Aquatic biotechnology


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All the detailed information on Aquatic Biotechnology.

Aquaculture - definition, economics, advantages,etc

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Aquatic biotechnology

  1. 1. Topics  Aquaculture Environmental applications of Aquatic Biotechnology
  2. 2. Introduction to Aquatic Biotechnology  Aquatic biotechnology find out to use living organisms (such as bacteria) or parts of living organisms (such as DNA) from a marine environment To create or improve a wide variety of products From pharmaceuticals to materials that fight pollution  Aquatic biotechnology scientists might develop and test drugs  Made from marine organisms  Develop non-toxic coatings that prevent the accumulation of barnacles (one type of bird)  On hulls of ships or on underwater parts of power plants
  3. 3. Introduction to Aquatic Biotechnology Given that water, especially marine water, covers nearly 75 % of the earth's surface It should not surprise you to learn that aquatic environments are a Rich source of biotechnology applications  Potential solution to a range of problems  Aquatic organisms exist in a range of extreme conditions such as Frigid polar seas Extraordinarily high pressure at great depths High salinity Exceedingly high temperatures Low light conditions
  4. 4. Introduction to Aquatic Biotechnology  As a result, aquatic organisms have evolved a fascinating number of Metabolic pathways Reproductive mechanisms Sensory adaptations They harbor a wealth of unique genetic information and potential applications We will consider many fascinating aspects of aquatic biotechnology By exploring how both marine and freshwater organisms can be used for biotechnology applications
  5. 5. Introduction to Aquatic Biotechnology In the United States  Less than $50 million is spent annually for research and development in aquatic biotechnology In contrast  Japan spends between $900 million and $1 billion annually  The successful research of Asian countries that have invested in basic science research on aquatic biotechnology and the financial success of their products have encouraged other countries to invest a significant amount of time and resources in aquatic biotechnology
  6. 6. Introduction to Aquatic Biotechnology Several research priorities have been identified to explore the seemingly endless possibilities of utilizing aquatic organisms:  Increasing the world's food supply  Restoring and protecting marine ecosystems  Identifying novel compounds for the benefit of human health and medical treatments  Improving seafood safety and quality  Discovering and developing new products with applications in the chemical industry  Seeking new approaches to monitor and treat disease  Increasing knowledge of biological and geochemical processes in the world's oceans
  7. 7. Aquaculture The cultivation of aquatic animals, such as finfish and shellfish, and aquatic plants for recreational or commercial purposes is known as aquaculture  Specifically, marine aquaculture is called mariculture Although aquaculture can be considered a type of agricultural biotechnology  It is typically considered a form of aquatic biotechnology  In this section, we will primarily discuss farming of both marine and freshwater species of finfish and shellfish
  8. 8. shrimp catfish shellfish
  9. 9. The Economics of Aquaculture Worldwide demand for aquaculture products is expected to grow by 70% during the next 30 years If demand continues to rise and wild catches continue to decline  We will see a deficit of consumable fish and shellfish Aquaculture together with better resource management practices will in part overcome this problem
  10. 10. The Economics of Aquaculture  Aquaculture in the United States is big business  It is a greater than $36 billion industry providing nearly 19% of the world's seafood supply  Aquaculture production in the United States has nearly doubled over the last 10 years  This increase is expected to continue while similar increases in aquaculture are occurring globally  Some aspects of raising fish are economically cheaper than animal farming or commercial fishing  Ex. It takes approximately 7 pounds of grain to raise one pound of beef, but less than 2 pounds of fish meal are needed to raise approximately 1 pound of most fish  Fish species that are fed genetically engineered food cost around 10 cents/pound  But the return is often 70 to 80 cents/pound on the raised fish  Yielding a good return on an investment
  11. 11. The Economics of Aquaculture  Aquaculture in the United States became a major industry in the 1950s  When catfish farming was established in the Southeast  Aquaculture facilities now exist in every state  Farm-raised catfish grow nearly 20% faster in fish-farms compared to catfish in the wild  And are ready for market sale in approximately 2 years
  12. 12. Some of the most successful examples of the business potential of aquaculture in the United States include Alabama and Mississippi Delta catfish industry Salmon farming in Maine and Washington Trout-farming in Idaho and West Virginia Crawfish farming in Louisiana Similarly, Florida, Massachusetts, and other states have established successful shellfish farms That have benefited struggling commercial fishermen
  13. 13. Aquaculture Abroad  Many other countries are actively engaged in aquaculture practices.  Chile is the second largest exporter worldwide.  Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru have rapidly growing industries.  Greek farms are the leading producers of farmed sea bass in the world.  Norway is a leading producer of salmon.  Canada produces over 70,000 tons of Atlantic and Pacific salmon  The largest production province in Canada is British Columbia with over 100 salmon farms.  Expanding markets are underway in Argentina, Algeria, Puerto Rico, Scotland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Ireland, Russia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines, India and many other nations  Many of the countries most actively engaged in developing aquaculture industries are doing so  Because local waters have been overfished to the point where natural stocks of finfish and shellfish have been severely depleted
  14. 14. Aquaculture Abroad A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp for human consumption Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s  Production grew steeply  Particularly to match the market demands of the U.S., Japan and Western Europe About 75% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia  In particular in China and Thailand  The largest exporting nation is Thailand
  15. 15. Aquaculture Abroad From Research to Reality: Biotechnology solutions to the Shrimp Industry The Shrimp Biotechnology Business Unit (SBBU) was established by the Thailand National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) in Bangkok, Thailand SSBU has been working since 1999 to commercialize solutions developed by the Thai research to help the shrimp industry
  16. 16. Aquaculture Abroad SBBU develops diagnostic kits  PCR kits and test strips And also provides expertise in shrimp health management  Which ranges from diagnostic analysis, to contract research for the shrimp industry, training and consulting.
  17. 17. Local Aquaculture  The HBOI Aquaculture Division's mission is to develop economically feasible and environmentally sustainable methods to farm aquatic organisms for      Food Sport Stock enhancement Aquarium markets Pharmaceuticals  The Aquaculture Division is a leader in the research and development of culture technologies for       Molluscs Crustaceans Marine ornamentals Food fish Seaweed Biomedical species
  18. 18. Environmental Applications of Aquatic Biotechnology Unfortunately the world's oceans have long served as dumping grounds for the wastes of humanity and industrialization Little thought has been given to the effect of pollution on  Fish stocks  Marine organisms  and the environment Clearly oceans do not have an infinite ability to accept waste products without consequences Critical wetlands and other estuarine habitats important for the spawning of many marine species and the growth of young marine organisms are showing signs of severe decline due to pollution and human impact
  19. 19. Environmental Applications of Aquatic Biotechnology  The variety of environmental applications of marine biotechnology is quite astounding  From developing new ways of dealing with biofouling on engineered materials in the ocean environment  Bioremediation and restoration of damaged marine habitats  Monitoring for disease outbreak and management of natural resources
  20. 20. Environmental Applications of Aquatic Biotechnology  Biofilming, also called biofouling, refers to the attachment of organisms to surfaces  These surfaces could be manmade surfaces such as      Hulls of ships Inner lining of pipes Cement walls, and pilings used around piers Bridges Buildings  Biofilming also occurs on the surface of marine organisms, especially shellfish
  21. 21. Environmental Applications of Aquatic Biotechnology Biofilming occurs  In the plumbing of your home  On contact lenses, and  In your mouth Bacteria that coat your teeth and bacteria that adhere to implanted surgical devices and prostheses are examples of biofilming
  22. 22. Environmental Applications of Aquatic Biotechnology  As a result, researchers are investigating the natural mechanisms that many organisms use to prevent biofouling on their own surface  If biofilming is a problem for both manmade surfaces and the surfaces of marine organisms  How do clams, mussels, and even turtles minimize biofilming and thus prevent their shells from being completely closed by biofilming organisms?  Some organisms are thought to produce repelling substances while other organisms appear to produce molecules that block adhesion of biofilming organisms (Figure 10.15)
  23. 23. Environmental Remediation  Native microorganisms or genetically engineered strains have been used to degrade chemicals  In much the same way, marine organisms possess unique mechanisms for breaking down substances  Including toxic organic chemicals such as phenols and toluene  Oil products found in harbors and adjacent to oil rigs, and  Toxic metals  One of the earliest techniques used in marine remediation involved increasing the quantity of shellfish in polluted areas  Because these organisms strain the water during feeding  They act as a form of estuarine filters to remove wastes such as nitrogen compounds and organic chemicals
  24. 24. Environmental Remediation  Microbiologists at the USDA have experimented with growing nitrogen­metabolizing algae on large mats called scrubbers  So that they can be used as natural filters  Scrubbers work like charcoal filters in an aquarium  In that they bind nitrogenous wastes  Water contaminated with farm animal wastes is passed over the scrubbers  The algae absorb and metabolize the wastes