Structure of RNA


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In this ppt presentation, what actually RNA is? is explained with its structure and function.

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Structure of RNA

  1. 1. Structure of RNA Made by :- Ribonucleic Acid Shivang Patel 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. Discovery of RNA 3. Structure of RNA 4. The Nucleotide: RNA 2. What is RNA? 5. Shapes of RNA 6. Types of RNA? 7. Difference between DNA & RNA? 2
  3. 3. Discovery of RNA  Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher (1844– 1895) in 1869 separated the nucleus from the other parts of the cell and isolated phosphorus– containing nucleic acid.  It was later found that there were two kinds of nucleic acids  One type of nucleic acid was obtained from animal glands and later called DNA  the other type, obtained from yeast cells, was called RNA. 3
  4. 4. Discovery of RNA  In the 1940s biochemists realized that both DNA and RNA are present in all living cells.  DNA is present only in the nucleus of the cell, RNA is found in both the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm.  American chemist Marshall Nirenberg (1927–) was later credited with translating the code of life and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1968.  He demonstrated that RNA could be translated into protein. 4
  5. 5. What is RNA?  RNA-stands for ribonucleic acid  is a polymeric molecule made up of one or more nucleotides.  A strand of RNA can be thought of as a chain with a nucleotide at each chain link.  Each nucleotide is made up of a base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, typically abbreviated as A, C, G and U), a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.  DNA and RNA form the fundamental building blocks of the universal genetic code.  They can form complex structures which interact with proteins, other nucleic acids, and even small regulatory molecules.  RNA can even play a role as an enzyme (so-called ribozymes) which can directly catalyse chemical reactions and regulate genetic expression. 5
  6. 6. Structure of RNA  Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.  SUGAR • Ribose  Phosphate group  Nitrogen containing base • Adenine • Guanine • Cytosine • Uracil 6
  7. 7. Structure of RNA  The structure of RNA nucleotides is very similar to that of DNA nucleotides  DNA and RNA play very different roles from one another in modern cells. 7
  8. 8. THE NUCLEOTIDE: RNA OH O=P-O-5 CH2 BASE OH O 4 C 1 C H H H H 3 C 2 C OH 0H Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil 8
  9. 9. Shapes of RNA RNA comes in a variety of different shapes as displayed below: 9
  10. 10. Types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information from DNA to the ribosome Transfer RNA (tRNA) involved in the process of translation Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) RNA TypesRNA Types 10
  11. 11. Difference Between DNA and RNA  ribose sugar backbone in RNA has a hydroxyl (- OH) group that DNA does not.  DNA uses the base thymine (T) in place of uracil (U).  DNA is double-stranded, RNA is a single- stranded molecule in most of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides.  DNA contains ''deoxyribose'', RNA contains ''ribose'' (there is no hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2' position in DNA). 11
  12. 12. Reference     Prescott,Harley,&Klein’s Microbiology,In:Willey,Sherwood,& Woolverton 7th ed;251 to 253. 12
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