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Restaurant Menu Labeling Jabri J 052110

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WIth American's eating nearly half of their meals outside of the home, this presentation discusses the need for nutritional information on menus and menu boards at restaurants, in order for the public to make informed decisions regarding food choices. This is one factor that may contribute to the epidemic of overweight and obesity in the U.S.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
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Restaurant Menu Labeling Jabri J 052110

  1. 1. Restaurant Menu Labeling Tackling One Environmental Factor Contributing to the Obesity Epidemic Jennifer Jabri, PhD Student Walden University PUBH 8165-1: Environmental Health Instructor: Dr. Rebecca Heick Spring, 2010
  2. 2. Why do we need Menu Labeling? <ul><li>Restaurants tend to serve larger portions of higher fat, higher calorie foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans eat half of their meals “prepared and consumed elsewhere” (p. 292). 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Most people, including nutritionists, underestimate the number of calories in restaurant meals. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Mikkelsen, L., Erickson, C.S., & Nestle, M. (2007). Creating healthy food environments and preventing chronic disease. In L. Cohen, V. Chavez, & S. Chehimi (Eds). Prevention is Primary: Strategies for Community Well-Being. (p. 287-311). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants: Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf </li></ul>
  3. 3. Larger Portions <ul><li>Portion sizes have nearly doubled in the last 20 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Calories/serving 20 years ago compared to today 1 : </li></ul><ul><li>Fries: from 210 to 610 cals </li></ul><ul><li>Cheeseburger: from 333 to 590 cals </li></ul><ul><li>Spaghetti: from 500 up to 1025 cals </li></ul><ul><li>Bagel: from140 to 350 cals </li></ul><ul><li>1. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (n.d.). Obesity (OEI) slide sets. Retrieved from: http://hp2010.nhlbihin.net/oei_ss/menu.htm#sl2 educatgioninitiative </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  4. 4. People Eat More at Restaurants <ul><li>When eating out of the home, both children and adults tend to eat larger portions, consuming more calories. 1,2,3 </li></ul><ul><li>One study found that a third of 7318 restaurant patrons consumed at least 1,000 calories or more for lunch. 4 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Binkley, U.K., Eales, J., Jekanowski, M. (2000). The relation between dietary change and rising U.S. obesity. International Journal of Obesity; 24:1032-1039. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Paeratakul, S., Perdinand, D., Champagne, C., Ryan, D., & Bray, G. (2003). Fast-food consumption among U.S. adults and children: Dietary and nutrient intake profile. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 103(10):1332-1338. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Zoumans-Morse, C., Rock, C., Sobo, E., Neuhouser, M. (2001). Children’s patterns of macronutrient intake and associations with restaurants and home eating. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 101(8):923-925. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Bassett, M.T. (2008). Purchasing behavior and calorie information at fast-food chains in New York City, 2007. American Journal of Public Health; 98(8):1-3. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>We require nutritional labeling on our packaged foods, so why not for restaurant meals? In fact, three-fourths of Americans use food labels to help them make food choices. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Many surveys have found that the majority of Americans support the addition of nutritional information to menus and menu boards. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>2, Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf </li></ul>
  6. 6. Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity <ul><li>Eating out at restaurants is contributing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than one-third of Americans are at a healthy weight 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic increase in extreme obesity 1, 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L., Curtin, L.R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA; 303(3):235-241. Retrieved from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/2009.2014; http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/303/3/235/JOC90148T3 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hensrud, D.D., & Klein, S. (2006). Extreme obesity: A new medical crisis in the United States. Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 81 (Suppl. 10):S5-10. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Changes in the Prevalence of Obesity 1986-2008 1 <ul><li>1. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2009). U.S. obesity trends: Trends by state 1985-2008. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html#State </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research on Menu Labeling <ul><li>In a study to evaluate whether having nutrition labels on menus would affect the food choices of study participants, researchers found that those who had menus without nutrition information ate several hundred calories more than participants who received menus with nutrition information. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Roberto, C.A., Larsen, P.D., Agnew, H., Baik, J., & Brownell, K.D. (2010). Evaluating the impact of menu labeling on food choices. American Journal of Public Health; 100(2): 312-318. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Research on Menu Labeling <ul><li>Only about half of chain restaurants offer nutritional information . </li></ul><ul><li>Not always accessible as is oftentimes located in a non-visible area, or the patrons must ask for it. 1,2 </li></ul><ul><li>If it is not visible, many people will not think to look for it. 1,2 </li></ul><ul><li>In an observational study, it was reported that, “Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions” (p. 820). 3 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Silver, L. & Bassett, M.T. (2008). Food safety for the 21 st century. JAMA; 300:957-959. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>3. Roberto, C.A., Agnew H., & Brownell, K.D. (2009). An observational study of consumers’ accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants. American Journal of Public Health; 99(5):820-821 . </li></ul>
  10. 10. What Nutritional Information would be included on the Menu/Menu Boards? <ul><li>Standard food items on the menu, not for specially ordered dishes, or for specials that are on the menu for a brief period of time. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The number of calories “clearly associated with each standard menu item.” 2 </li></ul><ul><li>A statement regarding recommended daily caloric intake limits for adults. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Written nutritional information available to patrons. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>2. Buckberg, J.R., & Chestler, A.L. (2010). Congress passes menu labeling in health care reform. Retrieved from: http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=eeff77b9-f95f-485b-a827-2ada0d6132bc </li></ul>
  11. 11. What about the Costs? <ul><li>“ Many chain restaurants already analyze the nutritional contents of their menus. Changing menu boards is a one-time cost” (p. 7). 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf </li></ul>
  12. 12. How Can Federal Menu Labeling Legislation Benefit the Restaurants? <ul><li>It would make them subject to federal regulations rather than different local, county, or state regulations, which is important for chain restaurants with locations across the country. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1. National Restaurant Association. (2010). National Restaurant Association says nutrition information provision is win for consumers and restaurants. Retrieved from: http://www.restaurant.org/pressroom/pressrelease/?ID=1910 </li></ul>
  13. 13. How Would Menu Labeling Make a Difference in the Obesity Epidemic? <ul><li>It will help people to be informed decision makers regarding their food choices, as they will know the nutritional count of what they are eating. </li></ul><ul><li>This may influence them to choose healthier options to control the fat and calories they consume. 1, 2 </li></ul><ul><li>This may be a form of primary prevention of overweight and obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>It may also cause restaurants to offer healthier options and alter some of their recipes. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Khan, L.L., Sobush, K., Keener, D., Goodman, K., Lowry, A., Kakietek, J., et al. (2009). Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR;58(RR-7):1-32. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5807.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf </li></ul>
  14. 14. A Grassroots Movement <ul><li>There have been menu labeling laws passed in numerous cities, counties, and states throughout the U.S. with various rules and regulations regarding the requirements for menu labeling. 1. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009). Menu labeling: Does providing nutrition information at the point of purchase affect consumer behavior? Retrieved from: http://www.healthyeatingresearch.org/images/stories/her_research_briefs/her_menu_labeling_brief_06_29_09_final.pdf </li></ul>
  15. 15. Current Legislation <ul><li>In March 2010, the healthcare reform bill (H.R. 2590) was signed into law in order to amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics act (Section 4205), which had menu labeling requirements for chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. 1 Small businesses are exempt from this. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Restaurant Association supported this bill. 2, 3 , 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Buckberg, J.R., & Chestler, A.L. (2010). Congress passes menu labeling in health care reform. Retrieved from: http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=eeff77b9-f95f-485b-a827-2ada0d6132bc </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Health reform to deliver calorie counts to chain restaurant menus nationwide. Retrieved from: http://cspinet.org/new/201003211.html </li></ul><ul><li>National Restaurant Association. (2010). National Restaurant Association says nutrition information provision is win for consumers and restaurants. Retrieved from: http://www.restaurant.org/pressroom/pressrelease/?ID=1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Restaurant industry backs menu-labeling legislation. Retrieved from: http://www.rwjf.org/publichealth/digest.jsp?id=11101 </li></ul>
  16. 16. What About Smaller Restaurants? <ul><li>They should consider posting the calorie content of standard menu items. </li></ul><ul><li>Customers will come to expect this information after being accustomed to obtaining it from chain restaurants. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it can also benefit smaller restaurants as they can voluntarily opt in and would then be subject to these federal standards rather than being subject to varying requirements set by different communities, or states. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Menu labeling requirements can benefit both the restaurants and consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller restaurants should also post caloric information on their menus. </li></ul><ul><li>It is one step toward combating the epidemic of overweight and obesity in the U.S. </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Bassett, M.T. (2008). Purchasing behavior and calorie information at fast-food chains in New York City, 2007. American Journal of Public Health; 98(8):1-3. </li></ul><ul><li>Binkley, U.K., Eales, J., Jekanowski, M. (2000). The relation between dietary change and rising U.S. obesity. International Journal of Obesity; 24:1032-1039. </li></ul><ul><li>Buckberg, J.R., & Chestler, A.L. (2010). Congress passes menu labeling in health care reform. Retrieved from: http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=eeff77b9-f95f-485b-a827-2ada0d6132bc </li></ul><ul><li>Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2009). U.S. obesity trends: Trends by state 1985-2008. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html#State </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Health reform to deliver calorie counts to chain restaurant menus nationwide. Retrieved from: http://cspinet.org/new/201003211.html </li></ul><ul><li>Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L., Curtin, L.R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA; 303(3):235-241 . Retrieved from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/2009.2014; http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/303/3/235/JOC90148T3 </li></ul><ul><li>Hensrud, D.D., & Klein, S. (2006). Extreme obesity: A new medical crisis in the United States. Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 81 (Suppl. 10):S5-10. </li></ul><ul><li>Khan, L.L., Sobush, K., Keener, D., Goodman, K., Lowry, A., Kakietek, J., et al. (2009). Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR;58(RR-7):1-32. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5807.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Mikkelsen, L., Erickson, C.S., & Nestle, M. (2007). Creating healthy food environments and preventing chronic disease. In L. Cohen, V. Chavez, & S. Chehimi (Eds). Prevention is Primary: Strategies for Community Well-Being. (p. 287-311). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (n.d.). Obesity (OEI) slide sets. Retrieved from: http://hp2010.nhlbihin.net/oei_ss/menu.htm#sl2 educatgioninitiative </li></ul><ul><li>National Restaurant Association. (2010). National Restaurant Association says nutrition information provision is win for consumers and restaurants. Retrieved from: http://www.restaurant.org/pressroom/pressrelease/?ID=1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Paeratakul, S., Perdinand, D., Champagne, C., Ryan, D., & Bray, G. (2003). Fast-food consumption among U.S. adults and children: Dietary and nutrient intake profile. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 103(10):1332-1338 </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). Restaurant industry backs menu-labeling legislation. Retrieved from: http://www.rwjf.org/publichealth/digest.jsp?id=11101 </li></ul><ul><li>Roberto, C.A., Agnew H., & Brownell, K.D. (2009). An observational study of consumers’ accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants . American Journal of Public Health; 99(5):820-821 . </li></ul><ul><li>Roberto, C.A., Larsen, P.D., Agnew, H., Baik, J., & Brownell, K.D. (2010). Evaluating the impact of menu labeling on food choices. American Journal of Public Health; 100(2): 312-318. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. (2008). Menu labeling in chain restaurants : Opportunities for public policy. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Silver, L. & Bassett, M.T. (2008). Food safety for the 21 st century. JAMA; 300:957-959. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoumans-Morse, C., Rock, C., Sobo, E., Neuhouser, M. (2001). Children’s patterns of macronutrient intake and associations with restaurants and home eating. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 101(8):923-925. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Recommended Reading <ul><li>Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2009). Menu labeling: Does providing nutrition information at the point of purchase affect consumer behavior? Retrieved from: http://www.healthyeatingresearch.org/images/stories/her_research_briefs/her_menu_labeling_brief_06_29_09_final.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/news.aspx?id=35 </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues With Menu Label Laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pomeranz, J.L. (2009). Compelled speech under the commercial speech doctrine: The case of menu label laws. Journal of Health Care Law and Policy; 12:159-194. Retrieved from: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/law/CompelledSpeech_MenuLabelLaws.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Health Law Center. (2010). Menu labeling legislation. Retrieved from: http://www.publichealthlawcenter.org/topics/healthy-eating/menu-labeling-legislation </li></ul></ul>

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