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Restaurant Menu Labeling Jabri J 052110
 

Restaurant Menu Labeling Jabri J 052110

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WIth American's eating nearly half of their meals outside of the home, this presentation discusses the need for nutritional information on menus and menu boards at restaurants, in order for the public ...

WIth American's eating nearly half of their meals outside of the home, this presentation discusses the need for nutritional information on menus and menu boards at restaurants, in order for the public to make informed decisions regarding food choices. This is one factor that may contribute to the epidemic of overweight and obesity in the U.S.

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  • My name is Jennifer Jabri and I am a Public Health PhD student at Walden University with a concentration in community health promotion and education. Thank you for taking the time to learn more about the need for restaurant menu labeling and the possible impact on the obesity epidemic. This presentation is targeted to owners of smaller restaurants with less than 20 locations, and to the general public who eat about half of their meals outside of the home.
  • American’s buy nearly half of our meals “prepared and consumed elsewhere” (Mikkelsen, Ericksen, & Nestle, 2007, p. 292). Restaurants tend to serve larger portions of higher fat and higher calorie foods. That is a significant number of meals consumed without knowing the calorie content, fat grams, sodium content, or other nutritional information.
  • One contributing factor to the obesity epidemic is the fact that we are eating larger portions than we did 20 years ago, which means that we are ingesting many more calories, which contributes to weight gain. These are just a few examples to illustrate the changes in portion size and the resulting caloric increases. We have come to think of these new, larger portion sizes as normal.
  • If we are eating half of our meals outside of the home, then half of our meals tend to be larger than what we would serve ourselves at home. It is recommended that an adult eat around 2,000 calories a day. In one study, a third of the customers at a minimum of 1,000 calories, so at least half of the day’s recommended calories were obtained from one meal. So, it is easy to see how one could overeat and gain weight.
  • Packaged foods are required to have nutritional labeling. Our restaurant menus should also have some nutritional information available to the consumer in order for them to make informed decisions regarding their food choices. Surveys have found that most Americans support this.
  • Over 68% of Americans are overweight or obese (Flegal, Carroll, Ogden & Curtin, 2010), which means that less than one-third of Americans are at a healthy weight. In 2007-2008, it was estimated that 5.7 percent of Americans aged 20 years or older were extremely obese with a BMI greater than 40 (Flegal et al., 2010). This equates to approximately 17,597,343 million extremely obese Americans (from the current population) up from 11.5 million in 2002 (Hensrud & Klein, 2006). According to Hensrud & Klein (2006), the prevalence of extreme obesity has been increasing twice as fast as obesity in general” (p. S6).
  • The Centers for Disease Control created these maps to illustrate the dramatic changes in the levels of obesity over the time period of 1986-2008. As of 2008, the state of Colorado was the only state with an obesity prevalence less than 20 percent. In 1986, there were no states that had obesity levels above 14 percent, and now every state except Colorado has an obesity prevalence above 20 percent of the population, with a handful of states even having prevalence rates above 30 percent. This does not include all of the overweight people!
  • There have been many studies that have found that consumers make healthier choices when they are informed consumers by having nutritional information available to them to aid their decision making. In one particular study, those who had menus without nutritional information at several hundred calories more than participants who received menus with nutrition information.
  • Some industry representatives argue that many restaurants do make nutritional data available, but the fact is, only about half of chain restaurants offer nutritional information and it is oftentimes not accessible as is located in a non-visible area, or the patrons must ask for it ( 1,2). If it is not visible, many people will not think to look for it ( 1,2). In an observational study, they reported that, “Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions” (p. 820) (3).
  • Menu labeling would be required for standard food items on the menu, not for specially ordered dishes, or for specials that are on the menu for a brief period of time. It would include the number of calories “clearly associated with each standard menu item”, a statement regarding recommended daily caloric intake limits for adults, and have written nutritional information available to patrons.
  • “ Many chain restaurants already analyze the nutritional contents of their menus. Changing menu boards is a one-time cost” (p. 7).
  • Menu labeling requirements would be standardized between locations because it would make them subject to federal regulations rather than different local, county, or state regulations, which is important for chain restaurants with locations across the country.
  • Nutritional labeling on restaurant menus will help people know exactly what they are eating and hopefully influence them to choose healthier options to control the fat and calories they consume. This may be a form of primary prevention of overweight and obesity. It may also cause restaurants to offer healthier options and alter some of their recipes.
  • There have been many menu labeling laws passed in various locations around the country, from city and county level, to the state level. However, these laws vary.
  • In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the new healthcare reform bill (H.R. 2590) to amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics act (Section 4205), which had menu labeling requirements for chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. 1 Small businesses are exempt from this. The National Restaurant Association supported this bill because it benefits consumers in making informed food choices and it benefits the restaurants by protecting them from lawsuits.
  • While smaller restaurants are exempt from these requirements, it is beneficial for them to opt in and adopt the practice of the larger restaurants, which would require them to follow federal standards. At the least, calorie contents should be posted on nutritional menu labeling. Once menu labeling becomes mainstream, then customers will begin to expect this nutritional information to be available.
  • Following federal menu labeling laws can protect small restaurant owners from lawsuits, and it benefits consumers as it is a step towards a healthier and less obese America. Thank you for your time.

Restaurant Menu Labeling Jabri J 052110 Restaurant Menu Labeling Jabri J 052110 Presentation Transcript

  • Restaurant Menu Labeling Tackling One Environmental Factor Contributing to the Obesity Epidemic Jennifer Jabri, PhD Student Walden University PUBH 8165-1: Environmental Health Instructor: Dr. Rebecca Heick Spring, 2010
  • Why do we need Menu Labeling?
    • Restaurants tend to serve larger portions of higher fat, higher calorie foods.
    • Americans eat half of their meals “prepared and consumed elsewhere” (p. 292). 1
    • Most people, including nutritionists, underestimate the number of calories in restaurant meals. 2
    • 1. Mikkelsen, L., Erickson, C.S., & Nestle, M. (2007). Creating healthy food environments and preventing chronic disease. In L. Cohen, V. Chavez, & S. Chehimi (Eds). Prevention is Primary: Strategies for Community Well-Being. (p. 287-311). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    • 2. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants: Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf
  • Larger Portions
    • Portion sizes have nearly doubled in the last 20 years.
    • Calories/serving 20 years ago compared to today 1 :
    • Fries: from 210 to 610 cals
    • Cheeseburger: from 333 to 590 cals
    • Spaghetti: from 500 up to 1025 cals
    • Bagel: from140 to 350 cals
    • 1. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (n.d.). Obesity (OEI) slide sets. Retrieved from: http://hp2010.nhlbihin.net/oei_ss/menu.htm#sl2 educatgioninitiative
    • .
  • People Eat More at Restaurants
    • When eating out of the home, both children and adults tend to eat larger portions, consuming more calories. 1,2,3
    • One study found that a third of 7318 restaurant patrons consumed at least 1,000 calories or more for lunch. 4
    • 1. Binkley, U.K., Eales, J., Jekanowski, M. (2000). The relation between dietary change and rising U.S. obesity. International Journal of Obesity; 24:1032-1039.
    • 2.Paeratakul, S., Perdinand, D., Champagne, C., Ryan, D., & Bray, G. (2003). Fast-food consumption among U.S. adults and children: Dietary and nutrient intake profile. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 103(10):1332-1338.
    • 3.Zoumans-Morse, C., Rock, C., Sobo, E., Neuhouser, M. (2001). Children’s patterns of macronutrient intake and associations with restaurants and home eating. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 101(8):923-925.
    • 4.Bassett, M.T. (2008). Purchasing behavior and calorie information at fast-food chains in New York City, 2007. American Journal of Public Health; 98(8):1-3.
    • We require nutritional labeling on our packaged foods, so why not for restaurant meals? In fact, three-fourths of Americans use food labels to help them make food choices. 1
    • Many surveys have found that the majority of Americans support the addition of nutritional information to menus and menu boards. 2
    • 1. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf
    • 2, Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf
  • Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
    • Eating out at restaurants is contributing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity in the U.S.
      • Less than one-third of Americans are at a healthy weight 1
      • Dramatic increase in extreme obesity 1, 2
    • 1. Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L., Curtin, L.R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA; 303(3):235-241. Retrieved from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/2009.2014; http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/303/3/235/JOC90148T3
    • 2. Hensrud, D.D., & Klein, S. (2006). Extreme obesity: A new medical crisis in the United States. Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 81 (Suppl. 10):S5-10.
  • Changes in the Prevalence of Obesity 1986-2008 1
    • 1. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2009). U.S. obesity trends: Trends by state 1985-2008. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html#State
  • Research on Menu Labeling
    • In a study to evaluate whether having nutrition labels on menus would affect the food choices of study participants, researchers found that those who had menus without nutrition information ate several hundred calories more than participants who received menus with nutrition information. 1
    • 1. Roberto, C.A., Larsen, P.D., Agnew, H., Baik, J., & Brownell, K.D. (2010). Evaluating the impact of menu labeling on food choices. American Journal of Public Health; 100(2): 312-318.
  • Research on Menu Labeling
    • Only about half of chain restaurants offer nutritional information .
    • Not always accessible as is oftentimes located in a non-visible area, or the patrons must ask for it. 1,2
    • If it is not visible, many people will not think to look for it. 1,2
    • In an observational study, it was reported that, “Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions” (p. 820). 3
    • 1. Silver, L. & Bassett, M.T. (2008). Food safety for the 21 st century. JAMA; 300:957-959.
    • 2. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf
    • 3. Roberto, C.A., Agnew H., & Brownell, K.D. (2009). An observational study of consumers’ accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants. American Journal of Public Health; 99(5):820-821 .
  • What Nutritional Information would be included on the Menu/Menu Boards?
    • Standard food items on the menu, not for specially ordered dishes, or for specials that are on the menu for a brief period of time. 1
    • The number of calories “clearly associated with each standard menu item.” 2
    • A statement regarding recommended daily caloric intake limits for adults. 2
    • Written nutritional information available to patrons. 2
    • 1. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf
    • 2. Buckberg, J.R., & Chestler, A.L. (2010). Congress passes menu labeling in health care reform. Retrieved from: http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=eeff77b9-f95f-485b-a827-2ada0d6132bc
  • What about the Costs?
    • “ Many chain restaurants already analyze the nutritional contents of their menus. Changing menu boards is a one-time cost” (p. 7). 1
    • 1. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf
  • How Can Federal Menu Labeling Legislation Benefit the Restaurants?
    • It would make them subject to federal regulations rather than different local, county, or state regulations, which is important for chain restaurants with locations across the country. 1
    • 1. National Restaurant Association. (2010). National Restaurant Association says nutrition information provision is win for consumers and restaurants. Retrieved from: http://www.restaurant.org/pressroom/pressrelease/?ID=1910
  • How Would Menu Labeling Make a Difference in the Obesity Epidemic?
    • It will help people to be informed decision makers regarding their food choices, as they will know the nutritional count of what they are eating.
    • This may influence them to choose healthier options to control the fat and calories they consume. 1, 2
    • This may be a form of primary prevention of overweight and obesity.
    • It may also cause restaurants to offer healthier options and alter some of their recipes.
    • 1. Khan, L.L., Sobush, K., Keener, D., Goodman, K., Lowry, A., Kakietek, J., et al. (2009). Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR;58(RR-7):1-32. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5807.pdf
    • 2. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf
  • A Grassroots Movement
    • There have been menu labeling laws passed in numerous cities, counties, and states throughout the U.S. with various rules and regulations regarding the requirements for menu labeling. 1.
    • 1. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009). Menu labeling: Does providing nutrition information at the point of purchase affect consumer behavior? Retrieved from: http://www.healthyeatingresearch.org/images/stories/her_research_briefs/her_menu_labeling_brief_06_29_09_final.pdf
  • Current Legislation
    • In March 2010, the healthcare reform bill (H.R. 2590) was signed into law in order to amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics act (Section 4205), which had menu labeling requirements for chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. 1 Small businesses are exempt from this.
    • The National Restaurant Association supported this bill. 2, 3 , 4
    • Buckberg, J.R., & Chestler, A.L. (2010). Congress passes menu labeling in health care reform. Retrieved from: http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=eeff77b9-f95f-485b-a827-2ada0d6132bc
    • Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Health reform to deliver calorie counts to chain restaurant menus nationwide. Retrieved from: http://cspinet.org/new/201003211.html
    • National Restaurant Association. (2010). National Restaurant Association says nutrition information provision is win for consumers and restaurants. Retrieved from: http://www.restaurant.org/pressroom/pressrelease/?ID=1910
    • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Restaurant industry backs menu-labeling legislation. Retrieved from: http://www.rwjf.org/publichealth/digest.jsp?id=11101
  • What About Smaller Restaurants?
    • They should consider posting the calorie content of standard menu items.
    • Customers will come to expect this information after being accustomed to obtaining it from chain restaurants.
    • However, it can also benefit smaller restaurants as they can voluntarily opt in and would then be subject to these federal standards rather than being subject to varying requirements set by different communities, or states.
  • Conclusion
    • Menu labeling requirements can benefit both the restaurants and consumers.
    • Smaller restaurants should also post caloric information on their menus.
    • It is one step toward combating the epidemic of overweight and obesity in the U.S.
  • References
    • Bassett, M.T. (2008). Purchasing behavior and calorie information at fast-food chains in New York City, 2007. American Journal of Public Health; 98(8):1-3.
    • Binkley, U.K., Eales, J., Jekanowski, M. (2000). The relation between dietary change and rising U.S. obesity. International Journal of Obesity; 24:1032-1039.
    • Buckberg, J.R., & Chestler, A.L. (2010). Congress passes menu labeling in health care reform. Retrieved from: http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=eeff77b9-f95f-485b-a827-2ada0d6132bc
    • Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2009). U.S. obesity trends: Trends by state 1985-2008. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html#State
    • Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Health reform to deliver calorie counts to chain restaurant menus nationwide. Retrieved from: http://cspinet.org/new/201003211.html
    • Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L., Curtin, L.R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA; 303(3):235-241 . Retrieved from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/2009.2014; http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/303/3/235/JOC90148T3
    • Hensrud, D.D., & Klein, S. (2006). Extreme obesity: A new medical crisis in the United States. Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 81 (Suppl. 10):S5-10.
    • Khan, L.L., Sobush, K., Keener, D., Goodman, K., Lowry, A., Kakietek, J., et al. (2009). Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR;58(RR-7):1-32. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5807.pdf
    • Mikkelsen, L., Erickson, C.S., & Nestle, M. (2007). Creating healthy food environments and preventing chronic disease. In L. Cohen, V. Chavez, & S. Chehimi (Eds). Prevention is Primary: Strategies for Community Well-Being. (p. 287-311). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    • .
  • References
    • National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (n.d.). Obesity (OEI) slide sets. Retrieved from: http://hp2010.nhlbihin.net/oei_ss/menu.htm#sl2 educatgioninitiative
    • National Restaurant Association. (2010). National Restaurant Association says nutrition information provision is win for consumers and restaurants. Retrieved from: http://www.restaurant.org/pressroom/pressrelease/?ID=1910
    • Paeratakul, S., Perdinand, D., Champagne, C., Ryan, D., & Bray, G. (2003). Fast-food consumption among U.S. adults and children: Dietary and nutrient intake profile. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 103(10):1332-1338
    • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Restaurant industry backs menu-labeling legislation. Retrieved from: http://www.rwjf.org/publichealth/digest.jsp?id=11101
    • Roberto, C.A., Agnew H., & Brownell, K.D. (2009). An observational study of consumers’ accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants . American Journal of Public Health; 99(5):820-821 .
    • Roberto, C.A., Larsen, P.D., Agnew, H., Baik, J., & Brownell, K.D. (2010). Evaluating the impact of menu labeling on food choices. American Journal of Public Health; 100(2): 312-318.
    • Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf
    • Silver, L. & Bassett, M.T. (2008). Food safety for the 21 st century. JAMA; 300:957-959.
    • Zoumans-Morse, C., Rock, C., Sobo, E., Neuhouser, M. (2001). Children’s patterns of macronutrient intake and associations with restaurants and home eating. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 101(8):923-925.
  • Recommended Reading
    • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009). Menu labeling: Does providing nutrition information at the point of purchase affect consumer behavior? Retrieved from: http://www.healthyeatingresearch.org/images/stories/her_research_briefs/her_menu_labeling_brief_06_29_09_final.pdf
    • Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/news.aspx?id=35
    • Legal Issues With Menu Label Laws:
      • Pomeranz, J.L. (2009). Compelled speech under the commercial speech doctrine: The case of menu label laws. Journal of Health Care Law and Policy; 12:159-194. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/law/CompelledSpeech_MenuLabelLaws.pdf
      • Public Health Law Center. (2010). Menu labeling legislation. Retrieved from: http://www.publichealthlawcenter.org/topics/healthy-eating/menu-labeling-legislation