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Session 3 - Hassan - Women's labor time allocation

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Presentation by Zahidul Hassan (DATA-Bangladesh) at "A Learning Event for the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index," held November 21, 2013 in Washington DC.

Presentation by Zahidul Hassan (DATA-Bangladesh) at "A Learning Event for the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index," held November 21, 2013 in Washington DC.

Published in: Business, Technology

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  • 1. A Learning Event on the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) Women’s labor time allocations BY Zahidul Hassan Data Analysis and Technical Assistance Washington DC, USA November 21, 2013 1
  • 2. SYSTEMATIC I. PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY AND TIME USE II. TRAINING, PREREQUISITES III. ADMINISTERING TIME USE MODULE IV. QUESTIONNAIRE FORMAT: COMPLETE TIME USE V. FINAL COMMENTS 2
  • 3. I. PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY AND TIME USE  The purpose of this survey was to test an index that measures the inclusion of women in agricultural sector growth. Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index assesses the empowerment of women across five domains of agriculture, and Time Use is one the five domains .  The survey collects information on five domains of empowerment:      Women’s role in household decision-making around agricultural production; Women’s access to productive capital, such as loans or land (outside household); How discretionary income is spent; Women’s access to leadership roles within the community; and Women’s labor (leisure) time allocations.  Time allocation : It is important to collect time use data to help us understand how much time women spend in agriculture, in other livelihood activities, in domestic tasks, and whether they have enough time to take care of themselves and their families. The purpose of this module is to get an idea about men’s and women’s time spent in both work and leisure activities and their satisfaction with their time use. 3
  • 4. II. TRAINING, PREREQUISITES  How people tell what time it is?  Referring to certain events of the day  sun rise and sun set time, call for prayer, school bell, etc OR  Referring to clock time  6:30 in the morning, 11:00 around noon, 3:15 in the afternoon, etc  Bangladesh, 10 years back and now  10 years back, people used to refer time mostly by events  Now as most household (one in each two) has mobile phone, they know “what time it is” when there is: call for prayer, sun rises or sets, school bell  How people tell about the length of time or activity?  Time length for an activity people refers mostly: by minutes or by hour, like: 5 minutes, 15 minutes, half an hour or an hour etc. For long hours it may be like: from 7:00 to call for prayer at noon. 4
  • 5. II. TRAINING, PREREQUISITES, CONTINUES….  Number of activities mentioned in the module: 24, there are 24 hours in a day also A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Activity↓ Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) Work as employed Own business work Farming Construction Fishing Shopping/getting service Weaving, sewing, textile care Cooking Domestic work Care for children/adults/elderly Commuting Travelling Watching TV/listening to radio Reading Sitting with family Exercising Social activities Practicing hobbies Religious activities Other, specify… Grouping ABCD: Start the Day 4 non-economic activities/ investment; immidiate & long term From "E": it's 5 economic-activity 1 paid services K: 1 more economic work LMN: Household task management On the road, or Pass through..... 12 noneconomic activities From "Q" it's Quality time starts X is for "X" work: economic OR non-economic 5
  • 6. III. ADMINISTERING TIME USE  Time allocation module is at the end of the individual level questionnaire. Before administering it, we complete the HH level questionnaire.  Then, if both male and female respondent are around  do individual level questionnaire simultaneously (no overhearing and hence influence of responses  Since HH level questionnaire is done, we already know from employment who is doing what. we start with the first question like: Yesterday, when did you wake up in the morning?  Answer could be by clock like 6:30 in the morning or 7:00 in the morning,  Or by event, like right after prayer call (predawn Ajan at 5:30 am). So, put a dot at the box of 5:45-6:00 in the morning. Night If simultaneous: Primary 1 Secondary 2 A B C D Activity↓ Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) 4 Morning 5 6 7 • 6
  • 7. III. ADMINISTERING TIME USE, CONTINUES…  Second question is: When did you then went to sleep at last night?  The answer may be, half an hour later the news at ten in evening. (There hourly news in radio and in TV). Then put another dot in the box of 22:30 – 22:45 Night If simultaneous: Primary 1 Secondary 2 A 1 B 1 C 1 D Activity ↓ 22 Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) 23 24 1 2 3 •  Then what we do, we draw a line from 22:30 in the evening to 6:00 in morning in the row sleeping and resting. Night If simultaneous: Primary 1 Secondary 2 A B C D Activity↓ Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) 22 23 • Night 24 1 2 3 4 Morning 5 6 7 •  It means these whole hours the respondent was sleeping. Sleeping and resting time is 7 determined.
  • 8. III. ADMINISTERING TIME USE, CONTINUES…  Interview continues with question like: What did you do after you wake up in the morning? It’s kind of asking the respondent about how s/he spent the day.  I spent about 45 minutes with using toilet/bathroom, cleaning myself, washing face, including prayer. Then we ask, what did you do then? The respondent said I took my breakfast, it took about half an hour and then started for doing some work. Night If simultaneous: Primary 1 Secondary 2 A 1 B 1 C 1 D W X 2 Activity↓ Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) Religious activities Other, specify… 4 Morning 5 6 7  We draw a line through 3 boxes for 45 minuets starting from 6:00 am in personal care row and for 15 minutes in religious activities and declared the religious activities as a secondary activity as it overlaps with personal care in some columns and focus was mainly personal care. Draw another line for half an hour that takes two boxes, for 8 breakfast, as each box represents 15 minutes time .
  • 9. III. ADMINISTERING TIME USE, CONTINUES…  Continued with questions like: How long it took to reach to your work place, and how long you worked? He answered, it took about 15 minutes reach my work place as it really close to my residence and then I started work. I worked a little less than 6 hours in my farm. Night If simultaneous: Primary 1 Secondary 2 A 1 B 1 C 1 D G 1 O 1 S 1 U 1 W 2 X Activity↓ Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) Farming Commuting Sitting with family Social activities Religious activities Other, specify… 4 Morning 5 6 Day 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  A straight line for farming hours, 23 boxes starting from 7:45 am. continue with: what did you do then? Came back: commuting time; personal care; offered noon prayer. Ate with the family for an hour, after eating chat with family for half an hour.. 9
  • 10. III. ADMINISTERING TIME USE, CONTINUES…  Continued with: Whether he got back to work again, if not we asked how s/he spent rest of the day? He said: did some social activities, that includes went to a nearby area, had chat with neighbors, discussed many topics, general to work related. Ask for other prayers/religious work for that day. Ask whether listen to radio or watched TV, and dinner time. Day If simultaneous: Night Primary 1 Secondary 2 A 1 B 1 C 1 D G 1 O 1 S 1 U 1 W 2 X Activity ↓ Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) Farming Commuting Sitting with family Social activities Religious activities Other, specify… 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3  It was more of a listening to the respondent about how his/her day was how he spent time. And at the end we prompt for all the listed activities, if s/he missed anything. 10
  • 11. III. ADMINISTERING TIME USE, CONTINUES… MODULE F (Dimension 5): Time allocation, CONTINUED QNo. Question F02 F03 F04 Response Was yesterday a holiday or nonworking day? Response options/Instructions Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 Less than average ................................................1 Average .................................................................2 More than average ................................................3 2 Regarding the amount of sleep you got last night, was that [READ RESPONSES]:: 2 READ: I am going to ask you a series of questions and I want you to tell me how would you rate your satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 10, where 1 means you are not satisfied and 10 means you are very satisfied. If you are neither satisfied or dissatisfied this would be in the middle or 5 on the scale. How would you rate your satisfaction with: F04A The distribution of work duties within your household? 9 F04B Your available time for leisure activities like visiting neighbors, watching TV, listening to radio, seeing movies or doing sports? 8 F04C Your contacts with friends or relatives? 8 F04D Your possibilities of going to other places outside your village? 5 F04E Your power to make important decisions that change the course of your life? 6 F04F Your satisfaction with your life overall? 8 During the last four weeks, how many days of your primary daily activities did you miss because of poor health? Were the last four weeks typical or average? 0 Were you unable to complete normal activities in the last 24 hours? 2 Worse than average .............................................1 Average .................................................................2 Better than average ..............................................3 Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 Do you suffer from a chronic disability? 2 Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 >> F10 F05 F06 F07 F08 Please mark on a scale from 1 – 10 Not satisfied  ....................................1 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied  .....5 Very satisfied  ..................................10 Enter number of days [1-28] 2 If yes, what kind? F09 [ALLOW UP TO 3 RESPONSES] F09_a F09_b F09_c Deaf or hearing disability .......................................1 Mobility or missing limbs........................................2 Speech or language disability................................3 Learning or mental impairment..............................4 Blind or visual disability .........................................5 Chronic health or disease......................................6 Psychological or emotional ...................................7 Other, specify.........................................................8 ENUMERATOR: If male, stop and proceed to next Module; If female, continue with F10. F10 Are you currently pregnant? Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 F11 Are you currently breastfeeding? Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 11
  • 12. IV. COMPLETE PICTURE: TIME USE, PAGE I Night If simultaneous: Primary 1 Secondary 2 A 1 B 1 C 1 D E F G 1 H I J K L M N O 1 P Q R S 1 T U V W X 2 Activity↓ Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) Work as employed Own business work Farming Construction Fishing Shopping/getting service Weaving, sewing, textile care Cooking Domestic work Care for children/adults/elderly Commuting Travelling Watching TV/listening to radio Reading Sitting with family Exercising Social activities Practicing hobbies Religious activities Other, specify… 4 Morning 5 6 Day 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 12
  • 13. IV. COMPLETE PICTURE: TIME USE, PAGE II Day If simultaneous: Night Primary 1 Secondary 2 A 1 B 1 C 1 D E F G 1 H I J K L M N O 1 P Q R S 1 T U V W X 2 Activity ↓ Sleeping and resting Eating and drinking Personal care School (also homework) Work as employed Own business work Farming Construction Fishing Shopping/getting service Weaving, sewing, textile care Cooking Domestic work Care for children/adults/elderly Commuting Travelling Watching TV/listening to radio Reading Sitting with family Exercising Social activities Practicing hobbies Religious activities Other, specify… 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 13
  • 14. IV. COMPLETE PICTURE: TIME USE, PAGE III MODULE F (Dimension 5): Time allocation, CONTINUED QNo. Question F02 F03 F04 Response Was yesterday a holiday or nonworking day? Response options/Instructions Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 Less than average ................................................1 Average .................................................................2 More than average ................................................3 2 Regarding the amount of sleep you got last night, was that [READ RESPONSES]:: 2 READ: I am going to ask you a series of questions and I want you to tell me how would you rate your satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 10, where 1 means you are not satisfied and 10 means you are very satisfied. If you are neither satisfied or dissatisfied this would be in the middle or 5 on the scale. How would you rate your satisfaction with: F04A The distribution of work duties within your household? 9 F04B Your available time for leisure activities like visiting neighbors, watching TV, listening to radio, seeing movies or doing sports? 8 F04C Your contacts with friends or relatives? 8 F04D Your possibilities of going to other places outside your village? 5 F04E Your power to make important decisions that change the course of your life? 6 F04F Your satisfaction with your life overall? 8 During the last four weeks, how many days of your primary daily activities did you miss because of poor health? Were the last four weeks typical or average? 0 Were you unable to complete normal activities in the last 24 hours? 2 Worse than average .............................................1 Average .................................................................2 Better than average ..............................................3 Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 Do you suffer from a chronic disability? 2 Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 >> F10 F05 F06 F07 F08 Please mark on a scale from 1 – 10 Not satisfied  ....................................1 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied  .....5 Very satisfied  ..................................10 Enter number of days [1-28] 2 If yes, what kind? F09 [ALLOW UP TO 3 RESPONSES] F09_a F09_b F09_c Deaf or hearing disability .......................................1 Mobility or missing limbs........................................2 Speech or language disability................................3 Learning or mental impairment..............................4 Blind or visual disability .........................................5 Chronic health or disease......................................6 Psychological or emotional ...................................7 Other, specify.........................................................8 ENUMERATOR: If male, stop and proceed to next Module; If female, continue with F10. F10 Are you currently pregnant? Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 F11 Are you currently breastfeeding? Yes.........................................................................1 No .........................................................................2 14
  • 15. V. FINAL COMMENTS: COMMON QUESTIONS  What if the respondent does not know what time the activity began or ended?  This question come if the enumerator try to go by the task listed in the module.  Enumerator need to fix the time when s/he woke up and time s/he went to bed and then ask the respondent to narrate how s/he spent the day.  What if a respondent is doing more than 1 activity in any given time period?  If any activity overlaps with other activity, need to know which activity was respondent’s main focus: for an example, cooking/breast feeding; personal care/listening to radio; watching TV/eating, etc  What if there are gaps (time periods with no activities) within a 24-hour period?  And at the end we prompt for all the listed activities, if s/he missed anything.  If nothing is missed, we check for the shortest and longest activity and reconfirm with respondent about the gap. 15
  • 16. V. FINAL COMMENTS: COMMON QUESTIONS  Seasonality/ how to factor in the specific day of week, etc  First we can go back day before yesterday, if the samples size is big enough, yesterday is okay.  What if survey will be done by computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI)? Any specific recommendations?  Difficulty would be to program time use module as it requires line drawing and the line has to be transferred in digital data; can be solved 16
  • 17. V. FINAL COMMENTS: ON IMPLEMENTING TIME USE  Implementing this time allocation/use module was more of a listening to the respondent and drawing line accordingly.  In data entry, we put 1 for each boxes that the line crossed through. The blank boxes, means that has no line, are set to blank.  The main trick is, since we already did the household level questionnaire we know that what are the major economic activities of the respondent.  We just need to ensure time for the major economic activity s/he did yesterday and confirm all other activities during the day. 17
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