Immigration - Amnesty May 1, 2010

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  • 1. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform
    • Semester Project
    • By: Kym Nuñez
  • 2.
    • Immigrant Life
    • Immigration History
    • Immigration Changes
    • Immigration Current Concerns
    IMMIGRATION Need for Reform
    • Immigration Issues
    • Moral Treatment
    • Humane Treatment
    • Amnesty Necessity
    Conclusion & Recommendations Introduction
  • 3. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform
    • Immigration Since 1607 – Jamestown VA
    • Immigration Methods:
        • 1 st : Colonization
        • 2 nd : Arrive en mass via Ellis Island (and other ports)
        • 3 rd : Planes, Trains, Automobiles
        • 4 th : Walking
    Immigrant Life - History
  • 4. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life - Changes
    • Immigration Unrestricted 1607 – 1882
        • 4 out of 5 people in New York City, in 1890, were immigrants
    • Earliest Immigration Restrictions:
        • 1 st Anti-Immigrant Law: Exclusion Act of 1882
        • 2 nd Anti-Immigrant Law : Foran Act of 1885
            • Thousands of Immigrant Laws to Date
  • 5. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life – Changes (cont’d)
    • Early Immigration Surges (per year)
        • 1880: 800,00 Immigrants
            • Primarily Northern & Western Europeans
        • 1905: 1,285,000 Immigrants
        • 1910: 1,200,000 Immigrants
            • Primarily Southern & Eastern Europeans
            • **By 1910, 6 million passed through Ellis Island
        • 1925: 700,000 Immigrants
            • Primarily Asians & North & South Americans
  • 6. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life – Changes (cont’d)
    • Early Immigration Surges (per year)
        • 1930: 400,00 Immigrants
            • Primarily Asians & North & South Americans
        • 1942-47: 360,000 Immigrants
            • Primarily Mexican Farm Laborers
        • 1955: 400,000 Immigrants
            • Primarily Asians & North & South Americans
  • 7. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life - Changes (cont’d)
    • Immigration Population Surges
  • 8. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life – Changes (cont’d)
    • Importing Temporary Mexican Labor During Wartime
        • 1942: Bracero Program
          • US/Mexico cheap agribusiness labor contracts during WW2 while American men at war in Europe/Asia
        • 1943: Railroad Program
          • US/Mexico cheap labor contracts during WW2 while American men at war in Europe/Asia
        • 1950: Public Law 78
          • US/Mexico cheap agribusiness & labor contracts during Korean War while American men at war in Asia
  • 9. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life – Changes (cont’d)
    • Imported/Deported Labor
        • The temporary wartime US/Mexican labor contracts:
          • Contracts brought many laborers and residents
          • Contracts renewed regularly until 1964
        • “ Operation Wetback,” 1953-1955, the USA’s round-up program, deported 2 million Mexicans as well as Mexican Americans (US citizens, and their children) back to Mexico – the beginning of the dispensable & disposable labor/people notion
  • 10. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life – Current Concerns
    • Immigrants – As of 2009:
        • About 36 million immigrants in the US
        • About 12 million illegal immigrants in the US
          • About 70% Latino (Mexico, Central & South America)
          • About 10% Asian (China, Philippines, India)
          • About .5% Canadians
        • About 500,000 illegal entries into the US annually
  • 11. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life – Current Concerns (cont’d)
    • Immigration – As of 2009:
        • Controlled by Department of Homeland Security
          • Dept. (DHS) created by 9/11 attacks
            • Combined old departments, added new aspects
        • ICE – US Immigration & Customs Enforcement
          • Established by Homeland Security Act of 2002
          • Combined Customs and INS
          • ICE enforces the laws of DHS
          • Responsible for tracking, capturing and deporting
  • 12. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life – Current Concerns (cont’d)
    • Immigration – As of 2009:
        • ICE – US Immigration & Customs Enforcement
          • Maintains a log of Visa requests for family members of immigrants or citizens
          • Currently has a backlog of family Visa requests
          • Investigates the borders of the US
          • Conducts employer investigations for illegal workers
          • Raids employers business in search of illegal workers
  • 13. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigrant Life – Current Concerns (cont’d)
    • Immigration – Illegal Immigration 101, as of 2009:
        • How to Become an Illegal Immigrant
          • 1) Enter the US without authorization or inspection
          • 2) Stay beyond authorized period on Visa
          • 3) Violate the terms of legal entry
  • 14. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Moral Treatment
    • Immigration – Hate Environment for Latino Immigrants
      • Conservative and liberal media use prejudice, dehumanizing and animal-like traits to describe Latino immigrants:
        • 1) “Threatening army of invaders”
        • 2) “The greatest invasion in history”
        • 3) “Swarms”
        • 4) “Hordes”
  • 15. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Moral Treatment (cont’d)
    • Immigration – Hate Environment for Latino Immigrants
      • Conservative and liberal media use prejudice, dehumanizing and animal-like traits to describe Latino immigrants:
        • 5) “Animal-Like”
        • 6) “Will rip apart and subvert American values”
        • 7) “Not American and not decent”
        • 8) “Less Deserving”
  • 16. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Moral Treatment (cont’d)
    • Immigration – Hate Environment for Latino Immigrants
      • Conservative and liberal media use prejudice, dehumanizing and animal-like traits to describe Latino immigrants:
        • 9) “Instill a threat to American’s basic well being”
        • 10) “Spread communicable diseases”
        • 11) “Take back prior Mexican territory from the US and give it to the government of Mexico”
  • 17. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Moral Treatment (cont’d)
    • Immigration – Hate Environment for Latino Immigrants
      • Rebuttals for Latino immigrants:
        • Latinos are not animals, stop using those descriptions
        • Latinos have strong family values
        • Immigrants are deserving, our families were immigrants
        • 1/2 the Latino immigrant population is actually from at least 30 other Latino countries, other than Mexico
  • 18. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Moral Treatment (cont’d)
    • Immigration – Hate Environment for Latino Immigrants
      • Rebuttals for Latino immigrants:
        • Only 1/2 the Latino immigrant population is actually Mexican
        • All Latino immigrants are not mercenary soldiers secretly fighting with Mexican immigrants to take US territory back to Mexico
        • It is impossible to determine citizenship by appearance
          • 2 people from the same neighborhood in Guatemala live in the US, 1 legal, 1 not, can you identify the citizen by appearance?
  • 19. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Humane Treatment
    • Immigration – In-humane Treatment by ICE
      • ICE outsources building and maintenance of facilities to house overflow of detainees for deportation
        • Impossible for family communication
        • Lower standard of care than a state or federal jail or other ICE facility
      • ICE provides poor medical attention for sick or injured detainees
        • 107 deaths in ICE detention only since 2003
      • ICE separates illegal immigrant parents from citizen children through by deportation (after raids, etc.)
  • 20. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Amnesty Necessity
    • Immigration – Amnesty
      • Many Immigrants migrate to the US for opportunity
        • US government & companies created this environment
      • Many US companies provide immigrants with jobs
        • US companies save money
        • US companies still need cost savings
        • US companies pay lower wages
  • 21. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Amnesty Necessity (cont’d)
    • Immigration – Amnesty
      • Many illegal immigrants
        • Pay sales taxes wherever they are
        • Pay income taxes & Social Security that is unclaimed
        • Contribute to economy through living and spending here
        • Contribute to local communities
  • 22. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Immigration Issues – Amnesty Necessity (cont’d)
    • Immigration – Amnesty - Help
      • Improve Borders & provide Fast-Track to citizenship
        • Invest in real border security, technology, etc.
        • Require all immigrants register into system
        • Provide ID cards with fingerprints, etc.
        • Toughen the consequences for employers hiring new immigrants
        • Require immigrants pay a $5000 to $10,000 fine (installments?)
        • Require English classes and standardized competency tests
        • Allow those registered and paid legal & Visa opportunities
        • Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act 2009 addresses all above
  • 23. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Conclusion & Recommendation
    • Immigration
      • Immigration History - Occurring since 1607
        • Addresses all types of labor shortages
        • Continues to build and blend the melting pot of the US
        • Creates and improves the economy through spending/living
      • Allow Amnesty program for all current immigrants
        • Require all immigrants register into system, take English classes
        • Provide ID cards with fingerprints, etc.
        • Require immigrants pay a fine
        • Allow those registered and paid legal & Visa opportunities
  • 24. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Conclusion & Recommendation (cont’d)
    • Immigration
      • Immigration – Humane and Moral Treatment
        • Do not use secret facilities
        • Improve level of care for detainees
        • Stop separating families
      • Allow Amnesty program for all current immigrants
        • Require all immigrants register into system, take English classes
        • Provide ID cards with fingerprints, etc.
        • Require immigrants pay a fine
        • Allow those registered and paid legal & Visa opportunities
  • 25. ADL (Eds.). (2008). Immigrants Targeted: extremist rhetoric moves into the mainstream. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/ Bernstein, N. (2010). Officials hid the truth about immigration deaths in jail. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/us/10detain.html . Edmonston and Smith. The new Americans: economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration. National Academy Press. Garraty, J.A., (1966). The American nation; a history of the United States. New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. Jacobson, M. & Sollors, W. (Eds.). (2007). Immigration and American popular culture: nation of newcomers; immigrant history as American history. New York, NY: New York University Press. NCLR (Eds.). (2010). Fact sheet. National Council of La Raza. Retrieved from http://www.nclr.org . PHC (Eds.). (2005). Estimates of the size and characteristics of the undocumented population – full report. Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/reports/61.pdf . Preston, J. (Ed.). (2007). Immigration quandary: a mother torn from her baby. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/17/us/17citizen.html?ei=5088&en=995bf8e6cb90c8de&ex=1352955600&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1195326374-2mUVluDap1JR/s2ibNmOzA . Stevens, J. (2010). America’s secret ICE castles. The Nation. New York, NY. Retrieved from http://www.thenation.com/doc/20100104/stevens . IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Works Cited
  • 26. IMMIGRATION Need for Reform Thank You
    • Questions?