 Diluter is a volatile solvent, used to dilute the

Whitener(white ink-correction fluid).
 It’s main components are Petr...
 Diluter abuse is prevalent among street teenagers

and working youngsters.
 Teenagers start using solvents to gain entr...
 Sniffing - direct inhalation from a container or

piece of clothing sprayed with the substance.
 Huffing - holding a so...
 Young people abuse volatile solvents(Diluter) by

deliberately inhaling available vapours 15–20 times
over 10-15 minutes...
 Toluene, a common solvent in thinner and paint,

increases opiate receptors in the Nucleus
Accumbens - a key brain area ...
 Inhaling high levels of toluene in a short time may

cause light-headedness, nausea, or sleepiness. It can
also cause un...
 At low concentration (500-4000ppm) transient

euphoria and disinhibition make abusers prone to risk
taking and accidents...
 Sudden sniffing death is the most common







cause. Even first-time experimental users are at risk
of sudden snif...
Diluter addiction
Diluter addiction
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Diluter addiction

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This presentation is on the addiction on whitener-diluter(toluene).
explanation on diluter, method of inhaling, mechanism of action, SIDE EFFECTS.

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Diluter addiction

  1. 1.  Diluter is a volatile solvent, used to dilute the Whitener(white ink-correction fluid).  It’s main components are Petrol and Toluene.  Toluene is a clear, water insoluble liquid with the typical smell of Paint Thinners.  It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, i.e., one in which a single hydrogen atom from a group of six atoms from the benzene molecule has been replaced by a univalent group, in this case CH3. As such, its IUPAC systematic name is methylbenzene.
  2. 2.  Diluter abuse is prevalent among street teenagers and working youngsters.  Teenagers start using solvents to gain entry into a gang, and occasionally as experimentation.  Its use in a college student is unusual. But this may be a developing pattern indicating spread of the habit into middle class homes.  Most adolescents are one-time or short-term users. Those who abuse inhalants persistently usually have conduct disorders.
  3. 3.  Sniffing - direct inhalation from a container or piece of clothing sprayed with the substance.  Huffing - holding a soaked cloth over the nose or mouth to increase the concentration of vapours.  Bagging - breathing from a paper or plastic bag containing the volatile substance to further increase the concentration
  4. 4.  Young people abuse volatile solvents(Diluter) by deliberately inhaling available vapours 15–20 times over 10-15 minutes. This results in concentrations of up to 10000ppm as against the industrial standard of 50-100ppm.  Inhaled organic solvents like toluene cross from the blood into the brain within minutes. In the brain cells solvents act on specific receptors (NMDA and GABA) to produce effects similar to those of alcohol.
  5. 5.  Toluene, a common solvent in thinner and paint, increases opiate receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens - a key brain area associated with the reward system and the experience of pleasure.  Toluene enhances dopamine release in the Nucleus Accumbens.  Inhalation of toluene in low to moderate levels can cause tiredness, confusion, weakness, drunken-type actions, memory loss, nausea, loss of appetite, and hearing and color vision loss. These symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped.
  6. 6.  Inhaling high levels of toluene in a short time may cause light-headedness, nausea, or sleepiness. It can also cause unconsciousness, and even death.  Toluene is, however, much less toxic than benzene, and has, as a consequence, largely replaced it as an aromatic solvent in chemical preparation. For example, benzene is a known carcinogen, whereas toluene has very little carcinogenic potential.
  7. 7.  At low concentration (500-4000ppm) transient euphoria and disinhibition make abusers prone to risk taking and accidents.  At higher concentrations (6000-15000ppm) dizziness, sleepiness, slurred speech, blurred vision and headaches appear.  Users appear confused, unbalanced, or begin responding to hallucinations. Higher doses result in seizures, coma and cardiopulmonary arrest .
  8. 8.  Sudden sniffing death is the most common     cause. Even first-time experimental users are at risk of sudden sniffing death as a result of heart rhythm abnormalities especially if the user is startled or agitated. Accidental injury as a result of impulsive risk taking and impaired motor skills while intoxicated. Suicide accounts for up to 40% of inhalantrelated deaths. Suffocation and burns from exploding solvents. First-time users are also likely to die, perhaps because they are inexperienced at this dangerous pastime.
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