Irwin keri 6107_class slides

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  • Irwin keri 6107_class slides

    1. 1. PBRL: 1010 Strategic Planning Defining the problem
    2. 2. Objectives • By the end of class, you should be able to: • identify the role research plays in PR program management • analyze how the four-step problem solving process applies to the PR field • synthesize materials related to problem statements into crafting a useful statement • apply understanding of the public relations problem solving process to the development of a strategic plan (step one) for a client
    3. 3. “Research is the most powerful tool available to the applied practitioner” - Dr. Edward Robinson Source: Cutlip, S. , Center, A. & Broom, G. (2006). Effective Public Relations (9th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hill.
    4. 4. Four-step problem solving approach • Define the problem (or opportunity) • Planning and programming • Taking action and communicating • Evaluating the program
    5. 5. Four-step problem solving approach • Define the problem (or opportunity) • probing and monitoring knowledge, opinions, attitudes and behaviours of those concerned with and affected by the acts and policies of the organization • provides the foundation for the rest of the plan
    6. 6. Four-step problem solving approach • Planning and programming • Information gathered in step one informs decisions about publics, objectives, action and communication strategies, tactics and goals
    7. 7. Four-step problem solving approach • Taking action and communicating • Implementation of decisions made in step three including: program of action and communication designed to meet the specific objectives for each public to accomplish the program objective
    8. 8. Four-step problem solving approach • Evaluating the program • final step -- accessing the preparation, implementation and results of the program. • adjustments are made while program is being implemented based on feedback
    9. 9. Four-step Public Relations Process -- The model 1. Defining the 4. Evaluating the problem program How are we doing, or “What’s happing now?” how did we do? Assessment Situation analysis Implementation Strategy 2. Planning & 3. Taking action & programming “Who should do and say it? communicating When, where and how?” “What should we do and say, and why?” Source: Cutlip, S. , Center, A. & Broom, G. (2006). Effective Public Relations (9th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hill.
    10. 10. The role of research • reduces uncertainty • scientific alternative to tenacity, authority and intuition • enables the presentation and advocation of proposals supported by evidence and theory • can take the form of systematic listening (feedback tells the communicator how the message is being received). Failure to listen can result in purposeless “communications”
    11. 11. Defining the problem “What’s happing now?” • Begins with a value judgement - something is wrong or could be better • organization goals provide the criteria for making such judgements • objective, systematic research task that answers: the dimension of the problem, factors that contribute to/or alleviate the problem and what publics are involved?
    12. 12. Problem statement • written in present tense • is specific, measurable and answers: • what is the source of the problem? • where is this a problem? • when is this a problem? • who is involved or affected? • how are they involved or affected? • why is this a concern to the organization and publics?
    13. 13. Group discussion/activity Formulate a problem statement based on the description provided in class Remember • what is the source of the problem? • where is this a problem? • when is this a problem? • who is involved or affected? • how are they involved or affected? • why is this a concern to the organization and publics?
    14. 14. Situation analysis vs. problem statement • Problem statement is a concise statement or paragraph • Situational analysis is all that is known about a situation • all background information • often referred to as “fact book” • Internal and external factors provide information required to inform a SWOT analysis
    15. 15. Situational analysis • Internal factors • organization policies, procedures and actions related to the problem statement • review of perceptions and actions of key actors in the organization , structures and process of organizational units relevant to the problem and history of the organization’s involvement • communication audit • organizational almanac
    16. 16. Situational analysis • External factors • systematic review of the problem situation outside the organization • stakeholder analysis • Van Leuven’s theory
    17. 17. Content of situation analysis Class activity • List examples of internal factors • List examples of external factors
    18. 18. SWOT Analysis • SO strategies: build on organizational strengths to take advantage of opportunities in the external environment • ST strategies: build on organizational strengths to counter threats in the external environment • WO strategies: attempt to minimize organizational weaknesses to take advantage of external opportunities • WT strategies: attempt to minimize both organizational weaknesses and environmental threats
    19. 19. Research “You cannot practice public relations today -- successfully or effectively without research” Source: Cutlip, S. , Center, A. & Broom, G. (2006). Effective Public Relations (9th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hill. • Informal or “exploratory” methods • personal contacts, key informants, focus groups and community forums, advisory committees and boards, ombudsperson, call-in telephone lines, mail analysis, online sources and field reports • Formal methods • secondary analysis and online databases, content analysis and surveys

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