland hydrology?<br />Field Observations:<br />Depth of Surface Water: Not applicable<br />Depth of Free Water in Pit: >20 inches<br />Depth to Saturated Soil: >20 inches<br />
  28. 28. Site #1 Hydrology Graphic<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />Soil Pit<br />Depth of inundation: absent <br />Surface Inundation<br />Soil Surface <br />Depth to saturation: >20”<br />Saturation <br />Depth to water: >20” <br />
  29. 29. Site #1 Wetland Hydrology Indicators<br />Primary Indicators:<br />None<br />Secondary Indicators (2 or more required):<br />FAC-Neutral Test<br />Therefore this site does not have wetland hydrology.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  30. 30. Is Site #1 a Jurisdictional Wetland?<br />A jurisdictional wetland must have all three criteria:<br />Hydrophytic Vegetation? Yes<br />Hydric Soils? No<br />Wetland Hydrology? No<br />Site #1 is not a jurisdictional wetland.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  31. 31. Site #2 Vegetation<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br /><ul><li>There is >80% hydrophytic vegetation, therefore the criterion is met.</li></li></ul><li>Site #2 Soils<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  32. 32. Site #2 Hydric Soil Indicators<br />This soil appears to be hydric because of the low chroma colors in the upper portion of the profile.<br />Meets the criteria for:<br />S6. Stripped Matrix<br />S7. Dark Surface<br />Therefore this soil is hydric.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  33. 33. Site #2 Hydrology<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />Does this site have wetland hydrology?<br />Field Observations:<br />Depth of Surface Water: Not applicable<br />Depth of Free Water in Pit: 12 inches<br />Depth to Saturated Soil: 6 inches<br />
  34. 34. Site #2 Hydrology Graphic<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />Soil Pit<br />Depth of inundation: absent <br />Surface Inundation<br />Soil Surface <br />Depth to saturation: 6” <br />Saturation <br />Depth to water: 12” <br />Water Level <br />
  35. 35. Site #2 Wetland Hydrology Indicators<br />Primary Indicators:<br />Saturated in Upper 12 inches<br />Secondary Indicators (2 or more required):<br />FAC-Neutral Test<br />Therefore this site does have wetland hydrology.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  36. 36. Is Site #2 a Jurisdictional Wetland?<br />A jurisdictional wetland must have all three criteria:<br />Hydrophytic Vegetation? Yes<br />Hydric Soils? Yes<br />Wetland Hydrology? Yes<br />Jurisdictional Wetland? Yes<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  37. 37. Site #3 Vegetation<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br /><ul><li>There is 100% hydrophytic vegetation, therefore the criterion is met.</li></li></ul><li>Site #3 Soils<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  38. 38. Site #3 Hydric Soil Indicators<br />This soil appears to be hydric because of the low chroma colors in the upper portion of the profile. <br />Meets the criteria for:<br />S7. Dark Surface<br />A7. 5 cm Mucky Mineral<br />Therefore this soil is hydric.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  39. 39. Site #3 Wetland Hydrology Indicators<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />Does this site have wetland hydrology?<br />Field Observations:<br />Depth of Surface Water: Evidence of inundation<br />Depth of Free Water in Pit: 2 inches<br />Depth to Saturated Soil: 0 inches<br />
  40. 40. Site #3 Hydrology Graphic<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />Soil Pit<br />Depth of inundation: evidence present <br />Surface Inundation<br />Depth to saturation: 0” <br />Soil Surface <br />Depth to water: 2” <br />Saturation <br />Water Level <br />
  41. 41. Site #3 Wetland Hydrology Indicators<br />Primary Indicators:<br />Inundated<br />Saturated in Upper 12 inches<br />Water Marks<br />Drift Lines<br />Sediment Deposits<br />Drainage Patterns in Wetlands<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  42. 42. Site #3 Wetland Hydrology Indicators<br />Secondary Indicators (2 or more required):<br />Oxidized Root Channels<br />Water-Stained Leaves<br />Local Soil Survey Data<br />FAC-Neutral Test<br />Therefore this site does have wetland hydrology.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  43. 43. Is Site #3 a Jurisdictional Wetland?<br />A jurisdictional wetland must have all three criteria:<br />Hydrophytic Vegetation? Yes<br />Hydric Soils? Yes<br />Wetland Hydrology? Yes<br />Jurisdictional Wetland? Yes<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  44. 44. Wetland Delineation Summary<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  45. 45. Wetland Delineation Perspectives<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br /> g<br />
  46. 46. Conclusion<br />The wetland delineation regulations can be difficult to navigate.<br />A thorough knowledge of soil science is essential to perform accurate wetland delineations.<br />Soil Scientists are trained to properly understand and interpret soil morphology and soil hydrology.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  47. 47. Conclusion<br />It is imperative that the soil scientist doing the delineation have an adequate knowledge of botany or consult with a botanist.<br />When the delineation of hydrophytic vegetation is over-emphasized as compared to the extent of hydric soils, the wetland delineation is typically exaggerated.<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />
  48. 48. Opportunities for Soil Scientists<br />Results of NSCSS Professional Practice Survey: Who is the Professional Soil Consultant and What Do They Want? Source: Joseph Schuster in Soil Profiles © 2009 VOLUME XVII, NUMBER 3: September 2009 Page 2<br />© 2009 Mark S. McClain<br />

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