Next Generation Media 2010


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We first created this book in 2006 as a guide to all of thenew technologies and trends in media. At that time we felt we needed to explain and define terms like broadband, user generated content and so on, with associated usage and penetration levels.
Now we feel that there is greater understanding of new media terms, and that the book needed a new purpose. The new book is intended as a guide to media and trends in 2010.

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Next Generation Media 2010

  1. 1. Next geNeratioN media isobar /000 — twitterati – a group of influential — next The guide To twitter uSerS with a high number of followerS, or generation influential followerS — media _ —farmville uSerS gave 690m virtual valentineS giftS in 2010.
  2. 2. — iNtroduCtioN /001 nxt next generation media gen md We first created this book in 2006 as a guide to all of the new technologies and trends in media. at that time we felt we needed to explain and define terms like broadband, user generated content and so on, with associated usage and penetration levels. Now we feel that there is greater understanding of new media terms, and that the book needed a new purpose. the new book is intended as a guide to media and trends in 2010. it contains: _ ■■ media evolution – from the analogue world of the 1980s to the post-digital 2010s ■■ data – we still include data on the key measures and key markets. ■■ 10 companies to watch – from apple to Zynga ■■ 10 trends – mobile, the Cloud, and more ■■ Plus a handy glossary of new media terms —
  3. 3. CoNteNts /002 CoNteNts — media evolution media Changes by the decades twitterati 03 05 – a group of influential 10 trends For 2010 07 twitter uSerS with a high media 101s Key data 13 23 number of followerS, or digital media glossary 25 influential followerS —
  4. 4. media eVolutioN media evolution We think that media is People spend more time consuming media than almost any other activity. The media landscape used to look like this: one of the most exciting For example, on average 18-24’s globally spend and fast moving forces over 3 hours a day watching tV in the world. ■ ■ over 2 hours a day listening to the radio TECHNOLOGY ■ & purchase 2 magazines a month media has become more complex – we think about the transformation of media in three ways - technology, people and content. PEOPLE CONTENT With no real convergence between the three. — 1980s
  5. 5. /004 Now it looks like this: Technology drives transformation: Media content has transformed: there are new devices and more devices. there are more tV channels now than in the last 10 years we’ve seen the launch before – and more tV show formats. of things as revolutionary as the iPod, the there are more newspapers and iPhone, the Nintendo ds, the Wii and the magazines. Content is “always on” – asus eee. there is more content available and more TECHNOLOGY at the same time we’ve seen the launch of ways to consume it, and interaction is many websites that have changed the way possible at speeds and levels that weren’t people communicate, find information possible before the digital age. and spend their time, like Facebook, Youtube Wikipedia, twitter and Hulu. New media is transforming PEOPLE CONTENT communications People and society have changed: Old media is transforming and evolving more people now live in cities, and go on to further education. Women are more People/content/technology will continue likely to work, and are likely to get married to evolve today’s media landscape is almost older than before. even little things have unrecognisable from 30 years ago, changed, like the proportion of income Understanding how people choose, because in this time teechnology, people people spend on food. engage, create and interact with content and content have all traNsFormed. has become more complex — 2010s
  6. 6. media CHaNges bY tHe deCades ChangeS by the deCadeS AnAlogue World going digiTAl ■ mass media ■ media world in flux ■ dominated by powerful tV channels ■ New technology allows digital broadcasting, & newspapers increasing number of channels 1980s ■ strong gatekeepers ■ New technology also reduces production costs meaning more print interruptive ad models 1990s ■ ■ internet becomes popular, but niche — ■ VCrs popular increasing audience control ■ audiences more in control through rise of strict regulation — ■ in-home entertainment like gaming ■ gatekeepers still strong
  7. 7. /006 digiTAl World PosT-digiTAl World ■ media world now embracing digital media ■ digital media now the norm ■ broadband makes the internet a richer experience ■ devices getting smaller, with more capability ■ New technology allows smaller, cheaper, more ■ Content stored ‘in the cloud’ rather sophisticated devices than on devices google becomes the largest media company, ■ asian countries and companies growing in 2000s ■ by ad revenues influence – not just making hardware, but offering services as well ■ audiences increasingly in control – can choose what — to watch, when and where ■ audiences increasingly measured, analysed and targeted 2010s ■ traditional media players see falling revenues ■ New business models emerging in content ■ regulation increasingly irrelevant and advertising — ■ Companies increasingly more able to restrict and limit than regulators
  8. 8. 10 treNds 10 trendS Mobile 001 for 2010 the most interesting technological developments are likely to come in mobile services and applications. Penetration of the mobile web (3g) is rising, currently standing at 15% of all phone users globally according to ovum and morgan stanley, and the number of devices that are capable of offering a rich web experience is ballooning. by the end of These are the ten key trends we've identified next year it will be relatively hard to buy for 2010. It's a given that the strong growth a mobile phone without a sophisticated operating system, just as it became hard trends will continue – there will be more to buy a non camera phone about 7 years ago. if the average contract length is 18 people online, more time spent online, more months, then 2/3 of mobile users will be mobile internet use, more videos uploaded, replacing their handsets next year, and many will be trading up to smartphones more blog posts published and so on. The (phones with advanced features like email, web browsing, and the ability to two overriding themes for 2010 will be the edit documents). rise of mobile internet and the continued use the market for apps will continue to grow, of cloud computing and storage. Most of the with the iPhone app store currently at over 4.5 billion downloads, and (maybe) individual trends make reference to these. 8 billion by the end of 2010. but there will be strong competition from android (a slew of new phones launched so far in 2010), Nokia (through symbian and maemo), and blackberry. app developers will develop apps for all platforms.
  9. 9. /008 The Cloud AugMenTed reAliTy 002 003 Cloud computing is essentially the augmented reality puts a virtual layer on storage of information and resources top of a real world view. it's become a bit in cyberspace rather than on an of a gimmick in desktop computing (turn actual computer. Webmail is cloud on your webcam to see a mini movie), but computing - essentially you can access in mobile apps it can be used to show it from any computer or advanced phone local landmarks or utilities on top of a —in anywhere in the world, as long as you standard map or panoramic view, as seen have internet access. through the phone's camera. once these start to proliferate, maybe with voucher the cloud also allows the simultaneous codes integrated, smartphones will Japan use of multiple devices – a laptop suddenly have a whole new appeal. sometimes, a mobile at other times, and so on. similarly software and music don't need to be owned - they can just be accessed when needed. spotify Mobile PAyMenTs and myspace music are classic cloud examples - you don;t need to have the 004 eCommerCe giant rakuten made — music downloaded to a device when you 16% can access it whenever you want. in Japan ecommerce giant rakuten made 16% of all revenues from mobile sales in 2008, a number that has been penetration of the steadily climbing from 4% in 2004. of all mobile web in the west a few success stories like iPhone apps from companies like revenueS from (3g) mobile SaleS in ebay and Pizza Hut show that mobile 2008 iS riSing, commerce is likely to be big business here too. & there's more - the idea of Currently using a mobile phone as a virtual wallet, Standing at or being able to 'text' money to friends 15% seems likely to gain traction next year. —
  10. 10. 10 treNds AsiAn influenCe Video 005 006 the asian influence will rise. already 2010 sees Youtube celebrating its 5th China is the largest single online country, birthday, with a global reach of nearly and the ability to create urls with asian 40% of all internet users each month. character sets will spur the web still 2010 could also be the year that it further. the lack of common languages expands its offering into full length and keyboards will start to become less films, tV shows and sports events, relevant with the rise of picture based either for rental or pay per view. it has search, such as google goggles, where worked hard over the past two years to you just need to take a picture of an secure professionally made content, and object to find out about it. successfully screened back catalogue films mainly in the us, and concerts asian sites could well start to focus on the globally. it even screened the olympics in west, with search engine baidu possibly 2008 in countries where the ioC had not launching in the west, and messenger site sold the official rights, and stepped in to QQ showing the rest of the world how to stream the indian Premier league cricket. monetise through virtual goods. We’ll also see lots more live events screened online via sites like vshare, ustream, the bbC’s iPlayer and Hulu could also grow beyond their national boundaries in 2010, but so far expansion has been slower than thought. Youtube could now — employeeS are be the most likely global video channel for long-form video. twitter ServiCeS like alSo illuStrate how the new faCefrank eliaSon at ComCaSt, of the brand, SCottbeSt buy ford, and twelpforCe for example from monty at —
  11. 11. /010 TWiTTer 007 twitter will see huge growth, but a new type of user is emerging – one that treats it as one-to-many sms and mms. 18 months ago many of the people who were on twitter had a blog. these days many new twitter users are refugees from other services like myspace. Particularly in the us many twitter users seem to give their address as a myspace page, and tread twitter as a comms network for their circle of friends. While a few months ago it was reckoned that young people don’t tweet, it seems that young people are increasingly getting into it. — youtube twitter itself will stay as the core serviced, but extra functionality to simplify it, and make it more usable will come, like the list feature introduced recently. the money will start to come in too, for example Celebrating itS 5th birthday, with a global reaCh of through search deals and initiatives like promoted tweets. nearly 40% services like twitter also illustrate how employees are the new face of the brand, for example Frank eliason at Comcast, scott monty at Ford, and twelpforce from best buy. of all internet uSerS eaCh month.
  12. 12. 10 treNds — aS people’S uSage inCreaSeS, the web iS Seen aS a mainStream entertainment Channel, aS demonStrated by the riSe of video SiteS, SoCial networkS, and online gaming —
  13. 13. /012 MeAsureMenT fun rejeCTers 008 009 010 measurement and understanding is the digital world will be more fun. as Finally, let's not get carried away with our key to communications – the ability to people’s usage increases the web is seen future visions. a lot of people do not yet see how a campaign has worked, and as a mainstream entertainment channel, live digitally. they don't download music, understand why – and 2010 will see as demonstrated by the rise of video much less download films or tV illegally. major advances in the measurement of sites, social networks, and online gaming. they aren't on twitter or Foursquare, social media effectiveness and mash more blogs will start aggregating random and didn't apply for an invite to Wave. ups in measurement between different things, like cake decoration gone wrong, in fact in the uK, according to research media. agencies are learning to see strange photos from yesteryear, or bizarre commissioned by the government's in the new climate, and getting more homemade items. similarly services like digital inclusion team, over 15% of the sophisticated in how they measure Foursquare will grow in popularity, due to population have never used the internet. campaign effectiveness. Clients are also their game-playing nature. Foursquare is there are a lot of people who are very getting more open about sharing results a mobile service that asks you to report in happy with mobile phones that will make of initiatives (where they are successful, whenever you visit a local place of interest calls and send texts, and not do much clearly…). expect to see examples of – the person who checks in most often else. they don't have a PVr, blu-ray or campaigns across all media measured in becomes the ‘mayor’ – adding a fun twist HdtV. these people will remain a very terms of revenues but also engagement, to a normal part of people’s lives. important group, and mustn't be ignored. and combinations of the two. most of the ideas i've written about here it’s also the case that people are very are moving from the early adopters to delivery metrics like clicks and views will willing to pay small amounts for ‘fun’ the mainstream, but there will always be become increasingly less important than mobile apps and games. For example people who lag behind, and are happy to. measures of success. the singer t-Pain sold 300,000 of his the huge sales of susan boyle's album ‘autotune’ apps in 3 weeks at $3 each. on Cd show that there are lots of people — t-pain Sold it’s pretty pointless, but great fun. who don't download (in the us only 6% 300,000 of first week sales were through itunes). the number and complexity of stunts will also increase. in 2009 we've seen in essence we need to understand the flashmobs, pop up shops and even events future, but be aware that a lot of people of hiS ‘autotune’ appS like the creation of a giant punch bowl for Courvoisier ("so big you can row in it"). are still living in the present. in 3 weekS at $3 eaCh. everyone likes these - there are bound to be more of them. it’S pretty pointleSS, but great fun.
  14. 14. media 101's media 101's In the post digital world it's often individual google _001 companies that make a difference, and drive innovation and progress. google is both the world’s largest search engine, and the world’s largest media company by advertising revenue. Here are 10 companies we think are doing interesting things in 2010. All are helping google started as part of a Phd project at stanford, and has been live as a search to define the media landscape. engine since 1998. it was founded by larry Page and sergey brin, and has been a publically listed company since 2003. its stated aim is to categorise the world’s information, in whatever form this may take, so has diversified from just being a search engine to acquire lots of other businesses, including blogger, Youtube, and admob. Currently google has 907m monthly visitors, or 74% of all internet users. search is the largest part of this, with 772m monthly users, or 63% of the world’s internet users. google makes over 95% of it’s revenues through advertising, and reported revenues of $6.77bn for Q1 2010. google’s major moves this year are expected to be in mobile, with the launch of the Nexus one phone, and the release of more phones from other manufacturers using its android operating system.
  15. 15. /014 fACebook _002 Facebook is the world’s largest social and now has its targets set on others like Network, with over 400m members. orkut in brazil. Facebook’s challenge is to stay relevant to existing members while it was created in 2004 while founder attracting new ones, and allow advertisers mark Zuckerberg was at Harvard, and to target based on user interests, without was initially limited to people in academic users getting put off by perceived loss institutions. it was opened up to other of privacy. it has recently shown how it users in 2006, and quickly took off, first can socialise the rest of the web with its in the english speaking world, then universal ‘like’ button enabling users to elsewhere. it is currently the largest see what online content outside Facebook social network in the us, and most of their friends enjoy. europe, and growing strongly in most other places. the company is privately held. it does not see itself as a ‘social network’, but more as a social utility. it has become in effect a ‘platform’ for other things to exist on, for example games like Farmville, which members play while signed into Facebook. Facebook makes its revenue from advertising, and has developed its own ad formats and sizes that can be targeted based on users’ demographics, stated locations and stated interests, for example music and films that they say they like. it has successfully overtaken myspace in the us, and local social networks like tuente in spain and bebo in the uK,
  16. 16. media 101's media 101's youTube _003 Youtube is the world’s most popular putting ads onto it, but some methods, online video viewing site. like scanning for recognisable songs, have been used to sell music against it was started in 2005 after the founders videos that use songs in the soundtrack. realised that there was no easy way to share their own videos. Now it has google has also been very active in doing nearly 500m unique visitors a month, deals with large content producers to boasts 1 billion video streams a day, put professionally made material on the and says that 24 hours of content are site. For example Channel 4 in the uK uploaded each minute. has a channel with full length episodes of popular shows, with pre-roll ads. in 2009 google bought the site in 2006 for $1.65 the site broke new ground by streaming a billion, and has steadily tried to monetise u2 concert live, and in 2010 it screened more and more of the content. the main indian Premier league cricket in markets problem is that with the level of uploads it where the tV rights had not been sold. is impossible to check all content before
  17. 17. /016 ebAy _004 ebay is both the world’s largest ebay has recently started to shift the eCommerce site and auction site. emphasis onto large sellers – for example companies that sell remaindered stock Founded in 1995, it is older than almost – rather than individual sellers. more any of the other most popular sites, prominence is now given to ‘fixed price’ including google, Wikipedia, Youtube, auctions like daily deals, than individual Facebook and blogger, and has held onto sellers with traditional auction sales. its position of strength despite the rise of other eCommerce platforms. it currently ebay’s moves into mobile have been very has 157m monthly visitors. successful; it has reported sales of 1.5m items through mobile apps in over the one of the factors in its success is Christmas period. that it spends almost no money up front on advertising, but instead uses ebay also owns the online payment affiliate marketing, so sites that run the system Paypal, and a minority share of advertising only get paid on results. the Voice over iP communications company skype.
  18. 18. media 101's media 101's APPle _005 apple is seen as one of the most has proved very popular, with 14% of the innovative consumer electronics smartphone market in 2009, and sales companies in the world. of nearly 9 million in the first quarter of 2010 alone. the key to the success of the Founded in 1976, it made its name in iPhone was the app store – over 100,000 high end computers, but diversified small programmes & games developed by into entertainment products with the independent companies that add myriad iPod in 2001. uses to the phone. this way the phone can improve functionality every day. the iPod was such a game-changing product because it showed that apple in april 2010 the iPad went on sale in were making products but also providing the us and sold 300,000 units in the services. it now dominates the branded first day. the iPad is effectively a device mP3 player market – in fact it is one of for watching video and playing games, the only companies still making mP3 but also with email and basic computer players with over 30gb of storage. functions, and the ability to use the same apps as the iPhone. the iPod also put apple products into the mass market for the first time, and in turn apple has the sort of hard-core fans that had a halo effect on the other products other companies would die for. as a like desktop computers and laptops. result any new product launch from the launch of the iPhone in 2007 gave apple is treated as a major media event. people an iPod as a phone, and again
  19. 19. /018 TWiTTer _006 twitter is a social networking site that twitter uses an open source technology, allows people to transmit 140 character and allows other companies access to its messages, including links. aPi (application Programming interface) so that they can use the data (e.g. the it was founded in 2006, and achieved messages) within twitter to feed into other mainstream fame in 2009 through sites and programmes. For example celebrity users and its role in major news other companies can make pages that events like the aftermath of the iranian show mentions of their names on twitter, election. in april 2010 it made its first or show the level of mentions of a certain ever official statement on user numbers, word as chart over time. claiming 106m accounts globally, and 55m tweets per day. twitter is still a privately owned company, and is believed to be profitable, or at twitter differs from Facebook and least breaking even thanks to commercial other networks by using non reciprocal deals, such as supplying data to google relationships – that is, if someone wants and bing for their search results. to follow what you are doing you do not twitter recently trialled a programme need to also follow what they are doing. of ‘promoted tweets’ where companies this means that celebrities and public could pay to post a tweet that would figures can use it to communicate to appear in search results. expect to see their fans without allowing undue access. more ideas to generate revenue as the it also means that respected authorities year progresses. in any field can be followed by people for information at no real cost (in terms of a relationship) by the follower.
  20. 20. media 101's media 101's foursquAre _007 Foursquare is a virtual game played rated restaurants) and bravo (special over a mobile application in which badges created for locations relating to people get points for the number of tV shows). Venues can also set up their different locations they visit. the most own special deals on the site, whereby the frequent visitor to a location becomes ‘mayor’ gets a free drink or a special offer. the virtual ‘mayor’. like twitter, Foursquare has an ‘open aPi’ Foursquare was founded in march 2009; which means that application developers in late april 2010 it told bloomberg that can mine the data and produce tools and it had 1m registered users, and was on sites that use this information. so far a track to hit 3 million by the end of the few have been produced – e.g. to show summer. the ‘mayor’ deals available by city, and to overlay comments for venues onto a Foursquare has started to sign google map ( commercial deals, generally with companies that have multiple branches, being just over one year old, Foursquare to allow them to offer special services is likely to change over the next year – or deals with users. examples of this more features, more deals, but keep include Zagat (special badges awarded the same general functionality. to people who visit 3 or more Zagat
  21. 21. /020 zyngA _008 Zynga is an american company that involved with Zynga are very high – for produces casual games to play on social example 60m players each day, and networks, most notably Farmville on in February 2010 FarmVille players Facebook and myspace. exchanged 690m virtual Valentines gifts. Zynga was founded in 2007, and is still Zynga has created a charity company, privately owned. according to stats from which allows people to donate, Zynga games make to charity via the games. For example in up 5 of the ten most popular Facebook January 2010 players donated over $1.5m applications – Farmville has 80m monthly to Haitian earthquake relief through users, texas Holdem Poker 30m, Café 4 buying virtual goods in 4 different World 28m, mafia Wars 24m, PetVille games. 21m, &. overall Zynga claims to have 60m daily players. games are free to play, but extra features and ‘energy’ can be bought online. most of the numbers
  22. 22. media 101's media 101's rAkuTen _009 rakuten is Japan’s biggest online although rakuten currently only retailer. Founded in 1997 it has revenues generates less than 10% of total sales exceeding $1.1billion, mainly through its outside Japan it has been expanding shopping channel rakuten ichiba. outside globally, through organic growth and acquisition of sites in other markets the site has over 28,000 merchant shops like linkshare in the us. offering over 35m different items for sale, to over 45m members – one third of the rakuten is seeing a shift within Japan Japanese population. Choice is so large from eCommerce to m-Commerce – in through the creation of a platform for Q1 2009 18% of it’s revenues came from merchants, rather than an online store. people purchasing over mobile devices, as a result lots of b2b business is done up from 4% in 2004. through rakuten, in addition to b2C.
  23. 23. /022 sPoTify _010 spotify is a streaming music service spotify was keen to sign up official deals that members can use to create and with all of the major record companies share playlists. before going live, giving them a share of the ad revenue and subscription it was founded in 2006, and went live in revenues, rather than facing legal 2008, and has over 7m users in europe issues after launch. so far most record (it is used by over 15% of the swedish companies seem to still be in favour of population). it is currently available in spotify, although Warner music has said sweden, spain, Norway, Finland, united that it remains sceptical of the ‘Freemium’ Kingdom and France. users can choose services that sites like spotify offer. either a free version, with ads, or a premium ad-free version for £9.99 or the biggest question for spotify €9.99 per month. there is also a mobile is whether it can launch in the us, app, available on the major operating which would open nit up to a much systems, that costs the same as the bigger audience. a us launch has premium web version. been rumoured for months, but not materialised yet; in the meantime other services like Pandora, which is gaining listeners at a rate of about 3m a month.
  24. 24. Next geNeratioN media KeY data key data internet and broadband penetration internet Penetration (% of individuals 15+) 68.9% 70.0% 58.9% 58.3% 45.4% 57.0% 85.0% 32.7% 32.6% 29.9% 75.4% broadband Penetration (% of households) 64.0% 63.0% 64.5% 58.0% 45.5% 53.2% 82.2% 18.0% 20.4% 23.4% 87.9% source: emarketer Feb 2010 mobile Penetration and usage 2009 (% of individuals 15+) mobile users 89% 81% 78% 84% 84% 80% 82% 67% 88% 56% 94% mobile internet regular users 22% 26% 16% 22% 23% 23% 18% 11% 10% 18% 3g Penetration 37.0% 29.0% 25.0% 20.0% 33.0% 38.0% 22.0% 3.0% 4.0% 71.0% source: Forrester, emarketer / informa / WCis+, morgan stanley research 2009
  25. 25. /024 top search, social Network, and Video sites reach, January 2010 top search engine google.Com google.Co.uK google.Fr google.Nl baidu.Com NaVer.Com 80% 89% 82% 78% 90% 85% 87% 60% 83% 59% 85% top social Network FaCebooK.Com FaCebooK.Com FaCebooK.Com FaCebooK.Com FaCebooK.Com FaCebooK.Com HYVes.Nl reNreN CYWorld.Com 54% 75% 58% 23% 72% 52% 63% 46% 73% 13% 56% top Video site Youtube.Com Youtube.Com Youtube.Com Youtube.Com Youtube.Com Youtube.Com Youtube.Com Youtube.Com Youtube.Com tudou.Com PaNdora.tV 51% 61% 47% 51% 60% 57% 64% 17% 55% 23% 25% source: comscore 2010 iPtV Penetration 2008 (% Households) 14.5% 0.5% 18.0% 3.0% 3.2% 4.0% 1.0% source: idate / ofcom dec 2009 ad spend usd millions and % online 2009 ToTAl 159,111 20,184 13,536 16,573 12,175 7,353 5,746 6,686 9,601 49,780 5,585 online % 9.3% 26.8% 14.1% 5.9% 7.9% 12.3% 16.3% 4.1% 4.5% 3.0% 18.7% source: aegis media estimates 2010
  26. 26. digital media glossarY digital media gloSSary underStanding the key (& ConfuSing) termS @ - the @ sign is used in twitter as a App / Widget – a small programme CPM – the advertiser pays each time prefix to another user’s name to direct on computer or mobile phone that an ad is shown to a user – for example a message to a person – for example @ performs a specific task, for example in a big video ad. if the rate is £20 stephenFry. this has also been adopted connecting to a specific news source, or CPm, then the advertiser pays £20 per by Facebook, and has also become city guide. Facebook popularised apps thousand impressions, so 1m impressions shorthand in other circles. in the late 2000s, and apple has made would cost £20,000. them the focus for much of the iPhone’s Android – google’s mobile phone marketing. so far over 4 billion iPhone dunbar’s number – roughly 150, and operating system – that is the computer apps have been downloaded. supposedly the number of ‘friends’ that a operating system that powers functions human brain can cope with. Named after like an app (QV) on mobile phones. Checkin – users of mobile location- the british anthropologist robin dunbar, google have made android open source based services like Foursquare and who claims that this number crops up (qv) so that other mobile phone handset gowalla check in to venues to show where over and over again in research of ancient makers like sony ericsson are able to use they are. they get points for the more villages, nomadic tribes, and army units. it and spread its penetration. checkins they make. both Facebook and twitter have announced that they eCommerce – online shopping. in the APi – application Programming will be introducing location-based uK online sales now account for about interface. a system that allows other checkin systems. 10% of total retail sales, according to software to interact with software on a research from Kelkoo. site. For example twitter has an open CPA – Cost per action. a way of buying aPi, which means that other sites and advertising – for example the advertiser engagement – active consumption of programmes can take information from only pays if a sale can be directly tracked online material, including adverting, twitter and put it onto other sites and back to a click on a specific ad on a site. compared to simple exposure. the programmes. Facebook was one of the affiliate marketing works in this way – simplest measure of engagement is time first major sites to make its aPi available sites that take advertising get paid on spent on a site or interacting with an ad. for others to use, meaning that lots of performance. Note that many premium freelance developers were able to create sites do not accept CPa advertising. #fail – Fail, or #Fail is a term used widgets for the site, massively expanding online and particularly on twitter to show the number available. apple have also CPC – Cost per click. a way of buying that something has not worked, or in released the developer aPi for the iPhone, advertising – the advertiser only pays if frustrating. For example lots of people meaning that freelancers can develop a click in made on the ad. Paid search complain about their mobile phones with apps for that platform. activity, for example on google all works the words ‘[brand]’ then ‘#fail’. there in this way. Note that many premium is also a very popular comedy site called sites do not accept CPC advertising. Failblog ( which shows funny pictures of things that ‘fail’ for CPM – Cost per thousand (mille) whatever reason. impressions. a way of buying advertising
  27. 27. /026 fan – a ‘fan’ was a Facebook term — iPTV - internet Protocol television. which sold 1.5m items over its mobile — for someone who is a supporter of a television over broadband lines through apps (qv) over Christmas 2009 specific cause or brand. For example a dedicated device or hardware attached addias originals has over 2.7m fans on to the tV. Micropayment – small payments made Facebook. as of april 2010 the term to sites. Precise definitions of how small ‘Fan’ has been replaced by ‘like’ – like – a term used in Facebook to show this needs to be vary, but for many the So far over 3 that is you now ‘like’ adidas originals, that a member aligns themselves with a success of paid iPhone apps (qv) which rather than are ‘fans’ of it. personality, a company or a movement. often cost less than £1 point to the ‘like’ replaced ‘Fan’ (qv) in april 2010, success of the concept of micropayments. follower – a follower is a twitter term and Facebook has also let other sites put micropayments are often held up as billion iphone for someone who receives updates Facebook ‘like’ buttons on their pages, something newspapers need to adopt from another user. ashton Kutcher is so that visitors to any site can potentially to survive – for example pay £0.02 to the most followed person on twitter see which of their Facebook friends like read an article. with over 4.8m followers. the content on it. nsfW – Not safe For Work. Written appS have been forum – a bulletin board. bulletin boards linkbait – terms used by unscrupulous before a link to warn that the contents are one of the rew remnants of the ‘old website owners (often spammers) to of the link are likely to contain nudity or web’ that are still popular, and gather appear high in the search rankings graphic language. together like-minded people, for example and get more traffic. For example many downloaded. supporters of a sports team or a band. sites will take headlines from major news open source – software that allows users stories and use them as irrelevant content to edit and improve it. fTW – For the Win – something to get visitors. — which is great; the opposite of ‘Fail’ P2P – Peer to peer – sites that allow (qv). For example ‘Half price starbucks Maemo – Nokia’s advanced mobile phone sharing between individual members, today FtW’. operating system. rather than through a central point. P2P sites make a virtual network of the hashtag – a work prefixed by the ‘#’ sign Mashup – a site or application that uses members, using storage space across often used in twitter to make posts on the a combination of two data sources, their computers and other devices, so same subject easy to fine – for example for example a site that overlays crime that nothing is held centrally. examples ‘#olympics’. many conferences and statistics onto a google map. mashups include file-sharing networks like events now have their own official hashtag rely on open aPis (qv) to get data from gnutella, but peer to peer technologies for delegates to use when tweeting during different sites. are also involved in the telephone the conference. service skype and the music streaming M-Commerce – shopping over mobile service spotify. impression – an advertising page view. devices. many sites now have popular mobile shopping options, including ebay,
  28. 28. digital media glossarY — twitterati – a group of influential twitter uSerS with a high number of followerS, or influential followerS — —farmville uSerS gave 690m virtual valentineS giftS in 2010.
  29. 29. /028 digital media gloSSary underStanding the key (& ConfuSing) termS Paywall – a system that blocks content to status update – a declaration of what you ugC – user generated Content – for all but those who pay to see it. Paywalls are doing, written on a social site. example an amateur video on Youtube, usually also block search engines from a blog post, or a status update on a seeing the content. symbian – mobile phone operating social network. system owned by Nokia but also used Pre-roll – a video ad that plays before the by other manufacturers. less advanced unique user – a unique visitor to a site. main piece of video content, normally for than maemo. Note that this can only be verified as a 15-30 seconds. Newspapers generally unique computer address – if 10 people use pre-roll ads before their video stories, tl;dr – ‘too long; didn’t read’ - slang on the same computer in an internet café and professional content sites like Hulu used on forums and messageboards in visit the same site they only count as one also use pre-rolls. Youtube has started to response to links posted. user, but if a person visits a site on a work use pre-rolls for premium partner videos, computer and a personal one, this counts for example tV shows from Channel 4 Troll – someone who posts deliberately as two users. in the uK. it is also possible to buy ‘Post inflammatory material online, often in roll’ ads, but these are less common. comments to other articles or videos. universal search – search results in often the troll will know that they are multiple formats, for example general Pwn / Pawn / own – slang to mean making an indefensible point (e.g. ‘macs web results, news results, and video someone owns someone else – i.e. to get are useless’) but will do it to infuriate results, all on one page. the better of them. the perpetrator of a people who don’t realise that it is a joke. successful prank can boast that he has user-initiated – a video or music track, ‘pwned’ his victim. Tweet – a message sent on twitter. usually in an ad that only plays when the a ‘retweet’ or ‘rt’ is a forwarded tweet. users requests if to. seo – search engine optimisation – Changing the design of a website, often Twitterati – a group of influential twitter Virtual goods – Non-physical goods, like on a daily basis, to make it appear higher users with a high number of followers, a picture of a bunch of flowers that can in the search rankings. or influential followers. For example it be given online, usually in a virtual world, is assumed that a topic or movement on like second life, in a game, like Farmville, social search – search with results twitter only really establishes momentum or on a social network. For example gathered from user-generated sources, once a member of the twitterati tweets Farmville users gave 690m virtual like twitter, or even from a specific group about it, increasing the reach and impact Valentines gifts in 2010. of friends or contacts. of the message.
  30. 30. Next geNeratioN media — ea paid a reported $300m for playfiSh, another SoCial media gameS — Company in november 2009.
  31. 31. /030 — nxt gen Produced by Aegis Media’s intelligence Team We regularly produce content to help our clients understand how the communications landscape md is transforming. to access more from Next generation media please look at our content on slideshare and Youtube: for further information please contact: _ 2010 —
  32. 32. Next geNeratioN media /031 — Spotify waS founded in 2006, and went live in 2008, and haS over 7m uSerS in europe. WWW.ISOBAR.COM