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Irwin keri 6107_class slides
 

Irwin keri 6107_class slides

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Irwin keri 6107_class slides Irwin keri 6107_class slides Presentation Transcript

  • PBRL: 1010 Strategic Planning Defining the problem
  • Objectives • By the end of class, you should be able to: • identify the role research plays in PR program management • analyze how the four-step problem solving process applies to the PR field • synthesize materials related to problem statements into crafting a useful statement • apply understanding of the public relations problem solving process to the development of a strategic plan (step one) for a client
  • “Research is the most powerful tool available to the applied practitioner” - Dr. Edward Robinson Source: Cutlip, S. , Center, A. & Broom, G. (2006). Effective Public Relations (9th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hill.
  • Four-step problem solving approach • Define the problem (or opportunity) • Planning and programming • Taking action and communicating • Evaluating the program
  • Four-step problem solving approach • Define the problem (or opportunity) • probing and monitoring knowledge, opinions, attitudes and behaviours of those concerned with and affected by the acts and policies of the organization • provides the foundation for the rest of the plan
  • Four-step problem solving approach • Planning and programming • Information gathered in step one informs decisions about publics, objectives, action and communication strategies, tactics and goals
  • Four-step problem solving approach • Taking action and communicating • Implementation of decisions made in step three including: program of action and communication designed to meet the specific objectives for each public to accomplish the program objective
  • Four-step problem solving approach • Evaluating the program • final step -- accessing the preparation, implementation and results of the program. • adjustments are made while program is being implemented based on feedback
  • Four-step Public Relations Process -- The model 1. Defining the 4. Evaluating the problem program How are we doing, or “What’s happing now?” how did we do? Assessment Situation analysis Implementation Strategy 2. Planning & 3. Taking action & programming “Who should do and say it? communicating When, where and how?” “What should we do and say, and why?” Source: Cutlip, S. , Center, A. & Broom, G. (2006). Effective Public Relations (9th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hill.
  • The role of research • reduces uncertainty • scientific alternative to tenacity, authority and intuition • enables the presentation and advocation of proposals supported by evidence and theory • can take the form of systematic listening (feedback tells the communicator how the message is being received). Failure to listen can result in purposeless “communications”
  • Defining the problem “What’s happing now?” • Begins with a value judgement - something is wrong or could be better • organization goals provide the criteria for making such judgements • objective, systematic research task that answers: the dimension of the problem, factors that contribute to/or alleviate the problem and what publics are involved?
  • Problem statement • written in present tense • is specific, measurable and answers: • what is the source of the problem? • where is this a problem? • when is this a problem? • who is involved or affected? • how are they involved or affected? • why is this a concern to the organization and publics?
  • Group discussion/activity Formulate a problem statement based on the description provided in class Remember • what is the source of the problem? • where is this a problem? • when is this a problem? • who is involved or affected? • how are they involved or affected? • why is this a concern to the organization and publics?
  • Situation analysis vs. problem statement • Problem statement is a concise statement or paragraph • Situational analysis is all that is known about a situation • all background information • often referred to as “fact book” • Internal and external factors provide information required to inform a SWOT analysis
  • Situational analysis • Internal factors • organization policies, procedures and actions related to the problem statement • review of perceptions and actions of key actors in the organization , structures and process of organizational units relevant to the problem and history of the organization’s involvement • communication audit • organizational almanac
  • Situational analysis • External factors • systematic review of the problem situation outside the organization • stakeholder analysis • Van Leuven’s theory
  • Content of situation analysis Class activity • List examples of internal factors • List examples of external factors
  • SWOT Analysis • SO strategies: build on organizational strengths to take advantage of opportunities in the external environment • ST strategies: build on organizational strengths to counter threats in the external environment • WO strategies: attempt to minimize organizational weaknesses to take advantage of external opportunities • WT strategies: attempt to minimize both organizational weaknesses and environmental threats
  • Research “You cannot practice public relations today -- successfully or effectively without research” Source: Cutlip, S. , Center, A. & Broom, G. (2006). Effective Public Relations (9th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hill. • Informal or “exploratory” methods • personal contacts, key informants, focus groups and community forums, advisory committees and boards, ombudsperson, call-in telephone lines, mail analysis, online sources and field reports • Formal methods • secondary analysis and online databases, content analysis and surveys