Andy Kaltenbrunner: “There is no such thing as a ‘convergence continuum’ aiming to wards the perfect solution.”
Action ISO906Audience Interactivityand ParticipationMedia Company RepresentativesInterviews and EssaysEDITORSBirgit StarkBozena I. Mierzejewska ISBN 978-2-9601157-1-0
INTERVIEWS / ESSAY TABLE OF CONTENTSINTERVIEWS “There is no such thing as a ‘convergence continuum’ aiming towards the perfect solution.” Name of the Interviewer Prof. Dr. Birgit Stark Name of the Interviewee Dr. Andy Kaltenbrunner ”Social media is not a threat but a reward for companies!” Name of the Interviewer Prof. Dr. Birgit Stark Name of the Interviewee Ina von HollyESSAY ”New Tools and Scenes for the Media Play” Name of the Author Josefa Haas
Andy Kaltenbrunner, PhD, political scientist, is co-founder and managing director ofName of the Interviewer Medienhaus Wien. Kaltenbrunner workedProf. Dr. Birgit Stark as a political journalist and editor-in-chiefInstitution for newspapers and magazines (e.g. theJohannes Gutenberg University MainzDepartment for Communication developed several media-projects, print andCountry online. Today is a media-advisor, researcherGermany and lecturer in Austria, Germany and Spain.Email Addressbirgit.email@example.com executive MA-programme “InternationalName of the IntervieweeDr. Andy Kaltenbrunner carried out in Austria, Germany, Spain and theInstitutionMedienhaus Wien and research projects, among them theCountryAustria journalism-programme “Journalismus undKeywordsNewsroom Convergence, Interaction,Comparative Analysis
INTERVIEW ANDY KALTENBRUNNER TRANSFORMING AUDIENCES, TRANSFORMING SOCIETIES and speed limits for convergence processes Kaltenbrunners research and in the newsroom is, of course, the level consulting in the last decade is of internet penetration in the markets. integration-processes in European In Europe, the fastest convergence and and US newsrooms. For a list of integration processes are to be found in the projects and publications see www. Northern countries. In contrast, in central mhw.at/ European countries such as Germany and Austria the discussion is still at a very early stage with many media-companies currently starting their newsroom-integration and “THERE IS NO SUCH rethinking their business models. In southern Europe there is less limitation to media cross THING AS A ‘CONVERGENCE ownership allowing some early convergence-CONTINUUM’ AIMING processes in national and regional markets also integrating local radio and TV. We couldTOWARDS THE PERFECTSOLUTION.” matrix model to understand the different status of newsroom-developments. (See: GARCIA, MEIER, KALTENBRUNNER) ButMedia convergence is reshaping news roughly speaking we come across 3 models:development? One is the “Coordination of different platforms” model which means that thereNewsrooms are very different from what are almost no integration processes in thethey were only a decade ago. Convergence newsrooms yet. However, on companies’ business level, strategies for different media channels are being discussed andnew digital ways of gathering and sharing measures such as commercial cooperation,information, organising integration processes content sharing or cross marketing havewithin the newsrooms and of course tailoring been implemented. It is interesting to seenews production differently for different then that in central Europe some of the mostchannels. Throughout Europe and the USA economically successful online-operationswe can see different models of newsroom are not integrated at all into their companies’organisation. This is due to national traditional newsrooms: Like Spiegel online intraditions in journalism and different media Germany or der Standard.at in Austria. Onelegislation. The type of legislation will might assert that that they could grow atdetermine whether integration processes and eye level with print especially because theymedia-cross ownership including TV, radio, could develop far away from traditionalistprint media and all kind of digital operation worry lines. Their next steps of convergencewill speed up, slow down or be otherwise versus splendid isolation will be interesting.
Another model is “Cross media”. It involves bi-media for about ten years after thepushing processes on a company level, in introduction of an integrated newsroomnewsroom organisation and also journalistic including daily print, weeklies, online.processes to integrate parts of all media-platforms. A high percentage of managers and The Swiss Ringier newsroom for “Blick”leading editors have to be multi-skilled and opened in 2010 might also be consideredwell prepared in order to steer cross-media as a good result of a well structuredproduction. A steadily growing percentage of convergence process of print and online.the journalistic staff are working bi-media,be it print/online or radio/TV (as many did no such thing as a “convergence continuum”already before the digital age) or TV/online, (DAILEY et al.) aiming towards the perfectetc. Many big and small news operations solution. There is permanent change, fastermight be assigned to this model, among than ever, driven by digitisation as one keythem the big BBC with its attempts to inspire factor - but newsroom processes dependthe Radio/TV/Online newsroom in London on different national and cultural limitingwith real integrated life in news production.It’s a mission that will not be completed for and do not necessarily all lead towards fullymany years. Another good example is Unidad converged media organisation with fullyEditorials media house in Madrid with its integrated newsrooms.its online staff - managing the biggest newswebsite for the Spanish speaking world - with newsroom structures on interactive andits many hundreds of journalist and producers participatory communication strategies?of Spain’s second largest newspaper. The What role can organizational structure playprocesses of integration are accepted as a in supporting audience participation?permanent struggle for more cross-mediaunderstanding and production. In the Revealing the MP expenses scandal wastradition of Spain’s great author Antonio the Daily Telegraph’s most important scoopMachado: Paths are made by walking. in 2009 shortly after moving into the new newsroom. Leading journalists liked toThe last model is of “Full integration” in the emphasise back then that the convergednewsroom, which does of course not exist in newsroom with its many digital channelsits pure form. Some role models have that to communicate with readers and usershigh pretension, such as the Daily Telegraph’s made the success even bigger. Reactionsnewsroom with its 800 journalists behind of journalist had become faster thanVictoria Station which is a demo-object ever and helped to encourage readersdeveloped by the world association IFRA. and users to comment on their regionalOthers, on smaller regional level, radio MP’s performance. Commenters discussedand local TV can come closer to the ideal questions of corruption in democracy whichmodel like the Danish Nordjyske Stiftstidene were fundamentally raised by the Telegraphswith almost all journalists working at least story which revealed how politicians
INTERVIEW ANDY KALTENBRUNNER TRANSFORMING AUDIENCES, TRANSFORMING SOCIETIESexploited the system of parliamentary What we see is a transition process.allowances. Interaction with the users made For many journalists, the integration ofit much easier to sell the daily newspaper audiences, communication on eye level withand even books summarising the scandal. the formerly passive reader or viewer is still more irritating than motivating. MakingThe Telegraph’s competitor, The Guardian, one’s way into social media platforms isreacted quickly and demonstrated how even more complicated. Also media lawto improve and intelligently use the new makers do not know yet how to regulate theinteractive possibilities. It put all the new phenomena. One more example: Forthousands of MPs expenses papers, bills, Austria’s public national broadcaster ORFreceipts online and asked its users to helpto analyse them. It can be considered the participate in social media platforms and channels like Facebook or Twitter.of a newspaper’s journalistic investigationin such dimensions: Many thousands of We know and take into account that sincethe Guardian’s readers commented these 2 or 3 years ago, a fast growing percentage of traditional media content is only found because of recommending links and “Likes” of friends in social media. For some mediabeing on the cutting edge of participatory platforms, users’ comments in social mediacommunication with its readers. than Google or smaller search engines. In theIn 2009, the Guardian and its Sunday paper case of the Austrian parliament’s social mediaThe Observer had moved into a completely ban for the ORF this means that the nationalnew, integrated, somehow stylish newsroom.Its editor, Alan Rusbridger, later presented important parts of its audience, especiallyhimself as one of the prophets of the digital age the younger users, listeners and viewers.- motivating his staff to follow and his readersto join in. Today so called SMOs - social media Of course the individual journalist’soptimisers - work as specialists, training the attitude towards interactivity in thestaff in communicating with the audience and professional process has been changing. Itattracting it. Such processes are still relatively has increasingly been welcomed and evennew - but obviously the companies and their seen as an enormous chance for new waysmanagement policy is the most important and digital interactivity as a permanentand interactivity are encouraged and new part of life. These are new chances forinteractive projects will be supported. both the fresh generation coming from universities and journalism schools as wellIn your opinion, is there a change in journalists’ as the open minded experienced journalistsattitudes towards interactivity? (Connecting with with curiosity and mid-career training. This is not only a question of age: Journalists with
many years in the newsroom and experience “Media Accountability” in 13 European andin mass communication may be more Arabic countries, from Britain to Tunisia.deliberative when analysing latest fashion. One outcome of our empirical survey -But companies and societies interested which is still on-going: Journalists in mostin quality journalism have to offer them of the selected countries consider audiencesprograms for further training in order to see online-commentaries on ethical and qualitysuch new developments as early as possible. standards as increasingly important. Onesocieties with a high quality level of educational instruments complementing traditional mediasystems in general do also offer better training accountability instruments (see: EBERWEIN;opportunities for professional communicators. FENGLER; LAUK; LEPPIK-BORK).When we look into Scandinavian newsroomswho understand new digital developments,convergence processes and new forms of production by the user?interactivity. Those journalists see mid-career training as a permanent part of their There are as many as the different culturalprofessional development. traditions and political meanings of communication. One more example: We allIn Austria, for many decades there have found it most interesting and fascinating hownot been any attempts to train journalists. mobile content helped to organise the ArabThis has only changed as a result of new Spring. Talking with social media managersinitiatives during the last few years. There of leading independent Arab media such asstill is almost no kind of journalism trainingin eastern European countries. There is no too convinced that this important protest channels in the uprising against the old regime will also help very much to build aoffering very good programs, research new, more democratic, more open society.results and training for the elite of media Germans at the same time might see ofand people – while leaving many others far course the remarkable differences in tonebehind. It is like the educational system in and analysis of user content criticizing thegeneral. This might produce an army of low German president in FAZ.net comparedskilled labourers in media industries who to BILD.de. So differences in user contentwill not catch up with the needs, neither production are also a mirror of the stateof their profession nor of their users. of democracy, of media landscapes andBut all of them can see and feel the paradigm different interaction strategies in societies:shift towards interactivity with a high Austria’s biggest news media websitevaluation of user participation. With our team derstandard.at allowed user comments fromof “Medienhaus Wien” we are participating in the very beginning, in the mid 1990s, belowan EU-funded international study, comparing every journalistic article. Today several ten
INTERVIEW ANDY KALTENBRUNNER TRANSFORMING AUDIENCES, TRANSFORMING SOCIETIESthousands of user-comments come in every about the differentiation of professional workday - an enormous user community producing from user content. Let me add a personalinteresting information but also foolish and comment after visiting dozens of Europeaneven rude abuse or simply a terribly stupid newsrooms. I am very much in favour of seeing Brecht’s theory of the radio (seealmost impossible to moderate. BRECHT) becoming partly true. Everybody should be enabled to be a sender. But as soonThis is less common in Scandinavia - one might as we think that amateur weblogs and userassume because bad behaviour and personal contents in general are more interesting, amusing and - worst case - more accurateeven with that possibly more educated and than the information provided by traditionalless abusive tradition of political discussion, news organisations - then journalism as wethe Internet pioneers in northern Europe , e.g. knew it is in real trouble.from the Bonnier group, never liked the ideaof having user comments posted on the same Referencesplatform right underneath the professionals Brecht, Bertolt: Der Rundfunk alscountry, another tradition: There always was Kommunikationsapparat. Rede über diethe concept of “Tertulia”, which a century Funktion des Rundfunks; Vorschläge für denago was the intellectual public discussion in Intendanten des Rundfunks; Radio - einethe coffee house. During the last decadespeople were overfed with “Tertulias” on the 21, Schriften I, Berlin 1989.radio, many of them far from intellectual oreven quite the contrary. The user discussion Carvajal, Miguel; Garcia-Aviles, Jose; Meier,online - sometimes loud, rude and childish - Klaus; Kaltenbrunner, Andy; Kraus, Danielaadds just one more channel to many other (2009): Newsroom Integration in Austria, Spainforms of hot-tempered public debate which and Germany: Models of Media Convergence.already existed. In: Journalism Practice 3(3): 285-303.Maybe here is one of the keys for the future Dailey, Larry; Demo, Lori; Spillman, Maryof journalism: combining a maximum of (2005): The Convergence Continuum: Ainteractivity, integrating user’s knowledge Model for Studying Collaboration betweenand content ideas with an honest desire to Media Newsroom. In: Atlantic Journal ofunderstand the audience - but at the same Communication 13(3): 150-168.time combining it with the highest possiblestandards in journalistic investigation Eberwein, Tobias; Fengler, Susanne; Lauk,and storytelling. That needs a newsroom Epp; Leppik-Bork, Tanja (Eds.) (2011):organisation open to permanent change and Mapping Media Accountability - in Europedevelopment. Some media like the Guardian and Beyond. Köln: Halem.are working on that. But in the end it again is
Several years of work experience focused on campaigning, public affairs, sustainibility, corporate social responsibility, social medial (e.g. Ketchum Pleon/ ECC Kothes Klewes for clients like Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband, The Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Carl Zeiss, Vodafone, Microsoft, etc.. Lecturer at Technische Universität Dresden, UniversitätName of the InterviewerProf. Dr. Birgit Stark ”SOCIAL MEDIA IS NOT AInstitution THREAT BUT A REWARD FORJohannes Gutenberg University MainzDepartment for Communication COMPANIES!”CountryGermanyEmail Addressbirgit.firstname.lastname@example.org - why should companies care about theseName of the Interviewee developments?Ina von HollyInstitution Media change always affects all participatingWE DO communication Berlin communicators - of course that includesCountry businesses. Shying away from new mediaGermany will only work during the short initialKeywords period of transformation. But this initialSocial Media, Interaction, Participation, period has long since passed in the currentCompanies, Communication Strategies media change. Corporations that today, in
INTERVIEW INA VON HOLLY TRANSFORMING AUDIENCES, TRANSFORMING SOCIETIESthe year 2012, still believe they can wait First up, we need to be frank: Of courseout this change towards more interaction the worries are not without merit. Butand participation should reconsider their the threat is equally real whether or notposition. Following Paul Watzlawick’s axiom social media are involved. Corporations„One cannot not communicate”, absence have planned particular crisis scenarios andfrom the Web 2.0 is a message of its own: trained their employees to handle criticalIf a corporation doesn’t talk to customers inquiries. Companies need to be equallydirectly via social media, they wonder what prepared for incidents in the social web.it has to hide. logic of communication in the Web 2.0. OnYou’ve already mentioned the keywords the whole, I still see the Web 2.0 as a netare really unraveled in the Web 2.0. Doesthat mean that businesses should create a Please explain.Facebook page as soon as possible? Companies that were honest before, tookNo. For a simple reason: The phase of their customers seriously and pursuedexperimentation in the Web 2.0 is over. In the a sustainable long-term strategy can bebeginning, clumsy but charming social media thoroughly happy about the Web 2.0.presences were smilingly accepted because Negative criticism isn’t the only thingthe good intentions were all that counted. that spreads fast in the web of opinions -By now, that attitude has changed: Web 2.0 positive examples get a lot of attention aswith all its channels and possibilities should well. In the social networks, everyone canbe a part of the communication strategy and see how a business deals with its customers.should be used professionally just like any Critical inquiries are always opportunitiesother means of communication. A poster to prove that one can do better - that is,campaign isn’t designed overnight - social to persevere in front of the world and alsomedia engagement should be planned just potential future customers. In the past,as carefully. And I should add: Web 2.0 isn’t consumers mainly interacted with salesonly Facebook and Twitter. A business needs personal and the company at a POS (Point of Sale). If anything bothered her, she needednearly endless number of services - and this to complain to the sales person via letteris a task for which a business should by all or phone. Today, the threshold for directmeans use external experts in order to build contact is so low that I can give instantits own know-how. by pivoting equally quickly and aligning their products or services with consumer demands. Even so, the preparation andcustomers who can voice negative, even external consultancy mentioned earlier isunwarranted criticism. How do you address a necessary preparation in order not to besuch concerns? overrun by customer feedback.
DaWanda, an online marketplace. It consistscan maintain never to have hand any lapse of over 1,600 pictures that the DaWanda community painted, stitched or even baked.to criticism. The feedback was fantastic! The movie made from user generated content won severalThat’s true. That’s why it’s all the more awards for successful online communication.important to build relationships withcustomers based on true interactivity and Most importantly: stay authentic! Don’t letparticipation rather than merely sendinga coupon at every birthday. Companies Hire experts who identify with your companyneed to realize that misconducts carry a and know how to talk to the community, butvastly enlarged risk of going public when who are at the same time reputable enoughcompared to pre-Web 2.0 times. The more not to leak company secrets. In the future,transparently a company acts and the an ever-increasing number of companiesstronger the relationship with customers, will have such community or social mediathe more they will stay loyal and even managers who are able to establish muchdefend „their” brand against critics. stronger and much more direct relations with customers.How could social media contribute to astronger relationship with customers? companies have mainly tried to polish theirBeing able to interact with corporations public perception through CSR. What doa stronger relationship through socialmedia. The reason is the same as in human As I said: Any misconduct within a companyrelationships - how long can they last carries a much higher risk of being uncovered quickly through the Web 2.0. If any CSRwith keeping in touch. As an example: small programs only serve as a greenwashing,stories from the company’s factory offerunfamiliar insights into the business - for reconsidered. If there’s anything theexample on Facebook. Customers can react community can’t stand, it’s a lack ofwith a low-threshold like or a comment credibility.which the business can in turn extendthanks for. Both sides keep in touch, get to This doesn’t mean that CSR should beknow each other and the connection gets challenged in every case. Quite to thestronger. The community wants to be taken contrary: An integrated CSR project that’sseriously. initiated and realized via social media in collaboration with consumers canCould you name any positive examples? strengthen the relationship and bolster customer loyalty. That entails pro-actively establishing topics instead of trying to catch
INTERVIEW INA VON HOLLY TRANSFORMING AUDIENCES, TRANSFORMING SOCIETIESup to the agenda of one’s stakeholders.CSR in the social web can be a suitablemechanism for this.social media?Social media will continue to evolve into aneveryday communication channel. Companieswill notice customers’ bewilderment if theynext to their phone number.Another issue will be privacy in the contextof ever more permissive sharing of personaldata. What kinds of data protection laws doIn addition, inspiring social media presencesthat work towards sustainable communicationconcepts instead of the highest possiblenumber of fans will move into the limelight.Deutsche Bahn recently illustrated that withtheir Facebook presence - I think their pagethere is really good. Their launch time wasvery brave: just after the increase in faresand before winter with its precarious promiseEspecially nicely done and innovative fora business of their size is the idea of usingthe Facebook page as a customer servicechannel, not as a sales instrument. Thisway, negative criticism from customers canbe handled by customer service and othercustomers (who refute claims and clarifyissues) alike. That’s exactly how social mediainvolvement becomes really valuable for thecompany and its customers.
in Zürich. The Medieninstitut organizes continuing education in media management for the Swiss Association of Media. With an MA in Sociology she started her career in media research. For ten years she worked as a journalist and editor mainly as a specialist Corporate Communications for the Swiss public broadcaster SRG SSR for seven years. NEW TOOLS AND SCENES FOR THE MEDIA PLAY Every revolution claims to create a new world. The past drops into the darkness of an uncivilized time. The same happens in the actual debates about social media. The fascination of the technological innovations is clouding the view for the basics of content and communications that are the drivers of media marketing. Media have always been social media. Communication is socializing.Name of the Author Every generation uses the tools and platformsJosefa Haas of their time. The intentions are part ofInstitution human condition. Technology extends theMedieninstitut reach of our communication space to satisfyCountry the curiosity and need to shape throughSwitzerland storytelling our identities and communities.
ESSAY JOSEFA HAAS TRANSFORMING AUDIENCES, TRANSFORMING SOCIETIESBut in the end it has always been about media industry. The media business modelpower, love, money, and happiness…the consists in the conversion of communitydramas of the human media play. members into costumers who are ready to pay for editorial services and in selling anSwiss Newspapers care from their very attentive public to advertisement. For thebeginning about the activation and analyses of the shifts in media relation tointegration of readers’ wisdom and its audience or readers we must distinguishopinions: The Tages-Anzeiger launched between the technical impacts and the stories the media brands share with theeverybody for everybody. The Landbote audience and last but not least, the businesspresented himself a «wanderer who wants models.to make lots of friends and share storieswith them». The Beobachter started with The digital media offer new tools and scenesorganizing a consumer community who for the media theater. The pace of technicalshared critical observation of products innovation profoundly does shake mediaand services. Potential buyers asked in the decision makers. Technological changeSchweizer Familie if it was worth to buy comes with structural and cultural change.life events, call ins, music chosen by the economic outlook force the media industrylisteners. Television organized a voting by to invest carefully. Therefore most of theasking the audience to switch off and on Swiss editors who work in small markets with limited resources do not jump into the newto communicate with the audience has social media world. They cannot afford tobeen impressive. Not to forget classic tool invest in editorial staff playing with digitalas letters to the editor and call services for tools just for fun. The return on investmentsthe public. Today in the newsroom editors must bee guaranteed in a rather short time.check the comments on the websites and Swiss media engage therefore with cautionsocial media, yesterday they discussed the in social and digital media.phone calls and the letter from the public, Step by step Swiss media establishFrom their beginning newspapers, magazines, communication platforms on digital media.television and radio motivated the audience Legacy medias should carefully build onto become part of a media brand community. their traditional strengths in orchestratingThis happened on all levels: content, community and respectfully integrate newcomment, recommendation, discussions, communication platforms. It’s worth stickingservices, events and conventions. To achieve to a brand identity and not compromise itsuccess in media marketing you must build for short-term actions as fashion victims do.a strong relationship with communication Audience interactivity and participation arepartners. The audience are not just users, but part of the success of print, television andpart of a virtual space of a community. That radio in the analogical century. And will beis and has been the only way to monetize the for the wise brands in the digital century.
Swiss Media are very strong in community newspaper, added a twitter-stream to livebuilding. In the industry it is crucial reporting on their online-site. But theykeeping an eye on every touch point with didn’t keep it long, because the quality of the comments was very low.then target group for commercials, clientfor a single copy or subscriber, buyer of Switzerland has a strong tradition as a direct democracy. Recent surveys show that mostbuilding crosses the borders of editorial of Swiss citizens do not engage on politicalcontent. Engagement means always an debates on social platforms. Not everybodyinvestment that requires a pay back sooner wants to communicate in public. Mostor later. people prefer sharing information, opinions and feelings in a private context. Digital2012 started in Switzerland with a media substitute former communicationscandal. Philipp Hildebrand, chairman tolls like phones, letters and meetings.of the Swiss National Bank, quit. His Editorial media are only a small part of thewife invested in 500 000 US-Dollars and consumption in the digital world. From strongsold them almost two months later with media brands most of the people expect thea profit of SFr. 60 000. The SNB a few same as from a successful theater: A grippingdays before fixed a higher exchange rate. play, convincing actors, astonishing scenesRight wing politicians and journalists have and sensitive sounds. Sitting in the chair therevealed the transaction. The judgment audience wants to be seduced, served, andof Hildebrand’s acts has been therefore respected. They comment by applauding andstrongly politicized. The Tages-Anzeiger, discuss the presentation elsewhere.Zurich’s renowned newspaper, askedthe readers on the online-platform, ifHildebrand had no other choice than tostep down. 17082 voted yes, 6416 no.http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/dossiers/This is a very high participation rate on ajournalistic survey in Switzerland. (It’sexpressed takes not the line of mostcommentators and decision makers. In thiscase, interactivity with the audience pointedout a different attitude to the scandal fromthe media and politics. Comments varieda lot. The NZZ, the second Zurich based
ESSAY JOSEFA HAASTRANSFORMING AUDIENCES, TRANSFORMING SOCIETIES